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Encyclopedia > Fireproofing

Fireproofing, a passive fire protection measure, subject to bounding, refers to the act of making materials or structures more resistant to fire, or to those materials themselves. Applying a bounded fireproofing system to certain structures allows these to have a fire-resistance rating. Fire-resistance rated wall assembly with fire door, cable tray penetration and intumescent [1] cable coating. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Materials are inputs to production or manufacturing. ... For other uses, see Building (disambiguation). ... A large bonfire. ... International time/temperature curves used to run commercial furnaces for testing the Fire-resistance rating of passive fire protection systems, such as firestops, fire doors, wall and floor assemblies, etc. ...

Example of spray fireproofing, using a gypsum based plaster in a low-rise industrial building in Vancouver, British Columbia. The plaster provides a layer of insulation to retard heat flow into structural steel elements, that would otherwise lose their strength and collapse in an accidental fire. Fireproofing is an integral part of passive fire protection and thus subject to stringent bounding.
Example of spray fireproofing, using a gypsum based plaster in a low-rise industrial building in Vancouver, British Columbia. The plaster provides a layer of insulation to retard heat flow into structural steel elements, that would otherwise lose their strength and collapse in an accidental fire. Fireproofing is an integral part of passive fire protection and thus subject to stringent bounding.

Fireproofing by no means allows treated items to be entirely unaffected by any fire. No conventional materials are immune to the effects of fire at a sufficient intensity and/or duration. Image File history File links Fireproofing. ... Image File history File links Fireproofing. ... Gypsum is a very soft mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O. // Chemical structure Heating gypsum to between 100°C and 150°C (302°F) partially dehydrates the mineral by driving off exactly 75% of the water contained in its chemical structure. ... // Gypsum plaster Plaster of Paris, or simply plaster, is a type of building material based on calcium sulfate hemihydrate, nominally (CaSOâ‚„)â‚‚*Hâ‚‚O. It is created by heating gypsum to about 150 ℃, 2(CaSOâ‚„ · 2Hâ‚‚O) → (CaSOâ‚„)â‚‚ · Hâ‚‚O + 3 Hâ‚‚O (released as steam). ... For other uses, see Building (disambiguation). ... Vancouver (pronounced: ) is a Canadian city in the province of British Columbia. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Official languages none stated in law; English is de facto Flower Pacific dogwood Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 36 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water    (% of total)  Ranked... Insulation must not be confused with insolation (the latter word has an o where the former has a u). Insulation is any material used to reduce or “slow down” or “resist” the flow of energy. ... In physics, heat is defined as energy in transit. ... The old steel cable of a colliery winding tower Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, with carbon being the primary alloying material. ... Fire-resistance rated wall assembly with fire door, cable tray penetration and intumescent [1] cable coating. ...

Contents


Markets For Fireproofing

Cranes are essential in large construction projects, such as this skyscraper In project architecture and civil engineering, construction is the building or assembly of any infrastructure. ... Italian ship-rigged vessel Amerigo Vespucci in New York Harbor, 1976 A ship is a large, sea-going watercraft, usually with multiple decks. ... Offshore construction is the installation of structures and pipelines in a marine environment for the production and transmission of oil and gas. ... This article is about the branch of Physics. ... A disused railway tunnel now converted to pedestrian and bicycle use, near Houyet, Belgium A tunnel is an underground passage. ... Pouring a concrete floor for a commercial building, (slab-on-grade) Installing rebar in a floor slab during a concrete pour For other uses, see Concrete (disambiguation). ...

Applications For Fireproofing Systems

  • structural steel (to keep below critical temperature ca. 540°C)
  • electrical circuits (to keep critical electrical circuits below 140°C so they stay operational)
  • Liquified petroleum gas containers (to prevent a BLEVE)
  • vessel skirts and pipe bridges in an outdoor refinery or chemical plant (to keep below critical temperature ca. 540°C)
  • concrete linings of traffic tunnels

45 kg LPG cylinders Liquified petroleum gas (also called liquefied petroleum gas, liquid petroleum gas, LPG, LP Gas, or autogas) is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing chlorofluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to... BLEVE, pronounced blevy, is an acronym for Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion. ... A refinery is a building and/or the equipment used for refining or processing specific products. ...

Historical Fireproofing Methods

Asbestos is one material historically used for fireproofing, either on its own, or together with binders such as cement, either in sprayed form or in pressed sheets, or as additives to a variety of materials and products, including fabrics for protective clothing and building materials. Because of the litigation associated with asbestos, a large removal and replacement business has been established. Fibrous asbestos on muscovite Asbestos Asbestos Asbestos (a misapplication of Latin: asbestos quicklime from Greek ἄσβεστος: a-, not; sbestos, extinguishable) describes any of a group of fibrous metamorphic minerals of the hydrous magnesium silicate variety. ... Cement is a material used for bonding other materials together, and as a binder in concrete. ...


Endothermic materials have also been used to a large extent and are still in use today, such as gypsum, concrete and other cementitious products. More highly evolved versions of these are even used in aerodynamics, ICBMs and re-entry vehicles, such as the space shuttles. Endothermic can mean: In biology, an endotherm is a type of animal that can control its body temperature. ... Pouring a concrete floor for a commercial building, (slab-on-grade) Installing rebar in a floor slab during a concrete pour For other uses, see Concrete (disambiguation). ... This article is about the branch of Physics. ... A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ...


The use of these older materials has been standardised in "old" systems, such as those listed in BS476, DIN4102 and the Canadian National Building Code.


"New" Fireproofing Methods

Among the conventional materials, purpose-designed spray fireproofing plasters have become abundantly available the world over. The inorganic methods include:

  • gypsum plasters,
  • cementitious plasters, and
  • fibrous plasters.

Manufacturers for these inorganics are in a constant, competitive struggle for commercial success against one another. The competition focuses simply on managing to obtain fire-resistance ratings at the lowest possible cost. Simply, the idea is to become faster and cheaper than the competition. Gypsum plasters have been lightened by using chemical additives to create bubbles that displace solids, thus reducing the bulk density. Also, lightweight polystyrene beads have been mixed into the plasters at the factory, again, in an effort to reduce the density, which generally makes for a more effective insulation as well as a lower cost. Gypsum is a very soft mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O. // Chemical structure Heating gypsum to between 100°C and 150°C (302°F) partially dehydrates the mineral by driving off exactly 75% of the water contained in its chemical structure. ... Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ...


The industry considers gypsum based plasters to be "cementitious", even though these contain no portland cement, let alone calcium alumina cement. Cementitious plasters that actually contain portland cement have been traditionally lightened by the use of inorganic lightweight aggregates, such as vermiculite and perlite. More recent gypsum-based plasters have also been leavened with polystyrene beads. The resulting plaster has still qualified to the A2 combustibility rating as per DIN4102. Fibrous plasters, containing either rockwool, or ceramic fibres tend to simply entrain more air, thus displacing the heavy fibres. On-site cost reduction efforts, at times purposely contravening bounding can, at times further enhance such displacement of solids, which has led many architects to insist on the use of on-site testing of proper densities to ensure that they are getting what they're paying for, as excessively light inorganic fireproofing does not provide adequate protection. Gypsum is a very soft mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O. // Chemical structure Heating gypsum to between 100°C and 150°C (302°F) partially dehydrates the mineral by driving off exactly 75% of the water contained in its chemical structure. ... Vermiculite is a natural mineral which expands with the application of heat. ... Expanded Perlite Perlite is an amorphous volcanic glass that has a relatively high water content. ... For other uses, see Polystyrene (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Pipes covered with a thin-film intumescent spray fireproofing product called Unitherm. As the flame from the blow-torch hits it, the intumescent expands, forming a layer of insulation, which slows down heat transfer to the pipe below. Hydrates within the coating give up their water content, maintaining a temperature near the boiling point of 100°C.
Pipes covered with a thin-film intumescent spray fireproofing product called Unitherm. As the flame from the blow-torch hits it, the intumescent expands, forming a layer of insulation, which slows down heat transfer to the pipe below. Hydrates within the coating give up their water content, maintaining a temperature near the boiling point of 100°C.
See [1]. In this picture, the flame has been removed after the thin-film intumescent spray fireproofing product has been completely expanded. Some intumescents can undergo shrinkage shortly after full expansion has taken place.
See [1]. In this picture, the flame has been removed after the thin-film intumescent spray fireproofing product has been completely expanded. Some intumescents can undergo shrinkage shortly after full expansion has taken place.

New materials based on organic chemistry are gaining in popularity for a variety of reasons. In land-based construction, thin-film intumescents have become more widely used. Unlike their inorganic competitors, thin-film intumescents go on like paint and do not require the concealment of structural elements such as I-beams and columns. Care must be taken to ensure that such products are protected from atmospheric moisture and operational heat, which can adversely affect these inorganics. The use of DIBt [2] approved products, which mandates testing of the effects of ageing, is prudent. Image File history File links Unitherm1. ... Image File history File links Unitherm1. ... Pipe is a hollow cylinder of material. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... In physics, heat is defined as energy in transit. ... Hydrates are compounds formed by the union of water with some other substance, generally forming a neutral body, as certain crystallized salts. ... Impact of a drop of water. ... Image File history File links Unitherm2. ... Image File history File links Unitherm2. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within the subject of chemistry. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... In physics, heat is defined as energy in transit. ...


Thicker intumescent and endothermic resin systems tend to use an oil basis (usually epoxy), which, when exposed to fire, creates so much smoke, that even though these products work well, they tend to be banned from use inside of buildings and are thus used mainly in exterior construction, such as LPG vessels, vessel skirts and pipe bridges in oil refineries, chemical plants and offshore oil and gas platforms. Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Endothermic can mean: In biology, an endotherm is a type of animal that can control its body temperature. ... Insect trapped in resin. ... Epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures (polymerizes and crosslinks) when mixed with a catalyzing agent or hardener. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A. The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin occurred in 1927 in the United... For other uses, see Building (disambiguation). ...


Proprietary boards and sheets, made of gypsum, calcium silicate, vermiculite, perlite, mechanically bonded composite boards made of punched sheet-metal and cellulose re-inforced concrete (DuraSteel) have all been used to clad items for increased fire-resistance. Cladding is traditionally much more popular and organised in Europe than in North America. Fringe methods have also included intumescent tapes and sheets, as well as endothermically treated ceramic fibre sheets and roll materials. The latter work well but are not particularly popular. Ordinary ceramic fibre, typically encased in thin aluminium foil is often used to protect pressurisation ductwork and grease ducts in North America. Such wool wraps have been used in Europe for decades more than in North America. Europeans tend to use much less expensive rockwool wraps for duct fireproofing. All are qualified to the same test regime: ISO6944. Gypsum is a very soft mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O. // Chemical structure Heating gypsum to between 100°C and 150°C (302°F) partially dehydrates the mineral by driving off exactly 75% of the water contained in its chemical structure. ... Calcium silicate, otherwise known as slag, has a low bulk density and high physical water absorption. ... Vermiculite is a natural mineral which expands with the application of heat. ... Expanded Perlite Perlite is an amorphous volcanic glass that has a relatively high water content. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Endothermic can mean: In biology, an endotherm is a type of animal that can control its body temperature. ... General Name, Symbol, Number aluminium, Al, 13 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 3, p Appearance silvery Atomic mass 26. ... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of Earth; the term continent here referring to a cultural and political distinction, rather than a physiographic one, thus leading to various perspectives about Europes precise borders. ... This article is about the continent. ...


Common Methods of Cheating with Fireproofing on Construction Sites

All these can be summarised as violations of bounding, all of which are preventable when documentation is required and checked to ensure that all installed configurations fall within the tolerances of active certification listings. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

  • Entraining too much air in inorganic systems, thus reducing densities, saves on materials and labour
  • Spraying inorganic spray fireproofing materials over through-penetrations and building joints that should be firestopped, not fireproofed can result in token extras paid to spray fireproofers at the peril of fire-separation integrity. Firestops must precede spray fireproofing!
Here we have firestopped through-penetrations. The job is not done yet though. If the beams are not treated with fireproofing, they will twist and contort, expand and collapse and thus tear holes into this fire-separation. This demonstrates clearly that firestops must precede spray fireproofing. It also shows that mechanical, electrical and structural penetrants can share openings and should be tested together to ensure bounding.
Here we have firestopped through-penetrations. The job is not done yet though. If the beams are not treated with fireproofing, they will twist and contort, expand and collapse and thus tear holes into this fire-separation. This demonstrates clearly that firestops must precede spray fireproofing. It also shows that mechanical, electrical and structural penetrants can share openings and should be tested together to ensure bounding.
  • Substitution of intumescent and/or endothermic fireproofing coatings with less expensive paints that physically resemble the passive fire protection products, sometimes involving re-use of packaging and de-canting of contents has occurred in the past.
  • The American and Canadian nuclear industries have, historically, not insisted on bounding, on the basis of the use of accredited certification laboratories. This has resulted in the use of Thermo-Lag 330-1, on the basis of testing that has been proven to be faulty and has resulted in millions of dollars' worth of remedial work.

A firestop is a passive fire protection system of various components used to seal openings in fire-resistance rated wall and/or floor assemblies through bounding. ... Image File history File links Beampenseal. ... Image File history File links Beampenseal. ... A penetrant is the cause for a service penetration firestop. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Endothermic can mean: In biology, an endotherm is a type of animal that can control its body temperature. ... Fire-resistance rated wall assembly with fire door, cable tray penetration and intumescent [1] cable coating. ...

Common Errors in Inorganic Spray Fireproofing

  • Portland cement bound sprays display a high pH level at first. This has, at times been presumed to last indefinitely, particularly for exterior spray fireproofing of large liquified petroleum gas containers, vessel skirts and pipe bridges. One must use proper primer. The high pH of cement-borne plasters does not safeguard unprotected common steel substrata. Ignorance of this fact, particularly in coastal regions with high salt exposures has led to obscene rusting and delaminations of spray fireproofing on large LPG spheres and more. Proper epoxies must be used for water-resistance to prevent "soaping" when in contact with the plaster.
  • Fibrous spray fireproofing on LPG spheres have, at times ignored the necessary dew point calculations, resulting in having ceramic fibre based sprays become totally saturated with water, which has led to other problems.
  • Spray fireproofers unfamiliar with and perhaps apathetic about the basic chemistry that governs the forming of cement stone, have been known to go on break, while bags of spray fireproofing mixtures were turning, with water, in mixing drums, ready to be sprayed when workers returned from lunch breaks. Of course, excessive mixing leaves the cement perfectly spent, no longer able to form any more cement stone once placed, resulting in a "spider-web" appearance of the finished plaster, as its setting ability has been largely diminished, the plaster reduced to "sand-castle" quality.
  • Spray fireproofers have been known in industrial settings to spray onto vibrating substrata, which can dislodge and weaken plasters.
  • Spray fireproofers unfamiliar with basic cement chemistry have been known to have their plasters weakened by common cement poisons, such as high wind and heat exposures to fresh plasters, which should have been suitably covered to reduce premature escape of water, that is needed to form cement stone inside of the plaster. This has resulted in lesser quality fireproofing plasters.

45 kg LPG cylinders Liquified petroleum gas (also called liquefied petroleum gas, liquid petroleum gas, LPG, LP Gas, or autogas) is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing chlorofluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to... Impact of a drop of water. ...

Work Staging

Typically, it is necessary for firestopping to be completed before fireproofing. It is a common short-cut and code violation, to get one's fireproofer to spray areas near the top of fire barriers, as this is very cheap and tends to put a veneer of fireproofing where firestopping should be seen.

An example of a code violation due to improper bounding. The wall and roof slab you see form part of a fire-resistance rated room (compartmentalisation) within a pulp and paper mill in Northern Ontario. The worker is a firestopper, who is sealing a building joint. The problem is that the steel beam has no fireproofing, which means that during a fire, the twisting and expanding beam can damage the wall, meaning that its fire-resistance rating is zero.
An example of a code violation due to improper bounding. The wall and roof slab you see form part of a fire-resistance rated room (compartmentalisation) within a pulp and paper mill in Northern Ontario. The worker is a firestopper, who is sealing a building joint. The problem is that the steel beam has no fireproofing, which means that during a fire, the twisting and expanding beam can damage the wall, meaning that its fire-resistance rating is zero.

No bounding is possible in this manner, as spray fireproofing products have not been qualified to the thousands of firestop configurations. When such staging is being newly enforced on construction sites, disputes can occur, as it takes a lot more labour for a spray fireproofer to have to go from room to room, if that is even possible, depending on the size of the equipment. In hospitals, in particular, not allowing for that extra labour can be prohibitively expensive. Image File history File links Beamimbed. ... Image File history File links Beamimbed. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Compartmentalisation has two meanings: 1. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English (French has some legal status but is not fully co-official) Flower White trillium Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats... A firestop is a passive fire protection system of various components used to seal openings in fire-resistance rated wall and/or floor assemblies through bounding. ...


Traffic Tunnel Fireproofing

Traffic tunnels may be traversed by vehicles carrying flammable goods, such as petrol, liquified petroleum gas and other hydrocarbons, which are known to cause a very rapid heat rise and high heat. It is a known fact in tunnel construction and operations, that where hydrocarbon transports are permitted, accidental fires may occur, causing spilled loads amidst sparks. It is, therefore, prudent to fireproof concrete linings of traffic tunnels. Traffic tunnels are not ordinarily equipped with fire suppression means. It is very difficult to overcome hydrocarbon fires by active fire protection means or to so equip an entire tunnel along its whole length for the eventuality of a hydrocarbon fire or a BLEVE, which then destroys everything in its path, until the fuel is spent. 45 kg LPG cylinders Liquified petroleum gas (also called liquefied petroleum gas, liquid petroleum gas, LPG, LP Gas, or autogas) is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing chlorofluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to... Hydrocarbons are refined at oil refineries and processed at chemical plants In chemistry, a hydrocarbon is any chemical compound that consists only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). ... Active fire protection is one of the three types of structural fire protection. ... BLEVE, pronounced blevy, is an acronym for Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion. ...

  • What happens to concrete in hydrocarbon fires?

Concrete, by itself, cannot withstand hydrocarbon fires. In the Channel tunnel that connects England and France, an intense fire broke out and reduced the concrete lining in the undersea tunnel down to about 50mm. In ordinary building fires, concrete typically achieves excellent fire-resistance ratings, unless it is too wet, which can cause it to crack and explode. For unprotected concrete, the sudden endothermic reaction of the hydrates and unbound humidity inside the concrete causes such pressure as to spall off the concrete, which then winds up in small pieces on the floor of the tunnel. This is the reason why laboratories, which conduct fire-resistance testing, such as ULC [3], iBMB TU Braunschweig [4], which headed the "Eureka" [5] project, or Underwriters Laboratories insert humidity probes into all concrete slabs that undergo fire testing even in accordance with the less severe building elements curve (DIN4102, or BS476, or ULC-S101). Only once the humidity is low enough, will a fire test be conducted because otherwise explosions would result. The culprit is the hydrates and unbound humidity in the concrete, and this is not new. Another prime example of this is the fact that walls constructed of lost plastic forms, which are filled on site with concrete cannot withstand the testing required of a loadbearing Firewall (construction). During the fire test, these walls are subjected to a load, which then leads to such a forceful explosion as to shear the wall with thunderous noise. A hydrocarbon fire is much more rapid and severe than a typical building fire. Consequently, concrete is much more vulnerable and must be protected in order to remain operable during a hydrocarbon fire. The need for fireproofing was demonstrated, among other fire protection measures, in the European "Eureka" Fire Tunnel Research Project, which resulted in building codes for the trade to avoid the effects of such fires upon traffic tunnels. Cementitious spray fireproofing, each of which must be able to prove bounding in accordance with the hydrocarbon fire test curve, such as the one that is also used in UL1709 [6]. Pouring a concrete floor for a commercial building, (slab-on-grade) Installing rebar in a floor slab during a concrete pour For other uses, see Concrete (disambiguation). ... The British terminal at Cheriton in west Folkestone, from the Pilgrims Way. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification    - by Athelstan AD927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi   - Water (%) Population... Endothermic can mean: In biology, an endotherm is a type of animal that can control its body temperature. ... Hydrates are compounds formed by the union of water with some other substance, generally forming a neutral body, as certain crystallized salts. ... UL Mark with C and US Underwriters Laboratories (Inc. ... This article is about firewalls used in construction. ... Fire protection is the prevention and reduction of the hazards associated with fires. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

  • Fireproofing Concrete Tunnel Linings

In essence, this is really not much different from protecting structural steel or electrical circuits or valves. Te most important item is to maintain strict bounding. Next, one must slow down the heat transfer into the item to be protected. This is accomplished by the use of firm fireproofing products, such as higher density fireproofing plasters or fireproofing boards, such as those made of calcium silicate or vermiculite. Examples of purpose-made tunnel fireproofing can be seen here [7]. Other things to be kept in mind are as follow: // Gypsum plaster Plaster of Paris, or simply plaster, is a type of building material based on calcium sulfate hemihydrate, nominally (CaSO₄)₂*H₂O. It is created by heating gypsum to about 150 ℃, 2(CaSO₄ · 2H₂O) → (CaSO₄)₂ · H₂O + 3 H₂O (released as steam). ... Vermiculite is a natural mineral which expands with the application of heat. ...

  • If one is fireproofing existing traffic tunnels, one must ensure proper cleaning of the concrete to remove any substances that may impair proper bonding.
  • Lighting concerns must be kept in mind. Traffic darkens new fireproofing products. One must, therefore, investigate proper, light-coloured coatings, which reflect light, are easy to clean, are compatible with the substrate and that the combination of the two are also to absorb the kinetic energy of spray cleaning.
  • In mountain tunnels, one must ensure that a space is created between the fireproofing and the stone, for water traveling downwards through the mountain to be drained off, to avoid the formation of dangerous icicles and damage to the fireproofing system.

Kinetic energy (SI unit: the joule) is energy that a body possesses as a result of its motion. ...

Trade Jusrisdiction On Unionised Construction Sites in North America

  • Structural Steel and Concrete Substrata: Plasterers [8]
  • Electrical Circuits: Insulators [9]
  • Ductwork: Insulators [10]

See also


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