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Encyclopedia > Firefly
Firefly
Adult Photuris lucicrescens firefly
Adult Photuris lucicrescens firefly
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Infraclass: Neoptera
Superorder: Endopterygota
Order: Coleoptera
Suborder: Polyphaga
Infraorder: Elateriformia
Superfamily: Elateroidea
Family: Lampyridae
Latreille, 1817
Subfamilies

Cyphonocerinae
Lampyrinae
Luciolinae
Ototetrinae
Photurinae
and see below Firefly is an American science fiction television series created by writer/director Joss Whedon, creator of Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Angel, under his Mutant Enemy Productions. ... Look up firefly in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 351 KB) Other versions DCP_16707. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Orders     Blattodea (cockroaches)     Mantodea (mantids)     Isoptera (termites)     Zoraptera     Grylloblattodea     Dermaptera (earwigs)     Plecoptera (stoneflies)     Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, katydids)     Phasmatodea (walking sticks, timemas)     Embioptera (webspinners)     Mantophasmatodea (gladiators)    Superorder Hemipterodea     Psocoptera (booklice, barklice)     Phthiraptera (lice)     Hemiptera (true bugs)     Thysanoptera (thrips)    Superorder Endopterygota     Miomoptera - extinct     Megaloptera (alderflies, etc. ... Orders Coleoptera (beetles) Diptera (flies and relatives) Hymenoptera (wasps and relatives) Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) Mecoptera Megaloptera Miomoptera (extinct) Neuroptera Raphidioptera (snakeflies) Siphonaptera (fleas) Strepsiptera Trichoptera (caddisflies) The Endopterygota, also known as Holometabola, are insects of the subclass Pterygota which go through distinctive larval, pupal, and adult stages. ... For other uses, see Beetle (disambiguation). ... Infraorders Bostrichiformia Cucujiformia Elateriformia Scarabaeiformia Staphyliniformia The Polyphagans are the biggest and most diverse suborder of beetles. ... Superfamilies See text. ... Families See text. ... Pierre André Latreille. ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... ... Genera Cyphonocerus Pollaclasis The Cyphonocerinae are a subfamily of fireflies (Lampyridae) with only a few handful of species in (presumably) 2 genera. ... Tribes Cratomorphini Lamprocerini Lampyrini Photinini Pleotomini and see text. ... Tribes and genera Several, including: Atyphella Bourgeoisia Colophotia Curtos Hotaria (disputed) Lampyroidea Luciola Pteroptyx Pygoluciola Pyrophanes The Palaearctic to Australasian Luciolinae are among the larges subfamilies of fireflies (Lampyridae). ... Genera Several, including: Brachylampis Drilaster Stenocladius Synonyms Ototetrini The Ototetrinae are a rather small subfamily of fireflies (Lampyridae). ... Genera Several, including: Bicellonycha Photuris The Photurinae are a subfamily of fireflies (Lampyridae). ...


Genus incertae sedis:
Pterotus For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Incertae sedis—of uncertain position (seat)—is a term used to define a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined. ...

Lampyridae is a family in the beetle order Coleoptera, members of which are commonly called fireflies, lightning bugs or (ambiguously) "glow worms" due to their conspicuous nocturnal (or, more accurately, crepuscular) use of bioluminescence to attract mates or prey. Fireflies are capable of producing a "cold light" containing no ultraviolet or infrared rays, with a wavelength from 510 to 670 nanometers, pale reddish, yellowish or green in color, with a lighting efficiency of up to 96%. The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... Suborders Adephaga Archostemata Myxophaga Polyphaga See subgroups of the order Coleoptera Beetles are the most diverse group of insects. ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... Genera Curtos Cyphonocerus Drilaster Ellychnia Hotaria Lampyris Lucidina Luciola - (Japanese fireflies) Photinus - (common eastern firefly) Photuris Pristolycus Pyractomena Pyrocoelia Stenocladius Fireflies (family Lampyridae), also known as lightning bugs, are nocturnal, luminous beetles. ... A bat illustrating nocturnal features. ... Adult Firefly or Lightning Bug – a Crepuscular Beetle Photuris lucicrescens Crepuscular is a term used to describe animals that are primarily active during the twilight. ... Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism as the result of a chemical reaction during which chemical energy is converted to light energy. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer) is 1. ... Lighting efficiency is a measure of how much visible light is given off from a light source per unit of energy. ...


There are more than 2000 species of firefly found in temperate and tropical environments around the world. Many species can be found in marshes or in wet, wooded areas where their larvae have abundant sources of food. The hierarchy of scientific classification. ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ...

Contents

Biology

Fireflies tend to be brown and soft-bodied, often with the elytra more leathery than in other beetles. Though the females of some species are similar in appearance to males, larviform females are found in many other firefly species. These females can often be distinguished from the larvae only because they have compound eyes.The most commonly known fireflies are nocturnal, though there are numerous species that are diurnal. Most diurnal species are non-luminescent, though some species that remain in shadowy areas can produce light. Source and public domain notice at [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder. ... Source and public domain notice at [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder. ... SEM Cambridge S150 at Geological Institute, University Kiel, 1980 SEM opened sample chamber The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope capable of producing high-resolution images of a sample surface. ... Elytra (sing: elytron) are modified, hardened forewings of certain insect orders, notably beetles (Coleoptera) and true bugs (Hemiptera). ... Larviform females occur in many different insect groups, including many beetle species. ... Compound eye of a dragonfly Compound eye of Antarctic krill as imaged by an electron microscope A compound eye is a visual organ found in certain arthropods such as insects and crustaceans. ... A diurnal animal (dī-ŭrnəl) is an animal that is active during the daytime and sleeps during the night. ...


A few days after mating, a female lays her fertilized eggs on or just below the surface of the ground. The eggs hatch 3-4 weeks later and the larva feed until the end of the summer. The larvae are commonly called glowworms, not to be confused with the distinct beetle family Phengodidae or fly genus Arachnocampa. Lampyrid larvae have simple eyes. The term glowworm is also used for both adults and larvae of species such as Lampyris noctiluca, the common European glowworm, in which only the non-flying adult females glow brightly and the flying males glow only very weakly and intermittently. Fireflies overwinter (some species for several years) during the larval stage. Some do this by burrowing underground, while others find places on or under the bark of trees. They emerge in the spring. After several weeks of feeding, they pupate for 1 to 2.5 weeks and emerge as adults. The larvae of most species are specialized predators and feed on other larvae, terrestrial snails, and slugs. Some are so specialized that they have grooved mandibles which deliver digestive fluids directly to their prey. The diet of adults is variable. It has been reported that some are predatory and some feed on plant pollen or nectar. Photo of a glowworm on a stick. ... Genera about 30 genera The beetle family Phengodidae (LeConte, 1861) is known also as glowworm beetles or glowworms. ... Species see text Arachnocampa is the scientific name for a genus of four fungus gnat species which are, in their larval stage, glowworms. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1767) Synonyms Cantharis noctiluca Linnaeus, 1767 Lampyris bellieri Reiche, 1858 Lampyris carreti Olivier, 1895 Lampyris longipennis Motschulsky, 1853 Lampyris minor Olivier, 1901 Lampyris obscurella Motschulsky, 1853 Lampyris parvicollis Olivier, 1901 Lampyris sibirica Gebler, 1847 Lampyris submucronata Rey, 1891 Lampyris thoracica Motschulsky, 1853 Lapyris noctiluca, the Common Glow... Insect winter ecology entails the overwinter survival strategies of insects, which are in many respects more similar to those of plants than to many other animals, such as mammals and birds. ... Cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha) pupa Chrysalis redirects here: for other meanings see Chrysalis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the animal. ... This article is about Terrestrial Slugs. ... Insect mandibles are a pair of appendages near the insect’s mouth. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ...


Light production

Fireflies in the woods near Nuremberg, Germany
Fireflies in the woods near Nuremberg, Germany

Light production in fireflies is due to a chemical reaction that occurs in specialized light-emitting organs, usually on the lower abdomen. The enzyme luciferase acts on luciferin in this organ to stimulate light emission. This reaction is of scientific interest. Genes coding for these substances have been inserted into many different organisms (see Luciferase - Applications). Luciferase is also used in forensics, and the enzyme has medical uses. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3471x2311, 530 KB) description: fireflies in the forest - exposure time 30s author: Quit007 source: own work File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Firefly Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3471x2311, 530 KB) description: fireflies in the forest - exposure time 30s author: Quit007 source: own work File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Firefly Metadata This file contains... This article is about the city in Germany. ... In biology, an organ is a group of tissues which perform some function. ... Luciferase is a generic name for enzymes commonly used in nature for bioluminescence. ... Luciferin is a generic name for light-emitting pigments found in organisms capable of bioluminescence, like fireflies, deep-sea fish and microbes. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ... Luciferase is a generic name for enzymes commonly used in nature for bioluminescence. ... The word forensic (from Latin: forensis - forum) refers to something of, pertaining to, or used in a court of law. ...


For adult beetles, it is primarily used to locate other individuals of the same species for reproduction. Many species, especially in the genus Photinus, are distinguished by the unique courtship flash patterns emitted by flying males in search of females. Photinus females generally do not fly, but give a flash response to males of their own species.


Bioluminescence is a very efficient process. Some 90% of the energy a firefly uses to create light is actually converted into visible light. By comparison, an incandescent electric bulb can convert only 10 percent of total energy used into visible light, and the remainder is emitted as heat.

Firefly larva
Firefly larva

Tropical fireflies, particularly in Southeast Asia (Thailand and Malaysia), routinely synchronize their flashes among large groups, a startling example of spontaneous biological order. This phenomenon occurs through the night along river banks in the Malaysian jungles every day of the year. Current hypotheses about the causes of this behavior involve diet, social interaction, and altitude. In the United States, one of the most famous sightings of fireflies blinking in unison occurs near Elkmont, Tennessee in the Great Smoky Mountains during the second week of June 2005[1]. Congaree National Park in South Carolina is host to the phenomenon [2]. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 758 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Firefly Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 758 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Firefly Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Elkmont was a former community in the Great Smoky Mountains of far eastern Tennessee. ... A rainy day in the Great Smoky Mountains, Western North Carolina Appalachian Mountain system The Great Smoky Mountains are a major mountain range in the southern part of the Appalachian Mountains, the second ridge line forming a north-south running mountain chain from the Eastern United States and bordering the... Located in South Carolina, the 34 mi² (89 km²) Congaree National Park is the largest tract of old growth bottomland hardwood forest left in the United States but one of the smallest national parks. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude...


Female Photuris fireflies are known for mimicking the mating flashes of other fireflies for the sole purpose of predation. Target males are attracted to what appears to be a suitable mate, and are then eaten. For this reason the Photuris female is sometimes referred to as "femme fatale". Species P. pennsylvanicus etc. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ...


Many fireflies do not produce light. Usually these species are diurnal, or day-flying, such as those in the genus Ellychnia. A few diurnal fireflies that primarily inhabit shadowy places, such as beneath tall plants or trees, are luminescent. One such genus is Lucidota. All fireflies glow as larvae. Bioluminescence serves a different function in lampyrid larvae than it does in adults. It appears to be a warning signal to predators, since many firefly larvae contain chemicals that are distasteful or toxic. This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ...


Systematics

Firefly systematics, like with many insects, are in a constant state of flux, as new species continue to be discovered. The 5 subfamilies listed above are the most commonly accepted ones, though others such as the Amydetinae and Psilocladinae have been proposed. This was mainly done in an attempt to revise the Lampyrinae, which by and by had become something of a "wastebin taxon" to hold incertae sedis species and genera of fireflies. Other changes are occasionally proposed, such as merging the Ototetrinae into the Luciolinae, but the arrangement used here appears to be the most frequently-seen and stable layout, at least for the time being. Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Tribes Cratomorphini Lamprocerini Lampyrini Photinini Pleotomini and see text. ... A term used in taxonomic circles that refers to a taxon that has the sole purpose of holding on to things that dont fit anywhere else. ... Incertae sedis—of uncertain position (seat)—is a term used to define a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined. ... Genera Several, including: Brachylampis Drilaster Stenocladius Synonyms Ototetrini The Ototetrinae are a rather small subfamily of fireflies (Lampyridae). ... Tribes and genera Several, including: Atyphella Bourgeoisia Colophotia Curtos Hotaria (disputed) Lampyroidea Luciola Pteroptyx Pygoluciola Pyrophanes The Palaearctic to Australasian Luciolinae are among the larges subfamilies of fireflies (Lampyridae). ...


Fireflies and humans

Photuris pennsylvanica, state insect of Pennsylvania

Fireflies were a part of ancient Mayan mythology, often being associated with the stars. Further, they were associated with cigar smoking and may have had at least one representative in the pantheon of Mayan gods (Lopes 2004). Photuris pennsylvanicus. ... Photuris pennsylvanicus. ... This is a list of U.S. state insects: See also Lists of U.S. state insignia Categories: U.S. state insignia ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... Four cigars of different brands (from top: H. Upmann, Montecristo, Macanudo, Romeo y Julieta) An airtight cigar storage tube and a double guillotine-style cutter Individual Woodtip Swisher Sweets Cigar A cigar is a tightly rolled bundle of dried and fermented tobacco, one end of which is ignited so that... A pantheon (from Greek Πάνθειον, temple of all gods, from πᾶν, all + θεός, god) is a set of all the gods of a particular religion or mythology, such as the gods of Hinduism, Norse, Egyptian, Shintoism, Greek, vodun, Yoruba Mythology and Roman mythology. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In East Asia, the ancient Chinese sometimes captured fireflies in transparent or semi-transparent containers and used them as (short-term) lanterns, and some species of the genus Luciola (hotaru, 蛍) rival the famous sakura cherry blossoms as regards their significance in Japanese culture and folklore. East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... Stone lantern in a Chinese Garden A chōchin invites customers into an okonomiyaki restaurant in Japan A lantern is a portable lighting device used to illuminate broad areas. ... Luciola - (Λυξιολα) is one of the main characters from the 2003 anime series Last Exile. ... This article is about cherry blossoms and their cultural significance to the Japanese. ... Japanese culture and language Japans isolation until the arrival of the Black Ships and the Meiji era produced a culture distinctively different from any other, and echoes of this uniqueness persist today. ... Japanese folklore is the folklore of Japan. ...


The Pennsylvania Firefly (Photuris pennsylvanica) is the state insect of Pennsylvania, and the Common Eastern Firefly (Photuris pyralis) one of the state insects of Tennessee. At one point, Indiana seriously considered making the State's insect a firefly, but the legislature never put the measure to a vote. This is a list of U.S. state insects: See also Lists of U.S. state insignia Categories: U.S. state insignia ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  Ranked 38th  - Total 36,418 sq mi (94,321 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 270 miles (435 km)  - % water 1. ...


The spectacular synchronized flashing by Pteroptyx and other Luciolinae fireflies has potential economic significance. Notably on the Selangor River at Kampong Kuantan (Malaysia), it has become a major attraction for tourists which create considerable revenue. Tribes and genera Several, including: Atyphella Bourgeoisia Colophotia Curtos Hotaria (disputed) Lampyroidea Luciola Pteroptyx Pygoluciola Pyrophanes The Palaearctic to Australasian Luciolinae are among the larges subfamilies of fireflies (Lampyridae). ... Selangor River is a Selangors major river in Malaysia. ...


References

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Firefly (comics) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (565 words)
Firefly is a fictional character in DC Comics and enemy to Batman.
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Firefly (TV series) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4226 words)
Firefly was a science fiction television series that premiered in the United States and Canada on September 20, 2002.
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