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Encyclopedia > Firearm
A Heckler & Koch USP .45 ACP handgun with a Surefire X200a Tactical Light, surrounded by hollow-point ammunition.
A Heckler & Koch USP .45 ACP handgun with a Surefire X200a Tactical Light, surrounded by hollow-point ammunition.
Regularly used firearms must be periodically partially disassembled, cleaned and lubricated to ensure the firearm’s reliability; soldiers of the Armia Krajowa cleaning their firearms before combat; 1944.

A firearm is a device that can be used as a weapon that fires either single or multiple projectiles propelled at high velocity by the gases produced through rapid, confined burning of a propellant. This process of rapid burning is technically known as deflagration. In older firearms, this propellant was typically black powder, but modern firearms use smokeless powder, cordite, or other propellants. Most modern firearms (with the notable exception of smoothbore shotguns) have rifled barrels to impart spin to the projectile for improved flight stability. Firearms is a multiplayer mod of the popular first-person shooter (FPS) game Half-Life created by Valve Software. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 460 KB) H&K USP . ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 460 KB) H&K USP . ... Heckler & Koch GmbH (H&K) (pronounced [1]) is a German weapons manufacturing company famous for various series of small firearms, notably the MP5 submachine gun, the MP7 personal defense weapon, USP series of handguns, high-precision PSG1 sniper rifle, and the G3 and G36 assault rifles. ... A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ... .357 Magnum rounds. ... Image File history File links Ak_preps. ... Image File history File links Ak_preps. ... Armia Krajowa (the Home Army), abbreviated AK, was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland. ... For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... A projectile is any object sent through space by the application of a force. ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... A propellant is a material that is used to move an object by applying a motive force. ... A log in a fire place. ... Black powder was the original gunpowder and practically the only known propellant and explosive until the middle of the 19th century. ... Smokeless powder Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of gunpowder-like propellants used in firearms which produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the older black powder which it replaced. ... Cordite is a family of smokeless propellants developed and produced in the United Kingdom from the late 19th Century to replace gunpowder as a military propellant for large weapons, such as tank guns, artillery and naval guns. ... Smoothbore refers to a firearm which does not have a rifled barrel. ... For other uses, see Shotgun (disambiguation). ... Rifling of a Canon de 75 modèle 1897 A 35 caliber Remington, with a microgroove rifled barrel with a right hand twist. ...

Contents

Background

The term gun is often used as a synonym for firearm, but in specialist use has a restricted sense—referring only to an artillery piece with a relatively high muzzle velocity, such as a field gun, a tank gun, an anti-tank gun, or a gun used in the delivery of naval gunfire. Guns are distinct from howitzers and mortars, which have lower muzzle velocities and, typically, higher trajectories. Hand-held firearms, like rifles, carbines, pistols and other small firearms are rarely called "guns" in the restricted sense among specialists. Machine guns fire small caliber ammunition (generally 14.5 mm or smaller), and many machine guns are crew served firearms, requiring the services of more than one crewman, just like artillery guns. Generally, an automatic firearm designed for a single user is referred to as an automatic rifle. However, the US BATFE considers any firearm which dispenses more than one round with a single manipulation of the firing device to be a "machine gun" for regulatory purposes. Other terms, including "firearm" itself, have been defined in specialized ad hoc ways by various legislation. This article is about the video game. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... A field gun is an artillery piece. ... A M1 Abrams firing. ... Anti-tank, or simply AT, refers to any method of combating military armored fighting vehicles, notably tanks. ... Naval gunfire support (NGFS) comprises the use of naval artillery to provide fire support support for amphibious assault troops. ... Loading a WW1 British 15 in (381 mm) howitzer 155 mm M198 Howitzer A howitzer or hauwitzer is a type of field artillery. ... US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ... A rifle is any long gun which has a rifled barrel. ... A carbine is a firearm, similar to but shorter than an ordinary rifle or musket in barrel and stock. ... A pistol is a usually small, projectile weapon, normally fired with one hand. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... Heckler & Koch G41 automatic rifles are legal in asutralia an america with lisence An automatic rifle is a term generally used to describe a self-loading rifle capable of firing either semi or fully-automatically from a magazine or belt of ammunition. ... ATF Seal The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (abbreviated ATF, sometimes BATF or BATFE) is a United States federal agency; more specifically a specialized law enforcement and regulatory organization within the United States Department of Justice. ...


In recent centuries, firearms have become the predominant weapons used by mankind. Modern warfare since the late Renaissance has relied upon firearms, with wide-ranging effects on military history and history in general. This created a whole new kind of battle, which molded modern-era armies. Modern warfare involves the widespread use of highly advanced technology. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ...


For handguns and long guns, the projectile is a bullet or, in historical cannons, a cannonball. The projectile is fired by the burning of the propellant, but in small arms rarely contains explosives itself. For modern artillery the projectile is a shell, which nearly always contains explosives. This article is about firearms projectiles. ... A shell is a payload-carrying projectile, which, as opposed to a bullet, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage includes large solid projectiles previously termed shot (AP, APCR, APCNR, APDS, APFSDS and Proof shot). ...


A distinction is sometimes made between the projectile itself as the weapon and the firearm as a weapons platform. In some cases, the firearm can be used directly as a weapon without firing a projectile, although this is virtually always a secondary method of attack. For example, arms such as rifles, muskets, and occasionally submachine guns can have bayonets affixed to them, becoming in effect a spear or pike. With some notable exceptions, the stock of a long gun can be used as a club. It is also possible to strike someone with the barrel of a hand-held gun or grasp it by the barrel and strike someone with the butt. This is called "pistol-whipping". A weapons platform is generally any structure or system on which a weapon can be mounted. ... The MP5 is a third-generation submachine gun that sees widespread use among law enforcement and military forces. ... For other uses, see bayonet (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Spear (disambiguation) and Spears (disambiguation). ... A modern recreation of a mid-17th century company of pikemen. ... A stock or buttstock is present in many firearms and some crossbows to transfer the recoil from firing the weapon into the shooters shoulder. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


A problem for firearms is the accumulation of waste products from the partial combustion of propellants, metallic residue from the bullet itself, and small flecks of the cartridge case. These waste products can interfere with the internal functions of the firearm. As a result, regularly used firearms must be periodically partially disassembled, cleaned and lubricated to ensure the firearm’s reliability. A propellant is a material that is used to move an object by applying a motive force. ...


Firearms are sometimes referred to as small arms. Small arms are firearms which can be carried by a single individual. According to international conventions governing the Laws of War, small arms are defined (with some exceptions) as firearms which fire a projectile not in excess of 15 mm (0.60 inches) in diameter.[citation needed] Small arms are aimed visually at their targets by hand using optical sights. The range of accuracy for small arms is generally limited to about one mile (1600 m), usually considerably less, although the current record for a successful Sniper attack is slightly more than 1.5 miles (2.4 km). Artillery guns are much larger than these firearms, mounted on a movable carriage, having bores of up to 18 inches (46 cm) and possibly weighing many tons. Artillery can be accurate at ranges of up to about 26 miles (42 km) and, with some notable exceptions (e.g., tank guns), are aimed using altitude/azimuth settings. Strictly speaking, such weapons are not firearms. Small arms captured in Fallujah, Iraq by the US Marine Corps in 2004 The term small arms generally describes any number of smaller infantry weapons, such as firearms that an individual soldier can carry. ... The two parts of the laws of war (or Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)): Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called jus ad bellum. ... For other uses, see Sniper (disambiguation). ... An Altazimuth mounted Dobsonian telescope. ...


History

Main article: History of firearms

The direct ancestor of the firearm is the fire-lance, a gunpowder-filled tube attached to the end of a spear and used as a flamethrower; shrapnel was sometimes placed in the barrel so that it would fly out together with the flames.[1][2] The earliest depiction of a gunpowder weapon is the illustration of a fire-lance on a mid-10th century silk banner from Dunhuang, China.[3] Gunpowder was developed in far eastern countries, notably India and China, for display at religious festivals. ... The fire lance (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: huǒ qiāng) or fire spear is one of the first gunpowder weapons in the world. ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... Location of Dunhuang Dunhuang (Chinese: , also written as 燉煌 till early Qing Dynasty; Pinyin: ) is a city in Jiuquan, Gansu province, China. ...


In due course, the proportion of saltpeter in the propellant was increased to increase its explosive power.[2] To better withstand that explosive power, the paper and bamboo of which fire-lance barrels were originally made came to be replaced by metal.[1] And to take full advantage of that power, the shrapnel came to be replaced by projectiles whose size and shape filled the barrel more closely.[2] With this, we have the three basic features of the gun: a barrel made of metal, high-nitrate gunpowder, and a projectile which totally occludes the muzzle so that the powder charge exerts its full potential in propellant effect.[4] Trinitrate redirects here. ...


The earliest depiction of a gun is a sculpture from a cave in Sichuan dating to the 1100s of a figure carrying a vase-shaped bombard with flames and a cannonball coming out of it.[5][6] The oldest surviving gun, made of bronze, has been dated to 1288 because it was discovered at a site in modern-day Acheng District where the Yuan Shi records that battles were fought at that time; Li Ting, a military commander of Jurchen descent, led foot-soldiers armed with guns in battle to suppress the rebellion of the Christian Mongol prince Nayan.[7] A bombard is a type of medieval cannon or mortar, used chiefly in sieges for throwing heavy stone balls. ... Acheng, (Chinese: 阿城; pinyin: Ä€chéng; also spelled Ashihe, Ashehe, or, until 1909, Ashihho[1]; Manchu: Alchuka) is a small city and an administrative county-level district of Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China. ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ...


Small arms

Handgun

19th century pistol from the French Navy.
19th century pistol from the French Navy.
Modern version of Colt's famous "Single Action Army" revolver.
Modern version of Colt's famous "Single Action Army" revolver.
M1911 Colt pistol, U.S. Army designation for Colt's .45 semi-automatic.
M1911 Colt pistol, U.S. Army designation for Colt's .45 semi-automatic.

The smallest of all small arms is the handgun (or pistol). There are three common types of handguns: single-shot pistols (more common historically), revolvers, and semi-automatic pistols. Revolvers have a number of firing chambers or "charge holes" in a revolving cylinder; each chamber in the cylinder is loaded with a single cartridge. Semi-automatic pistols have a single fixed firing chamber machined into the rear of the barrel, and a removable magazine so they can be used to fire more than one round. The Italian-made Mateba revolver is a rare "hybrid," a semi-automatic revolver. Each press of the trigger fires a cartridge and rotates the cylinder so that the next cartridge may be fired immediately. The British firearms firm Webley also made an "automatic revolver" around the turn of the 20th century. Image File history File links Pistolet dordonance de la Marine française, XIXe siècle, Musée de la Marine de Paris. ... Image File history File links Pistolet dordonance de la Marine française, XIXe siècle, Musée de la Marine de Paris. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (966x663, 54 KB) Work by Rama File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Firearm Colt Single Action Army handgun Case hardening Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (966x663, 54 KB) Work by Rama File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Firearm Colt Single Action Army handgun Case hardening Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... Colts Manufacturing Company (CMC--formerly Colts Patent Firearms Manufacturing Company) is a United States firearms manufacturer founded in 1847. ... Colt Single Action Army handgun (Modern Verson) Also known as the Colt Peacemaker or Single Action Army, the Colt Single Action Army handgun is a single action revolver holding 6 rounds of ammunition, that was designed for the US cavalry by Colts Manufacturing Company and adopted in 1875, and... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 390 KB)Mid 1945 produced US M1911A1 US Army 45 Colt by Remington Rand, photograph 3rd February 2004, by Lasse Jensen. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 390 KB)Mid 1945 produced US M1911A1 US Army 45 Colt by Remington Rand, photograph 3rd February 2004, by Lasse Jensen. ... The M1911 is a single-action, semiautomatic handgun chambered for the . ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Colts Manufacturing Company (CMC) is a United States firearms manufacturer founded in 1847. ... A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ... Single shot pistols have existed since the early years of firearms. ... Revolver is also a rock-and-roll album by The Beatles. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Italian Republic” redirects here. ... Developed by the Italian gun manufacturer Mateba Srl, the Mateba Autorevolver, sometimes referred to as the Mateba Model 6 Unica, is one of the few types of hybrid handguns called automatic revolvers. ...


Handguns differ from rifles and shotguns in that they are smaller, lack a shoulder stock, are usually chambered for less-powerful cartridges, and are designed to be fired with one or two hands. While the term "pistol" can be properly used to describe any handgun, it is common to refer to a single-shot or auto-loading handgun as a "pistol" and a revolver as a "revolver".


The term "automatic pistol" is sometimes used and is somewhat misleading in that the term 'automatic' does not refer to the firing mechanism, but rather the reloading mechanism. When fired, an automatic pistol uses recoil and/or propellant gases to automatically extract the spent cartridge and insert a fresh one from a magazine. Usually (but not always) the firing mechanism is automatically cocked as well. An automatic pistol fires one shot per trigger pull, unlike an automatic firearm such as a machine gun, which fires as long as the trigger is held down and there are unspent cartridges in the chamber or magazine. There are, however, some fully automatic handguns (often referred to as machine pistols) so, to avoid such ambiguity and confusion, the term semi-automatic (or semiautomatic) is preferred when referring to a firearm that fires only one shot per trigger pull.


Prior to the 19th century, all handguns were single-shot muzzleloaders. With the invention of the revolver in 1818, handguns capable of holding multiple rounds became popular. At the end of the 20th century, most handguns are semi-automatic, although revolvers are still widely used. Generally speaking, military and police forces use automatic pistols due to their high magazine capacities (10 to 17 or, in some cases, over 25 rounds of ammunition) and ability to rapidly reload by simply removing the empty magazine and inserting a loaded one. Handgun hunters use revolvers almost exclusively because hunting cartridges are generally much more powerful than autopistol cartridges (which are designed for self-defense) and the strength, simplicity and durability of the revolver design is well-suited to them. Lawfully armed citizens carry either type, depending on personal preference. A Semi-automatic (also known as Self-loading) pistol is a type of handheld firearm, a kind of pistol. ...


Handguns come in many shapes and sizes. For example, the "derringer" (a generic term based on the mid-19th century "Deringer" brand name) is a very small, short-barreled handgun, usually with one or two barrels but sometimes more (some 19th century derringers had four barrels) that have to be manually reloaded after being fired. Carefully matched single-shot duelling pistols were used primarily in the 18th and 19th centuries to settle serious differences among "gentlemen": Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr are probably the most prominent Americans who used duelling pistols to settle their differences. Fully automatic, relatively easily concealed machine pistols, such as the MAC-10, GLOCK 18, and the Beretta 93R, were a late 20th century development. The term derringer is a genericized misspelling of the last name of Henry Deringer, a famous maker of small pocket pistols in the 1800s. ... Dueling pistols are pistols of identical appearance, reliability and accuracy that were used in a classical duel. ... Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757–July 12, 1804) was an Army officer, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, financier and political theorist. ... This article discusses Aaron Burr (1756-1836), the American politician. ... A machine pistol shares several properties of the semi-automatic handgun and the sub-machine gun. ...


Handguns are small and usually made to be carried in a holster, thus leaving both hands free. Small handguns can easily be concealed, thus making them a very common choice for personal protection. In the military, handguns are usually issued to those who are not expected to need more potent (and more expensive) firearms, such as general and staff officers, and to those for whom there is no room for a full-sized rifle, such as armored vehicle and air crews. In this last role, they often compete with the carbine, a short, light rifle, which is also usually issued to airborne infantry because of its small size. Outside the military, handguns are the usual armament for police (in those jurisdictions where police are armed) and, where legal, for private citizens. Private citizens in most jurisdictions usually carry only concealed handguns in public except when hunting, since an unconcealed firearm would attract undue attention, and would therefore be less secure, although there are significant numbers of states in the US that continue to permit open carry of handguns. In the United States, the number of states which permit concealed carry has recently grown to over 35, and several states have well over 200,000 permit holders. Despite Second Amendment constitutional roots in the United States, the concept of citizens carrying a concealed firearm for self-defense is often a contentious political issue; see gun politics for more information. A carbine is a firearm similar to, but generally shorter and less powerful than, a rifle or musket of a given period. ... In the United States, concealed carry is the right to carry a handgun or other weapon in public in a concealed manner. ... The Bill of Rights in the National Archives Amendment II (the Second Amendment) of the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, declares a well regulated militia as being necessary to the security of a free State, and prohibits Congress or any other government agency from... Gun politics is a set of legal issues surrounding the ownership, use, and control of firearms as well as safety issues related to firearms both through their direct use and through criminal use. ...


Handguns are also used for many sporting purposes and hunting, although hunting usage is usually viewed as somewhat atypical due to the limited range and accuracy of handguns. Some hunters, however, do their hunting in areas of dense cover where long guns would be awkward, or they relish the increased challenge involved in handgun hunting due to the necessity of approaching the game animal more closely. Small-bore (e.g., .22 caliber rimfire) handguns have long been very popular for competitive target shooting, partially due to the low cost of both the firearms and the ammunition, and there is also a rapidly growing number of sporting competitions for larger calibers.


Long guns

One pump-action and two semi-automatic shotguns, 20 boxes of shotgun shells, a target thrower, and three boxes of clay targets.
One pump-action and two semi-automatic shotguns, 20 boxes of shotgun shells, a target thrower, and three boxes of clay targets.

Most modern long guns are either rifles or shotguns. Historically, a long smoothbore firearm was known as a musket. A rifle has a rifled barrel that fires single bullets, while a shotgun fires packets of shot, a single slug, a sabot, or a speciality round (tear gas, Bolo Shell, lead powder, etc.). Rifles are often built for accuracy and long range and are aimed, while shotguns are usually designed to quickly hit a moving target and are instead "pointed". Rifles have a very small impact area but a long range and high accuracy. Shotguns have a large impact area with considerably less range and accuracy. However, the larger impact area can compensate for reduced accuracy, since shot spreads during flight; consequently, in hunting, shotguns are used for flying game. Image File history File links Springfield_1903_rifle. ... Image File history File links Springfield_1903_rifle. ... The Springfield M1903, formally the United States Rifle, Caliber . ... Image File history File links Shotgunslaidout. ... Image File history File links Shotgunslaidout. ... For other uses, see Shotgun (disambiguation). ... A long gun is a firearm with an extended barrel, usually designed to be fired braced against the shoulder. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Shotgun (disambiguation). ... Muskets and bayonets aboard the frigate Grand Turk. ... For other meanings, see Slug (disambiguation) A slug is a term used for a solid ballistic projectile. ... An APFSDS separating from its spindle sabot Anti-tank flechette round with its sabot A sabot refers to a device named for a shoe used in a firearm or cannon to fire a projectile or bullet that is smaller than the bore diameter. ... A riot control agent is a type of lachrymatory agent (or lacrimatory agent). ... A Bolo Shell usually refers to a shotgun round that is inserted, as normal, into the magazine of a shotgun. ...


Rifles and shotguns are commonly used for hunting and often to defend a home or place of business. Usually, large game are hunted with rifles (although shotguns can be used—deer hunting with a shotgun is possible with the use of buckshot, sabots or slugs) while birds are hunted with shotguns. Shotguns are sometimes preferred for defending a home or business due to their wide impact area, multiple wound tracks (when using buckshot), shorter range, and reduced penetration of walls, which significantly reduces the likelihood of unintended harm, although the handgun is also commonly preferred. A shotgun shell is a self-contained cartridge loaded with shot or a slug designed to be fired from a shotgun. ... A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ...


There are a variety of types of rifles and shotguns based on the method they are reloaded. Bolt-action and lever-action rifles are manually manipulated. Manual manipulation of the bolt or the lever causes the spent cartridge to be removed, the firing mechanism recocked, and a fresh cartridge inserted. These two types of action are almost exclusively used by rifles.


Slide-action (commonly called 'pump-action') rifles and shotguns are manually cycled by shuttling the foregrip of the firearm back and forth. This type of action is typically used by shotguns, but several major manufacturers make rifles as well.


Automatic and semi-automatic rifles and shotguns both use either recoil or propellant gases to operate the firing mechanism that extracts and loads cartridges and recocks the firing mechanism. Semi-automatics employ an interrupter mechanism to only fire one shot per pull of the trigger, while full-automatics do not have such a system and fire multiple shots with a single pull of the trigger.


Both rifles and shotguns also come in break-action varieties that do not have any kind of reloading mechanism at all but must be hand-loaded after each shot. Both rifles and shotguns come in single- and double-barreled varieties; however due to the expense and difficulty of manufacturing double-barreled rifles are rare. Double-barreled rifles are typically intended for African big-game hunts where the animals are dangerous, ranges are short, and speed is of the essence. Very large and powerful calibers are normal for these types of guns.


Rifles have been in nationally featured marksmanship events in Europe and the United States since at least the 18th century, when rifles were first becoming widely available—one of the earliest purely "American" rifle-shooting competitions took place in 1775, when Daniel Morgan was recruiting sharpshooters in Virginia for the impending war with Great Britain. In some countries, rifle marksmanship is still a matter of national pride. Some specialized rifles in the larger calibers are claimed to have an accurate range of up to about one mile (1600 m), although most have considerably less effective range. In the second half of the 20th century, competitive shotgun sports became perhaps even more popular than riflery, largely due to the motion and immediate feedback in activities such as skeet, trap and sporting clays. The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen of her North American colonies. ...


Machine guns

An 1865 Gatling gun.
A replica of the 1928 Thompson submachine gun.
A replica of the 1928 Thompson submachine gun.
Kalashnikov's AK-47 assault rifle.
Kalashnikov's AK-47 assault rifle.

A machine gun is a fully automatic firearm. Although not widely fielded until World War I, early machine guns were being used by the military in the early 20th century, the Gatling Gun is often confused as being a machinegun but actually is not since it requires the operator to continually crank the handle to keep it firing, thus meaning it is not "fully automatic" although it does have a higher rate of fire. The Maxim machinegun was the first fully automatic weapon, they were primarily defensive firearms, mainly because of the difficulties involved in moving and placing them, and their inherent lack of accuracy. In contrast, light machine guns (such as the U.S. military's M249 Squad Automatic Weapon (SAW) and the M60 machine gun, both of which are small-caliber firearms) are often wielded by a single infantryman; they provide a high rate of fire typically used as either suppressing fire or covering fire during infantry movement. Machine guns are also often mounted on vehicles or helicopters, and have often been used since World War II as offensive firearms in fighter aircraft and tanks (e.g., for air combat or suppressing fire for ground troop support). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1474x1361, 379 KB) Summary A photograph of a British 1865 Gatling gun at Firepower - The Royal Artillery Museum. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1474x1361, 379 KB) Summary A photograph of a British 1865 Gatling gun at Firepower - The Royal Artillery Museum. ... An 1865 Gatling gun. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1383x474, 47 KB) Source: http://de. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1383x474, 47 KB) Source: http://de. ... For the Clash song, see Tommy Gun (song). ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Mikhail Kalashnikov, circa 2000 Lieutenant General Mikhail Timofeyevich Kalashnikov (Russian: , Mihail Timofeevič Kalašnikov) (born November 10, 1919) is a famous Russian gun designer, most famous for his AK-47, frequently called the Kalashnikov. ... Avtomat Kalashnikova model 1947 g. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... An 1865 Gatling gun. ... The M249 Squad Automatic Weapon (M249 SAW) is the United States military designation for a sub-family of the FN Minimi squad automatic weapon (from Mini-mitrailleuse French: mini-machine gun. Both are 5. ... The M60 (formally the United States Machine Gun, Caliber 7. ...


A submachine gun is a machine gun that fires cartridges that would otherwise be used in a handgun. Probably the most well-known example of a submachine gun is the Thompson submachine gun (the "Tommy Gun" of gangster movies), which fires .45 ACP cartridges. Other well-known examples are the Israeli Uzi, the British Sten, and the German MP5, all of which implement the 9 mm Luger Parabellum, and the U.S.'s M3 Grease Gun which fires .45 ACP. The MP5 is a third-generation submachine gun that sees widespread use among law enforcement and military forces. ... A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ... For the Clash song, see Tommy Gun (song). ... .45 ACP cartridges .45 redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The M3 Grease Gun (more formally United States Submachine Gun, Cal. ...


In United States law, a Machine Gun is defined (in part) by The National Firearms Act of 1934, United States code Title 26, Subtitle E, Chapter 53, Subchapter B, Part 1, § 5845 as: This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


"... any firearm which shoots ... automatically more than one shot, without manual reloading, by a single function of the trigger."


In the United States, purchases by civilians of machine guns manufactured after 1986 were banned by the Firearm Owners Protection Act (FOPA), passed in that year. Importation of machine guns for civilian sale in the U.S. was banned by the Gun Control Act of 1968. Machine guns manufactured prior to 1986 or imported prior to 1968 can still be legally transferred to civilians who pay a substantial tax to the BATFE and pass a background investigation. In addition, "transferable" machine guns must have been registered with the BATFE prior to 1986. Machine Gun parts kits (which do not include a functional receiver) can be transferred without restriction. Permission must be received from BATFE to move a machine gun between states. The Firearm Owners Protection Act (FOPA) is a United States federal law that revised many statutes in the Gun Control Act of 1968. ... The Gun Control Act of 1968, Pub. ... The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (BATFE or ATFE) is a law enforcement agency within the United States Department of Justice. ... The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (BATFE or ATFE) is a law enforcement agency within the United States Department of Justice. ... In firearms terminology, the receiver is the part of the firearm that houses the operating parts of the gun. ... The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (BATFE or ATFE) is a law enforcement agency within the United States Department of Justice. ...


One of the most popular, most produced and most used automatic rifles in the world is the Soviet AK-47. It served in the Soviet army as standard infantry firearm issue, as well as in many other Eastern Bloc states, and is still used as standard military equipment in some former Warsaw Pact countries. As over 100 million AK-47s were manufactured[citation needed], it has also become the firearm of choice worldwide for many criminal or terrorist organizations[citation needed]. A semi-automatic version of this firearm is available in many locales where fully automatic firearms are not available. Soviet redirects here. ... Avtomat Kalashnikova model 1947 g. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ...




Loading and firing mechanisms

Muzzle-loaded Cannon

A small, cast-iron field cannon.
A small, cast-iron field cannon.

The cannon is loaded with gunpowder and the cannonball through the muzzle, while a fuse is placed at the rear. This fuse is lighted, causing the gunpowder to ignite and propel the cannonball. Most cannons were land- or ship-based guns, although hand cannons also existed. In military use, the standard cannon was tremendously powerful, while hand cannon was somewhat useless. In the 19th century, the muzzle-loaded cannon was made obsolete by the breech-loaded artillery piece with a rifled barrel. Download high resolution version (853x395, 146 KB)a typical cannon | picture by Bogdan Giusca: a cannon from some monument of the cannoniers in Bucharest | File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (853x395, 146 KB)a typical cannon | picture by Bogdan Giusca: a cannon from some monument of the cannoniers in Bucharest | File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ...


Muzzleloader

Muzzle-loading muskets (smooth-bored long guns) were among the first small arms developed. The firearm was loaded through the muzzle with gunpowder, optionally some wadding and then a bullet (usually a solid lead ball, but musketeers could shoot stones when they ran out of bullets). Greatly improved muzzleloaders (usually rifled instead of smooth-bored) are manufactured today and have many enthusiasts, many of whom hunt large and small game with their guns. Muzzleloaders have to be manually reloaded after each shot; a skilled archer could fire multiple arrows faster than most early muskets could be reloaded and fired, although by the mid-18th century, when muzzleloaders became the standard small armament of the military, a well-drilled soldier could fire six rounds in a minute using prepared cartridges in his musket. Before then, effectiveness of muzzleloaders was hindered by both the low reloading speed and, before the firing mechanism was perfected, the very high risk posed by the firearm to the person attempting to fire it. One interesting solution to the reloading problem was the "Roman Candle Gun". This was a muzzleloader in which multiple charges and balls were loaded one on top of the other, with a small hole in each ball to allow the subsequent charge to be ignited after the one ahead of it was ignited. It was neither a very reliable nor popular firearm, but it enabled a form of "automatic" fire long before the advent of the machine gun.[8] A US soldier drops a shell into the muzzle of an M224 60-mm mortar. ...


Matchlock

Matchlocks were the first and simplest small arms firing mechanisms developed. Using the matchlock mechanism, the powder in the gun barrel was ignited by a piece of burning cord called a "match". The match was wedged into one end of an S-shaped piece of steel. As the trigger (often actually a lever) was pulled, the match was brought into the open end of a "touch hole" at the base of the gun barrel, which contained a very small quantity of gunpowder, igniting the main charge of gunpowder in the gun barrel. The match usually had to be relit after each firing. The Matchlock was the first firearm to have a trigger mechanism for firing. ...


Wheellock

The wheellock action, a successor to the matchlock, predated the flintlock. Despite its many faults, the wheellock was a significant improvement over the matchlock in terms of both convenience and safety, since it eliminated the need to keep a smoldering match in proximity to loose gunpowder. It operated using a small wheel much like that on cigarette lighters which was wound up with a key before use and which, when the trigger was pulled, spun against a flint, creating the shower of sparks that ignited the powder in the touch hole. Supposedly invented by Leonardo da Vinci, the Italian Renaissance man, the wheel lock action was an innovation that was not widely adopted. Wheellock, Wheel-Lock or Wheel lock, is a mechanism for firing a firearm. ... See: Lighter (fire starter) - a handheld fire starter Lighter (barge) - a type of barge Lighter than air This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Renaissance Man (disambiguation). ...


Flintlock

The flintlock action was a major innovation in small arms design. The spark used to ignite the gunpowder in the touch hole was supplied by a sharpened piece of flint clamped in the jaws of a "cock" which, when released by the trigger, struck a piece of steel called the "frizzen" to create the necessary sparks. (The spring loaded arm that holds a piece of flint or pyrite is referred to as a cock because of its resemblance to a rooster.) The cock had to be manually reset after each firing, and the flint had to be replaced periodically due to wear from striking the frizzen. (See also flintlock mechanism, snaphance, miquelet) The flintlock was widely used during the 18th and 19th centuries in both muskets and rifles. Flintlock of an 18th Century hunting rifle, with piece of flint missing. ... The frizzen is a curved plate of steel used in flintlock firearms. ... French courtier Marin le Bourgeoys made the first firearm incoporating a true flintlock mechanism for King Louis XIII shortly after his accession to the throne in 1610. ... Snaphance or Snaphaunce refers to a mechanism for igniting a firearms propellant usually in a muzzleloading gun. ... Miquelet (miguelet) is a modern term applied to a distinctive form of flint-against-steel ignition mechanism (lock) prevalent in the Mediterrean lands in the late 16th to early 19th centuries. ...


Percussion cap

Percussion caps (caplock mechanisms), coming into wide service in the 19th century, were a dramatic improvement over flintlocks. With the percussion cap mechanism, the small primer charge of gunpowder used in all preceding small arms was replaced by a completely self-contained explosive charge contained in a small brass "cap". The cap was fastened to the touch hole of the gun (extended to form a "nipple") and ignited by the impact of the gun's "hammer". (The hammer is roughly the same as the cock found on flintlocks except that it doesn't clamp onto anything.) In the case of percussion caps the hammer was hollow on the end to fit around the cap in order to keep the cap from fragmenting and injuring the shooter. Once struck, the flame from the cap in turn ignited the main charge of gunpowder, as with the flintlock, but there was no longer any need to charge the touch hole with gunpowder, and even better, the touch hole was no longer exposed to the elements. As a result, the percussion cap mechanism was considerably safer, far more weatherproof, and vastly more reliable (cloth-bound cartridges containing a premeasured charge of gunpowder and a ball had been in regular military service for many years, but the exposed gunpowder in the entry to the touch hole had long been a source of misfires). All muzzleloaders manufactured since the second half of the 19th century use percussion caps except those built as replicas of the flintlock or earlier small arms. The percussion cap or primer was the crucial invention that enabled firearms to fire in any weather. ... The caplock mechanism or percussion lock was the successor of the flintlock mechanism in firearm technology, and used a percussion cap struck by the hammer to set off the main charge, rather than using a piece of flint to strike a steel frizzen. ...


Cartridges

A major innovation in small arms (and light artillery) came in the second half of the 19th century when ammunition, previously delivered as separate bullets and powder, was combined in a single metallic (almost always brass) cartridge containing a percussion cap, powder, and a bullet in one weatherproof package. The main technical advantage of the brass cartridge case was the effective and reliable sealing of high pressure gasses at the breech, as the gas pressure forces the cartridge case to expand outward, pressing it firmly against the inside of the gun barrel chamber. This prevents the leakage of hot gas which could injure the shooter. The brass cartridge also opened the way for modern repeating arms, by uniting the bullet, gunpowder and primer into one assembly. Before this, a "cartridge" was simply a premeasured quantity of gunpowder together with a ball in a small cloth bag (or rolled paper cylinder), which also acted as wadding for the charge and ball. This early form of cartridge had to be rammed into the muzzleloader's barrel, and either a small charge of gunpowder in the touch hole or an external percussion cap mounted on the touch hole ignited the gunpowder in the cartridge. Cartridges with built-in percussion caps (called "primers") continue to this day to be the standard in firearms. In cartridge-firing firearms, a hammer (or a firing pin struck by the hammer) strikes the cartridge primer, which then ignites the gunpowder within. The primer charge is at the base of the cartridge, either within the rim (a "rimfire" cartridge) or in a small percussion cap embedded in the center of the base (a "centerfire" cartridge). As a rule, centerfire cartridges are more powerful than rimfire cartridges, operating at considerably higher pressures than rimfire cartridges. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Rimmed, centerfire . ...


Nearly all contemporary firearms load cartridges directly into their breech. Some additionally or exclusively load from a magazine that holds multiple cartridges. A magazine is usually a box or cylinder that is designed to be reusable and is detachable from the gun. Some magazines, such as those of the Garand are internal to the firearm, and are loaded by using a clip, which is a device that looks like a rail holding the ammunition by the rim of the case. In most cases, a magazine and a clip are different in that the former's function is to feed ammunition into the firearm's breech, while the latter's is only to "charge" a magazine with fresh ammunition. A 30-round STANAG magazine. ... The M1 Garand (more formally the United States Rifle, Caliber . ... A clip is a device that is used to store multiple rounds of ammunition together as a unit, ready for insertion into the magazine of a repeating firearm. ... Breech from Russian 122 mm M1910 howitzer, modified and combined with 105mm H37 howitzer barrel An interrupted screw style breech plug in the M109 howitzer An animation showing the loading cycle for a large naval breech-loader. ...


Repeating, semiautomatic, and automatic firearms

Alex - the new Polish bolt-action sniper rifle.
Alex - the new Polish bolt-action sniper rifle.
The French FAMAS, example of a bullpup rifle.
The French FAMAS, example of a bullpup rifle.

Many small arms are "single shot" firearms: i.e., each time a cartridge is fired, the operator must manually re-cock the firearm and load another cartridge. The classic single-barreled shotgun is a good example. A firearm that can load multiple cartridges as the firearm is re-cocked is considered a "repeating firearm" or simply a "repeater". The lever-action rifle of Old West fame, a pheasant-hunter's pump shotgun, and a police sniper's bolt-action rifle are good examples of repeating firearms. A firearm that automatically re-cocks and reloads the next round with each trigger pull is considered a semiautomatic firearm. An automatic (or "fully automatic") firearm is one that automatically re-cocks, reloads, and fires as long as the trigger is depressed. Many modern military firearms have a "selective-fire" option, which is a mechanical switch that allows the firearm be fired either in the semiautomatic or fully automatic mode. In the current M16A2 and M16A4 variants of the U.S.-made M16, continuous full-automatic fire is not possible, having been replaced by an automatic burst of three cartridges that makes full-automatic fire considerably more accurate. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 321 pixelsFull resolution (872 × 350 pixel, file size: 92 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Michał Konieczny Photo made on 12th International Defence Industry Exhibition MSPO in September 2005 in Kielce File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 321 pixelsFull resolution (872 × 350 pixel, file size: 92 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Michał Konieczny Photo made on 12th International Defence Industry Exhibition MSPO in September 2005 in Kielce File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file... Alex is the new Polish repeated sniper rifle. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2334x798, 232 KB) FAMAS Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux This picture was improved by the Wikigraphists of the Atelier graphique. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2334x798, 232 KB) FAMAS Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux This picture was improved by the Wikigraphists of the Atelier graphique. ... The FAMAS (Fusil dAssaut de la Manufacture dArmes de St-Étienne, Assault Rifle by St-Étienne Arms Factory) is an assault rifle in bullpup configuration designed and manufactured in France by the Saint Étienne arms factory, which is a member of the French government-owned GIAT Industries complex. ... The Steyr AUG is one of the most successful bullpup rifles Bullpup is a firearm configuration in which the action (or mechanism) and magazine are located behind the trigger. ... M16 (more formally United States Rifle, Caliber 5. ...


The first "rapid firing" firearms were usually similar to the 19th century Gatling gun, which would fire cartridges from a magazine as fast as and as long as the operator turned a crank. Eventually, the "rapid" firing mechanism was perfected and miniaturized to the extent that either the recoil of the firearm or the gas pressure from firing could be used to operate it (which made the firing mechanisms truly "automatic"). Automatic rifles such as the M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle (the "BAR") were in common use by the military during the early part of the 20th century, and automatic rifles that fired handgun rounds, known as submachine guns, also appeared in this time. An 1865 Gatling gun. ... The Browning Automatic Rifle (more formally first as the Rifle, Caliber . ... A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ... The MP5 is a third-generation submachine gun that sees widespread use among law enforcement and military forces. ...


Submachine guns (such as the well-known Thompson gun) were originally about the size of carbines. Because they fire pistol ammunition, they have limited long-range use, but in close combat can spray bullets in a deadly and controllable manner due to the light recoil of the pistol ammunition. They are also extremely inexpensive and simple to build in time of war, enabling a nation to quickly arm its military. In the latter half of the 20th century, submachine guns were being miniaturized to the point of being only slightly larger than some large handguns. The most widely used submachine gun at the end of the 20th century was the Heckler & Koch MP5. The MP5 is actually designated as a "machine pistol" by Heckler & Koch (MP5 stands for Machine Pistol 5), although some reserve this designation for even smaller submachine guns such as the MAC-10, which are about the size and shape of pistols. “MP5” redirects here. ... The Military Armament Corporation Model 10 or MAC-10 is a blowback-operated select-fire submachine gun (more specifically a machine pistol) developed by Gordon B. Ingram in 1964. ...


Nazi Germany brought the world's attention to what eventually became the class of firearm most widely adopted by the military: the so-called assault rifle (see Sturmgewehr 44). An assault rifle is usually slightly smaller than a military rifle such as the M1 Garand, the M14 or the K98k. Generally, assault rifles have mechanisms that allow the user to select between single shots, bursts of shots, or automatic fire. Moreover, assault rifles tend to incorporate military characteristics that make them look menacing: bayonet lugs, flash suppressors, and large capacity ammunition magazines. Generally, these design features are trivial in nature, and the modern military assault rifle differs very little in function from a civilian hunting rifle. Universally, civilian versions of military assault rifles are strictly semiautomatic. The cartridge fired by these rifles is midway in power between a pistol cartridge and a high-power rifle round, which gives the soldier the close-in spray ability of a submachine gun with the more precision long-range shooting of a high-power rifle round. Soviet engineer Mikhail Kalashnikov quickly adapted the concept to the AK-47, which has become the world's most widely used assault rifle. In United States, John Garand, the inventor of the M1 Garand rifle used by the U.S. military during World War II, adapted the assault rifle design to produce the M14, which was used by the U.S. military until the 1960s. The significant recoil (hence inaccuracy) of the M14 when fired in full automatic mode was seen as a problem, however, and in the 1960s it was replaced by Eugene Stoner's AR-15, which also marked a switch from the high-powered but heavy .30-caliber rifle used by the U.S. military since before World War I to the much smaller but far lighter and light recoiling (and arguably more accurate) .223-caliber rifle. The military later designated the AR-15 to the "M16". The civilian version of the M16 continues to be known as the AR-15 and looks exactly like the military version, although it lacks the mechanism that permits fully automatic fire. The AK-47 is the worlds most common assault rifle. ... Sturmgewehr 44 (StG44) was an assault rifle developed in Nazi Germany during World War II and was the first of its kind to see major deployment. ... The M1 Garand (more formally the United States Rifle, Caliber . ... M14 and M-14 redirect here. ... Karabiner 98 Kurz Type Service Rifle Nationality Germany Era WW2 Platform Individual Target Personnel History Date of design 1935 Production period Service duration Operators Germany War service WW2 Specifications Type Calibre Barrel length 600 mm Ammunition 7. ... Mikhail Kalashnikov, circa 2000 Lieutenant General Mikhail Timofeyevich Kalashnikov (Russian: , Mihail Timofeevič Kalašnikov) (born November 10, 1919) is a famous Russian gun designer, most famous for his AK-47, frequently called the Kalashnikov. ... Avtomat Kalashnikova model 1947 g. ... The M1 Garand (more formally the United States Rifle, Caliber . ... M14 and M-14 redirect here. ... Mikhail Kalashnikov (holding an M16A2) and Eugene Stoner, designer of M16 (holding an AK-47) Eugene Morrison Stoner (November 22, 1922 – April 24, 1997) is the man most associated with the design of the AR-15, which was adopted by the military as the M16. ... The AR-15 is a lightweight, air-cooled, magazine fed, autoloading, centerfire rifle. ...


Modern designs call for compact weapons retaining firepower. The bullpup design, by mounting the ammunition magazine rear of the trigger system, unifies the accuracy and firepower of the traditional assault rifle with the compact size of the submachine gun (though traditional submachine guns are still used because of the ballistic properties of the handgun ammunition that they use); examples are the French FAMAS or the British SA80. The Steyr AUG is one of the most successful bullpup rifles Bullpup is a firearm configuration in which the action (or mechanism) and magazine are located behind the trigger. ... The FAMAS (Fusil dAssaut de la Manufacture dArmes de St-Étienne, Assault Rifle by St-Étienne Arms Factory) is an assault rifle in bullpup configuration designed and manufactured in France by the Saint Étienne arms factory, which is a member of the French government-owned GIAT Industries complex. ... SA80 (Small Arms for the 1980s) is a family of related arms that include the British Armed Forcess standard combat rifle. ...


New ammunition design shapes are the future of firearms. Recently, smaller but powerful ammunition types have been introduced, as to allow personal defence weapons to penetrate ballistic armour. Such designs are the basis for the Five-seveN and the FN P90. Caseless ammunition is another trend, though impeded by the large number of traditional firearms, which would make their introduction expensive (an example is the German Heckler & Koch G11). The flechette is yet another improvement over traditional ammunition, allowing for extreme penetration abilities and a very flat trajectory. Caliber: 5. ... “P90” redirects here. ... The 4. ... The Heckler & Koch G11 is a non-production prototype assault rifle developed during the 1970s and 1980s by Gesellschaft für Hülsenlose Gewehrsysteme (GSHG) (Ger Corporation for Caseless Rifle Systems), a conglomeration of companies headed by firearm manufacturer Heckler & Koch (mechanical engineering and weapon design), Dynamit Nobel (propellant composition... The word flechette is French and means dart (literally, little arrow). It is a projectile having the form of a small metal dart, usually steel, with a sharp-pointed tip and a tail with several vanes to stabilize it during flight. ...


See also

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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... An Antique Firearm is, loosely speaking, a firearm designed and manufactured prior to the beginning of the 20th century- the Boer War is often used as a cut-off event, although the exact definition of what constitutes an Antique Firearm varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. ... Celebratory gunfire is the shooting of a firearm into the air in celebration. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... This article lists military technology items, devices and methods. ... Ballistics (gr. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Electro-thermal chemical (ETC) technology is an attempt to increase accuracy and muzzle energy of future tank, artillery, and close-in weapon system[1] guns by improving the predictability and rate of expansion of propellants inside the barrel. ... In firearms terminology, an action is the system of operation that the firearm employs to seal the breech (in a breech-loading firearm), and to load consecutive rounds. ... A gunsmith is a person who designs, builds, repairs or modifies firearms to blueprint and customer specifications, using hand tools and machine tools such as grinders and lathes. ... View through a 4x rifle scope A telescopic sight, commonly referred to as a scope, is a device used to give an accurate point of aim for a firearm. ... For the viewpoint of physics (dynamics, to be exact), a firearm, as are most weapons, is a system for delivering maximum destructive energy to the target with minimum delivery of energy and momentum back to the shooter. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Several firearms with detachable suppressors Bolt-action rimfire rifle with suppressor Semiautomatic rimfire pistol with suppressor A suppressor or sound moderator is a device attached to a firearm to reduce the amount of noise and flash generated by firing the weapon. ... Terminal ballistics, a sub-field of ballistics, is the study of the behavior of a projectile when it hits its target. ... Gun law refers to a law that pertains to firearms. ... Gun politics is a set of legal issues surrounding the ownership, use, and control of firearms as well as safety issues related to firearms both through their direct use and through criminal use. ... (For discussions on politics concerning firearms and gun safety, see Gun politics. ... In the United States, concealed carry is the right to carry a handgun or other weapon in public in a concealed manner. ... // Legal Topics Primary Organizations Liberty Belles Prominent individuals Advocates of firearms Gary Kleck Charlton Heston Wayne LaPierre John Lott Ted Nugent Advocates of firearms control Darrell Scotts Congressoinal Speech Michael D. Barnes Michael Bellesiles James Brady Sarah Brady Tom Diaz Arthur Kellermann Michael Moore (Bowling for Columbine) Josh Sugarmann... Small arms proliferation is a term used by organizations and individuals advocating the control of small arms and their trade. ... A Saturday night special is an American colloquial term for a small, inexpensive handgun. ... Small arms captured in Fallujah, Iraq by the US Marine Corps in 2004 The term small arms generally describes any number of smaller infantry weapons, such as firearms that an individual soldier can carry. ... The Gauge or bore of a shotgun is a unit of measurement used to express the diameter of the barrel. ... This is an extensive list of small arms — pistol, machine gun, grenade launcher, anti-tank rifle — that includes variants. ... The following is a list of pistols, firearms that are normally meant for wielding one-handed and for self-defence, and that differ from revolvers and other singled handed weapons through their semi-automatic action. ... This is a list of submachine guns with articles available on Wikipedia. ... AK-47 AK-74 AK-101 AK-103 Chinese Type 56 Assault Rifle APS Underwater Assault Rifle AN-94 AR-18 Beryl wz. ... This is a list of shotguns. ... Sniper rifles: Regular sniper rifles. ... This is an incomplete list of aircraft weapons, past and present. ... List of weapons of World War II Luftwaffe Aircraft: In World War II, The German airforce, the Luftwaffe, used a variety of weapons to keep their aircraft equipped with the most modern weaponry available at that time, until later in the war when resources got thin. ... // Sturmgewher-44 : The worlds first assault rifle, the trend of adopting assault rifles didnt catch on until after the war Beretta Modello 1934: A fine compact pistol adopted as the Italian service pistol before World War II, has become one of the most popular collectors pistols. ... This page lists the common infantry weapons used by the various armies engaged in World War II. // Handguns Enfield Revolver No. ... This is a list of weapons which, while not being mainstream, were used in significant enough numbers to warrant mention. ... This is a list of weapons which, while not being mainstream, were used in significant enough numbers to warrant mention. ... Individual weapons by type and current level of use. ... Rocket launchers, grenade launchers, and machine guns FIM-92 Stinger FOTT Javelin M2 machine gun M242 Bushmaster Chain gun M19 (Mk19) Grenade launcher M37 M47 Dragon M60 machine gun M73 M85 M219 M220 TOW M240 M1919 OCSW Mortars M29 81 mm mortar M30 107 mm mortar M120 120 mm mortar... This is a list of weapons used by the United States Marine Corps: // M9 bayonet OKC-3S bayonet Ka-Bar Strider SMF Gerber Mark II Marine Noncommissioned Officers Sword, 1859-Present Marine Officers Mameluke Sword, 1875-Present M1911A1 . ... The following list of modern armament manufacturers presents major companies producing modern weapons and munitions. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Chase 2003, pp. 31–32
  2. ^ a b c Crosby 2002, p. 99
  3. ^ Needham 1986, pp. 8–9
  4. ^ Needham 1986, p. 10
  5. ^ Lu, Needham & Phan 1988
  6. ^ Chase 2003:31-32
  7. ^ Needham 1986:293–294
  8. ^ Roman Candle Gun at Scotwars.com

A Glock 22 hand-held firearm with internal laser sight and mounted flashlight, surrounded by hollowpoint ammunition. ... A Glock 22 hand-held firearm with internal laser sight and mounted flashlight, surrounded by hollowpoint ammunition. ... A Glock 22 hand-held firearm with internal laser sight and mounted flashlight, surrounded by hollowpoint ammunition. ...

Sources

  • Chase, Kenneth (2003), Firearms: A Global History to 1700, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521822742
  • Crosby, Alfred W. (2002), Throwing Fire: Projectile Technology Through History, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521791588
  • Needham, Joseph (1986), Science & Civilisation in China, vol. V:7: The Gunpowder Epic, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521303583

Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (December 9, 1900 – March 24, 1995) was a British biochemist and pre-eminent authority on the history of Chinese science. ...

External links


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