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Encyclopedia > Fire sprinkler
Fire Protection


General Fire protection is the prevention and reduction of the hazards associated with fires. ... Image File history File links Pixel. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (713x983, 1371 KB) [edit] Summary Cropped and transparent photo of a Wheelock 7002T, photographed by Ben Schumin in Zane Showker Hall at James Madison University. ... Image File history File links Pixel. ...


Active fire protection
Fire alarm system
Active fire protection is one of the three types of structural fire protection. ... A fire alarm system is an active fire protection system that controls all the fire alarms in a building. ...


Fire suppression


Fire extinguishers
Fire sand buckets
Fire sprinklers
Gaseous fire
suppression

Fire extinguisher A fire extinguisher is a device used to put out a fire, often in an emergency situation. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Gaseous fire suppression is a term to describe the use of inert and chemical agents or gasses to suppress a fire. ...


Fire detection/alarm


Fire alarm control panel
Heat detector
Manual pull station / call point
Notification appliance
Smoke detector
Fire alarm control panel (top) and graphic annunciator (bottom) for Potomac Hall, at James Madison University. ... Electro-pneumatic heat detector, rate of rise and fixed temperature operation. ... A Fire-Lite BG-10 manual pull station. ... A Wheelock MT-24-LSM fire alarm horn and strobe. ... A smoke detector or smoke alarm is an active fire protection device, subject to stringent bounding, that detects airborne smoke and issues an audible alarm, thereby alerting nearby people to the danger of fire. ...


Practices


Fire drill
Fire drill regulations
College students evacuate Potomac Hall, a dormitory at James Madison University, during a fire drill. ... The list of fire drill regulations contains information about regulations concerning fire drills in elementary, middle, and high schools unless otherwise stated. ...

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Fire sprinklers are an active fire protection measure subject to stringent bounding. They are connected to a fire suppression system that consists of overhead pipes fitted with sprinkler heads throughout the coverage area. Fire sprinkler systems for high-rises are usually also equipped with a fire pump, and a jockey pump and are tied into the fire alarm system. Although historically only used in factories and large commercial buildings, home and small building systems are now available at a relatively cost-effective price. Active fire protection is one of the three types of structural fire protection. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about pipes used to carry water in plumbing. ... A fire sprinkler head is the part of a fire sprinkler system that allows the extinguishing medium to discharge. ... High-rise is a 1975 novel by J. G. Ballard. ... A fire pump is usually a part of a large building fire sprinkler system and is connected to the municipal water system at the intake and to the buildings sprinkler system risers at the discharge. ... A jockey pump is a small pump connected to a fire sprinkler system. ... Fire alarm control panel (top) and graphic annunciator (bottom) for Potomac Hall, at James Madison University. ...

Contents

History

This typical sprinkler head will spray water into the room if sufficient heat reaches the bulb and causes it to shatter. Sprinkler heads operate individually. Note the red liquid in the glass bulb.
This typical sprinkler head will spray water into the room if sufficient heat reaches the bulb and causes it to shatter. Sprinkler heads operate individually. Note the red liquid in the glass bulb.

From 1852 to 1885, perforated pipe systems were used in textile mills throughout New England as a means of fire protection. However, they were not automatic systems; they did not turn on by themselves. Inventors first began experimenting with automatic sprinklers around 1860. The first automatic sprinkler system was patented by Philip W. Pratt of Abington, MA, in 1872. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Henry S. Parmalee of New Haven, Connecticut is considered the inventor of the first automatic sprinkler head. Parmalee improved upon the Pratt patent and created a better sprinkler system. In 1874, he installed his fire sprinkler system into the piano factory that he owned. Frederick Grinnell improved Parmalee's design and in 1881 patented the automatic sprinkler that bears his name. He continued to improve the device and in 1890 invented the glass disc sprinkler, essentially the same as that in use today Frederick Grinnell was a pioneer in fire safety. ...


Until the 1940s, sprinklers were installed almost exclusively for the protection of commercial buildings, whose owners were generally able to recoup their expenses with savings in insurance costs. Over the years, fire sprinklers have become mandatory safety equipment, and are required by building codes to be placed in hospitals, schools, hotels and other public buildings.


Usage

Sprinklers have been in use in the United States since 1874, and were used in factory applications where fires at the turn of the century were often catastrophic in terms of both human and property losses. In the US, sprinklers are today required in all new high rise and underground buildings generally 75 feet (23 m) above or below fire department access, where the ability of firefighters to provide adequate hose streams to fires is limited. Sprinklers may also be required in hazardous storage spaces by building codes, or may be required by insurance companies where liability due to potential property losses or business interruptions can be reduced by adequate automatic fire protection. Building codes in the United States for places of assembly, generally over 100 persons, and places with overnight sleeping accommodation such as hotels, nursing homes, dormitories, and hospitals usually require sprinklers. A newer, special class of fire sprinklers, ESFR sprinklers, has been developed to fight, and subsequently suppress high challenge type fires. 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... It has been suggested that Firefighter Assist and Search Team be merged into this article or section. ... A hazardous material (HAZMAT) is any solid, liquid, or gas that can cause harm to humans, other living organisms, or the environment due to being radioactive, flammable, explosive, toxic, corrosive, a biohazard, an oxidizer, an asphyxiant, or capable of causing severe allergic reactions. ... A building code is a set of rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safety for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures. ... Insurance is a system to alleviate financial losses by transferring risk of loss from one entity to another. ... In the most general sense, a liability is anything that is a hindrance, or puts individuals at a disadvantage. ... A building code is a set of rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safety for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures. ... The 4-star Manor House Hotel at Castle Combe, Wiltshire, England. ... // A nursing home or skilled nursing facility (SNF) is a place of residence for people who require constant nursing care and have significant deficiencies with activities of daily living. ... A typical American college dorm room Watterson Towers, Illinois State University Potomac Hall, second-largest dormitory at James Madison University in Harrisonburg, Virginia. ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... ESFR, or ESFR Sprinkler, denotes a special type of fire sprinkler. ...


Operation

Fire sprinkler control valve assembly
Fire sprinkler control valve assembly

Each sprinkler head is held closed independently by heat-sensitive seals. These seals prevent water flow until a design temperature is exceeded at the individual sprinkler heads. Image File history File links Sprinkler_valve. ... Image File history File links Sprinkler_valve. ...


Each sprinkler activates independently when the predetermined heat level is reached. The design intention is to limit the total number of sprinklers that operate, thereby providing the maximum water supply available from the water source to the point of fire origin.


Typical "wet" systems are simple and passive. They have water already pressurized in the pipes held back by the sprinkler head. These systems require no manual controls to activate, so long as adequate water supplies are provided.


Specialty systems called "dry" systems, designed for unheated spaces, have a low "maintenance" air pressure in the pipes. Water is fed into the system when the sprinkler "fuses" allowing the maintenance air pressure to reach the minimum pressure point. "Pre-action" systems are highly specialized for locations where accidental activation is unacceptable such as museums with rare art works, manuscripts, or books. Pre-action valves are connected to fire alarm initiating devices such as smoke detectors or heat detectors and virtually eliminate the possibility of accidental water flow. The Louvre Museum in Paris, one of the largest and most famous museums in the world. ... A Wheelock MT-24-LSM fire alarm horn and strobe. ... A smoke detector or smoke alarm is an active fire protection device, subject to stringent bounding, that detects airborne smoke and issues an audible alarm, thereby alerting nearby people to the danger of fire. ...


"Deluge" systems are "pre-action" systems that have open sprinklers, i.e. the fusible link is removed, so that every sprinkler served by the system will discharge water. This ensures a large and simultaneous application of water over the entire hazard. These systems are used for special hazards where rapid fire spread is a concern.


Other specialty systems may have foam instead of water suppression agents for fire protection in occupancies with flammable liquids, such as airport hangars. "Clean agent" gaseous systems, such as Argon/CO2/Nitrogen mixtures can be used in very small spaces where water cannot be used for suppression. Sea foam on the beach. ... -1... Hangars can be used to hold airplanes, airships and helicopters. ... General Name, Symbol, Number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 39. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 14. ...


A sprinkler activation will do less damage than a fire department hose, as the fire department's hose streams provide around 250 US gallons per minute (15 L/s) whereas an activated sprinkler head generally discharges around 23 US gallons per minute (1.5 L/s). In addition, the sprinkler will activate immediately; whereas a fire appliance takes an average of eight minutes to reach an incident. This delay can result in substantial damage from the fire before the appliance arrives and will the fire will be much larger; requiring much more water to extinguish.


Design

Temperature Colour
°C °F
57 135 Orange
68 155 Red
79 174 Yellow
93 200 Green
141 286 Blue
182 360 Mauve
227
260
440
500
Black

This chart from the
New Zealand fire
safety standards
indicates the colour
of the bulb and the
respective operating
temperature.

Most sprinkler systems installed today are designed using an area and density approach. First the building use and building contents are analyzed to determine the level of fire hazard. Usually buildings are classified as light hazard, ordinary hazard group 1, ordinary hazard group 2, extra hazard group 1, or extra hazard group 2. After determining the hazard classification, a design area and density can be determined by referencing tables in the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) handbooks. The design area is a theoretical area of the building representing the worst case area where a fire could burn. The design density is a measurement of how much water per square foot of floor area should be applied to the design area. For example, in an office building classified as light hazard, a typical design area would be 1500 square feet and the density would be 0.1 gallons per minute per square foot or a minimum of 150 gallons per minute applied to the 1500 square foot design area. Another example would be a warehouse classified as ordinary hazard group 2 where a typical design area would be 1500 square feet and the density would be 0.2 gallons per minute per square foot or a minimum of 300 gallons per minute applied to the 1500 square foot design area. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) is a U.S. organization (albeit with some international members) charged with creating and maintaining minimum standards and requirements for fire prevention and suppression activities, training, and equipment, as well as other life-safety codes and standards. ...


After the design area and density have been determined, calculations are performed to prove that the system can deliver the required amount of water to the required design area. These calculations account for all of the pressure that is lost or gained between the water supply source and the sprinklers that would operate in the design area. This includes pressure that is lost due to friction inside the piping, pressure that is lost or gained due to elevation differences between the source and the discharging sprinklers, and sometimes momentum pressure from water velocity inside the piping is also calculated. Typically these calculations are performed using computer software but before the advent of computer systems these sometimes complicated calculations were performed by hand. This skill of calculating sprinkler systems by hand is still required training for a sprinkler system design Technologist who seeks senior level certification from engineering certification organizations like the National Institute for Certification in Engineering Technologies (NICET). In many countries, Technologists are synonymous with applied scientists or engineers. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Sprinkler systems in residential structures are becoming more common as the cost of such systems becomes more practical and the benefits become more obvious. Residential sprinkler systems usually fall under a residential classification separate from the commercial classifications mentioned above. A commercial sprinkler system is designed to protect the structure and the occupants from a fire. Most residential sprinkler systems are primarily designed to suppress a fire in such a way to allow for the safe escape of the building occupants. While these systems will often also protect the structure from major fire damage, this is a secondary consideration. In residential structures sprinklers are often omitted from closets, bathrooms, balconies, and attics because a fire in these areas would not usually impact the occupant's escape route.


If water damage or water volume is of particular concern, a technique called Water Mist Fire Suppression may be an alternative. This technology has been under development for over 50 years. It hasn't entered general use, but is gaining some acceptance on ships and in a few residential applications. Mist suppression systems work by lowering the temperature of a burning area through evaporation rather than "soaking". As such, they may be designed to only to slow the spread of a fire and not extinguising it. Some tests, that may or may not be biased, showed the cost of resulting fire and water damage with such a system installed to be dramatically less that conventional sprinkler systems.[1]


Costs

In 2006, cost of sprinkler systems run from US$2 - $5 per square foot ($50/m²), depending on type and location, however specialty systems may cost as much as $10/square foot ($100/m²). Systems can be installed during construction or retrofitted. Some communities have laws requiring residential sprinkler systems, where large municipal hydrant water supplies ("fire flows") are not available. Nationwide in the United States, one and two-family homes generally do not require fire sprinkler systems, although the overwhelming loss of life due to fires occurs in these spaces. Residential sprinkler systems are relatively inexpensive (about the same per square foot as carpeting or floor tiling), but require larger water supply piping than is normally installed in homes, so retrofitting is usually cost prohibitive. A hydrant is an outlet from a fluid main often consisting of an upright pipe with a valve attached from which fluid (e. ...


According to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), fires in hotels with sprinklers averaged 78% less damage than fires in hotels without them (1983-1987). The NFPA says the average loss per fire in buildings with sprinklers was $2,300, compared to an average loss of $10,300 in unsprinklered buildings. The NFPA adds that there is no record of a fatality in a fully sprinklered building outside the point of fire origin. However, in a purely economic comparison, this is not a complete picture; the total costs of fitting, and the costs arising from non-fire triggered release must be factored. 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The NFPA states that it "has no record of a fire killing more than two people in a completely sprinklered building where a sprinkler system was properly operating, except in an explosion or flash fire or where industrial fire brigade members or employees were killed during fire suppression operations." A flash fire is an unexpected, sudden intense fire caused by ignition of flammable solids, liquids or their vapors, gases, or dust. ...


The world's largest fire sprinkler manufacturer is the SimplexGrinnell division of Tyco International, other manufacturers / suppliers inlcude The Viking Corporation, NNI Inc, P.u.P. Feuerschutz und Anlagenbau GmbH and Reliable Sprinkler Company. Tyco International Ltd. ...


See also

Active fire protection is one of the three types of structural fire protection. ... Fire-resistance rated wall assembly with fire door, cable tray penetration and intumescent [1] cable coating. ... Fire protection is the prevention and reduction of the hazards associated with fires. ... Fire protection engineering is the practice of application of science and engineering principles and experience to protect people and their environments from the destructive effects of fire. ... An architectural engineer applies the skills of many engineering disciplines to the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and renovation of buildings while paying attention to their impacts on the surrounding environment. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Fire sprinkler

  Results from FactBites:
 
Fire sprinkler - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1722 words)
Fire sprinkler systems for high-rises are usually also equipped with a fire pump, and a jockey pump and are tied into the fire alarm system.
Sprinklers have been in use in the United States since 1874, and were used in factory applications where fires at the turn of the century were often catastrophic in terms of both human and property losses.
Sprinklers may also be required in hazardous storage spaces by building codes, or may be required by insurance companies where liability due to potential property losses or business interruptions can be reduced by adequate automatic fire protection.
Fire Sprinkler System Maintenance, Inspection - Fire Systems, Inc - Atlanta, GA (1479 words)
Fire sprinkler systems are required to be inspected in accordance with NFPA 25.
Fire Sprinkler systems have been the most effective form of fire protection for decades, but they must be inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the requirements of the National Fire Protection Association and the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
An inspection is a visual examination of a water-based fire protection system, or portion thereof to verify that it appears to be in operating condition and is free of physical damage.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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