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Encyclopedia > Fire
U.S. Air Force Airmen from the 20th Civil Engineer Squadron Fire Protection Flight neutralize a live fire during a field training exercise.
U.S. Air Force Airmen from the 20th Civil Engineer Squadron Fire Protection Flight neutralize a live fire during a field training exercise.

Fire is the heat and light energy released during a chemical reaction, in particular a combustion reaction. Depending on the substances alight, and any impurities within, the color of the flame and the fire intensity might vary. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Look up fire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (4288 × 2848 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (4288 × 2848 pixel, file size: 2. ... USAF redirects here. ... ε η Θ θ ΛΜßŘěĚūHeat Energy is energy created by the motion of atoms and molecules in a body. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Flame generated by the burning of a candle. ... In physics, intensity is a measure of the time-averaged energy flux. ...

Contents

Chemistry

Flaming fires

"Flaming" cocktails contain a small amount of flammable high-proof alcohol which is ignited prior to consumption.
"Flaming" cocktails contain a small amount of flammable high-proof alcohol which is ignited prior to consumption.

Flaming fires involve the chemical oxidation of a fuel (combustion or release of energy) with associated flame, heat, and light. The flame itself occurs within a region of gas where intense exothermic reactions are taking place. An exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction whereby heat and energy are released as a substance changes to a more stable chemical form (in the case of fire, usually generating carbon dioxide and water). As chemical reactions occur within the fuel being burned, light and heat are released. Depending upon the specific chemical and physical change taking place within the fuel, the flame may or may not emit light in the visible spectrum. For example, burning alcohol or burning hydrogen is usually invisible to the naked eye although the heat given off is tremendous. Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 880 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 880 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Alcoholic proof is a measure of how much ethanol is in an alcoholic beverage, and is approximately twice the percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV, the unit that is commonly used presently). ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, an exothermic reaction is one that releases heat. ...


The visible flame has little mass, and it is comprised of luminous gases which emit energy (photons) as part of the oxidation process. The color of the flame is dependent upon the energy level of the photons emitted. Lower energy levels produce colors toward the red end of the light spectrum while higher energy levels produce colors toward the blue end of the spectrum. The hottest flames are white in appearance. The color of a fire may also be affected by chemical elements in the flame, such as barium giving a green flame color. The flame color depends also on the unoxidized carbon particles. In some cases there is a partial fuel oxidation due to oxygen lack in the central part of the flame, where combustion reactions take place. In such cases the unoxidized hot carbon particles emit radiation in the light spectrum, resulting in a yellow/red flame, such that of a common house fireplace. In physics, the photon (from Greek φως, phōs, meaning light) is the quantum of the electromagnetic field; for instance, light. ... Colored fire is a common pyrotechnic effect used in stage productions, fireworks and by fire performers the world over. ... A chemical element, often called simply element, is a substance that cannot be divided or changed into different substances by ordinary chemical methods. ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Green (disambiguation). ... The flame test carried out on a copper halide. ...


Chemical reaction

The fire tetrahedron
The fire tetrahedron

Fires start when a flammable and/or a combustible material with an adequate supply of oxygen or another oxidizer is subjected to enough heat and is able to sustain a chain reaction. This is commonly called the fire tetrahedron. No fire can exist without all of these elements being in place. Image File history File links Fire_tetrahedron. ... Image File history File links Fire_tetrahedron. ... Flammable or Flammability refers to the ease at which a substance will ignite, causing fire or combustion. ... For other uses see fire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... An oxidizing agent is a substance that oxidizes another substance in electrochemistry or redox chemical reactions in general. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions. ... The Fire Tetrahedron is based on the theory of the Fire Triangle. ...


Once ignited, a chain reaction must take place whereby fires can sustain their own heat by the further release of heat energy in the process of combustion and may propagate, provided there is a continuous supply of an oxidizer and fuel. ε η Θ θ ΛΜßŘěĚūHeat Energy is energy created by the motion of atoms and molecules in a body. ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... An oxidizing agent is a substance that oxidizes another substance in electrochemistry or redox chemical reactions in general. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ...


Fire can be extinguished by removing any one of the elements of the fire tetrahedron. Fire extinguishing by the application of water acts by cooling the fuel to stop the reaction whilst also starving the fire of oxygen. Whereas application of carbon dioxide is intended primarily to starve the fire of oxygen. Other gaseous fire suppression agents, such as halon or HFC-227, interfere with the chemical reaction itself. Fire protection is the prevention and reduction of the hazards associated with fires. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Halon 1301 is a trade name for bromotrifluoromethane, it is also known as BTM, Halon 1301 BTM, or Freon 13BI. The chemical formula is CF3Br. ...


Flame

A log on fire
A log on fire
Main article: Flame

A flame is an exothermic, self-sustaining, oxidizing chemical reaction producing energy and glowing hot matter, of which a very small portion is plasma. It consists of reacting gases and solids emitting visible and infrared light, the frequency spectrum of which depends on the chemical composition of the burning elements and intermediate reaction products. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2283x1200, 363 KB) Log in a fireplace File links The following pages link to this file: Fire User:Fir0002/Fir0002 gallery ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2283x1200, 363 KB) Log in a fireplace File links The following pages link to this file: Fire User:Fir0002/Fir0002 gallery ... Flame generated by the burning of a candle. ... In thermodynamics, the word exothermic outside heating describes a process or reaction that releases energy usually in the form of heat, but it can also release energy in form of light (e. ... For other uses, see Plasma. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... Familiar concepts associated with a frequency are colors, musical notes, radio/TV channels, and even the regular rotation of the earth. ...


In many cases, such as the burning of organic matter, for example wood, or the incomplete combustion of gas, incandescent solid particles called soot produce the familiar red-orange glow of 'fire'. This light has a continuous spectrum. Complete combustion of gas has a dim blue color due to the emission of single-wavelength radiation from various electron transitions in the excited molecules formed in the flame. For reasons currently unknown by scientists, the flame produced by exposure of zinc to air is a bright green, and produces plumes of zinc oxide. Usually oxygen is involved, but hydrogen burning in chlorine also produces a flame, producing hydrogen chloride (HCl). Other possible combinations producing flames, amongst many more, are fluorine and hydrogen, and hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... Incandescence is the release of electromagnetic radiation from a hot body due to its high temperature. ... Soot, also called lampblack, Pigment Black 7, carbon black or black carbon, is a dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, usually composed mainly of amorphous carbon, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke—especially from the combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in the... Zinc oxide is a chemical compound with formula ZnO. It is nearly insoluble in water but soluble in acids or alkalis. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Distinguished from fluorene and fluorone. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Hydrazine is the chemical compound with formula N2H4. ... Nitrogen tetroxide (or Dinitrogen tetroxide) (N2O4) is a hypergolic propellant often used in combination with a hydrazine-based rocket fuel. ...


The glow of a flame is complex. Black-body radiation is emitted from soot, gas, and fuel particles, though the soot particles are too small to behave like perfect blackbodies. There is also photon emission by de-excited atoms and molecules in the gases. Much of the radiation is emitted in the visible and infrared bands. The color depends on temperature for the black-body radiation, and on chemical makeup for the emission spectra. The dominant color in a flame changes with temperature. The photo of the forest fire is an excellent example of this variation. Near the ground, where most burning is occurring, the fire is white, the hottest color possible for organic material in general, or yellow. Above the yellow region, the color changes to orange, which is cooler, then red, which is cooler still. Above the red region, combustion no longer occurs, and the uncombusted carbon particles are visible as black smoke. As the temperature decreases, the peak of the black body radiation curve moves to lower intensities and longer wavelengths. ... In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... A materials emission spectrum is the amount of electromagnetic radiation of each frequency it emits when it is heated (or more generally when it is excited). ...


The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States has recently found that gravity plays a role. Modifying the gravity causes different flame types.[1] The common distribution of a flame under normal gravity conditions depends on convection, as soot tends to rise to the top of a general flame, as in a candle in normal gravity conditions, making it yellow. In microgravity or zero gravity, such as an environment in outer space, convection no longer occurs, and the flame becomes spherical, with a tendency to become more blue and more efficient (although it will go out if not moved steadily, as the CO2 from combustion does not disperse in microgravity, and tends to smother the flame). There are several possible explanations for this difference, of which the most likely is that the temperature is evenly distributed enough that soot is not formed and complete combustion occurs.[2] Experiments by NASA reveal that diffusion flames in microgravity allow more soot to be completely oxidized after they are produced than diffusion flames on Earth, because of a series of mechanisms that behave differently in microgravity when compared to normal gravity conditions.[3] These discoveries have potential applications in applied science and industry, especially concerning fuel efficiency. NASA Logo Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-09-01, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... Convection in the most general terms refers to the movement of currents within fluids (i. ... For other uses, see Candle (disambiguation). ... Zero gravity redirects here. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ... A nearly-turbulent diffusion flame. ... For the song by 311, see Grassroots Applied science is the exact science of applying knowledge from one or more natural scientific fields to practical problems. ... Fuel efficiency, in its basic sense, is the same as thermal efficiency, meaning the efficiency of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier fuel into kinetic energy or work. ...


In combustion engines, various steps are taken to eliminate a flame. The method depends mainly on whether the fuel is oil, wood, or a high-energy fuel such as jet fuel. Jet fuel is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in jet-engined aircraft. ...


Typical temperatures of fires and flames

  • Oxyhydrogen flame: 2000 °C or above (3645 °F) [4]
  • Bunsen burner flame: 1300 to 1600 °C (2372 to 2912 °F) [5]
  • Blowtorch flame: 1,300 °C (2372 °F) [6]
  • Candle flame: 1000 °C (1832 °F)
  • Smoldering cigarette:
    • Temperature without drawing: side of the lit portion; 400 °C (750 °F); middle of the lit portion: 585 °C (1110 °F)
    • Temperature during drawing: middle of the lit portion: 700 °C (1290 °F)
    • Always hotter in the middle.

Knallgas redirects here. ... Look up Bunsen burner in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The word blowtorch can mean:- A cutting torch used for cutting metal. ... For other uses, see Candle (disambiguation). ... Smouldering (or smoldering in American spelling) combustion is a flameless form of combustion, deriving its heat from oxidations occurring on the surface of a solid fuel. ... Unlit filtered cigarettes. ...

Temperatures of flames by appearance

The temperature of flames with carbon particles emitting light can be assessed by their color:[7]

  • Red
    • Just visible: 525 °C (977 °F)
    • Dull: 700 °C (1290 °F)
    • Cherry, dull: 800 °C (1470 °F)
    • Cherry, full: 900 °C (1650 °F)
    • Cherry, clear: 1000 °C (1830 °F)
  • Orange
    • Deep: 1100 °C (2010 °F)
    • Clear: 1200 °C (2190 °F)
  • White
    • Whitish: 1300 °C (2370 °F)
    • Bright: 1400 °C (2550 °F)
    • Dazzling: 1500 °C (2730 °F)

Controlling fire

The ability to control fire is one of humankind's great achievements. Fire making to generate heat and light made it possible for people to migrate to colder climates and enabled people to cook food — a key step in the fight against disease. Archaeology indicates that ancestors or relatives of modern humans might have controlled fire as early as 790,000 years ago. The Cradle of Humankind site has evidence for controlled fire from 1 to 1.8 million years ago.[8] Download high resolution version (1024x682, 386 KB)forestfire2 From: http://firepix. ... Download high resolution version (1024x682, 386 KB)forestfire2 From: http://firepix. ... For other uses, see Wildfire (disambiguation). ... A reconstruction of Homo erectus. ... This article is about modern humans. ... A Vanuatu man making fire using a stick Many different techniques for making fire exist. ... Cooking is the act of preparing food. ... This article is about the medical term. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... For other uses, see Cradle of Humankind (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


By the Neolithic Revolution, during the introduction of grain based agriculture, people all over the world used fire as a tool in landscape management. These fires were typically controlled burns or "cool fires", as opposed to uncontrolled "hot fires" that damage the soil. Hot fires destroy plants and animals, and endanger communities. This is especially a problem in the forests of today where traditional burning is prevented in order to encourage the growth of timber crops. Cool fires are generally conducted in the spring and fall. They clear undergrowth, burning up biomass that could trigger a hot fire should it get too dense. They provide a greater variety of environments, which encourages game and plant diversity. For humans, they make dense, impassable forests traversable. The Neolithic Revolution is the term for the first agricultural revolution, describing the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering communities and bands, to agriculture and settlement, as first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies, in numerous locations on most continents between 10-12 thousand years ago. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Firing the woods in a South Carolina forest with a custom made igniter mounted on an all terrain vehicle. ... For the use of the term in ecology, see Biomass (ecology). ...


The first technical application of the fire may have been the extracting and treating of metals. There are numerous modern applications of fire. In its broadest sense, fire is used by nearly every human being on earth in a controlled setting every day. Users of internal combustion vehicles employ fire every time they drive. Thermal power stations provide electricity for a large percentage of humanity. An internal combustion engine is an engine that is powered by the expansion of hot combustion products of fuel directly acting within an engine. ... For other uses, see Power station (disambiguation). ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ...


The use of fire in warfare has a long history. Hunter-gatherer groups around the world have been noted as using grass and forest fires to injure their enemies and destroy their ability to find food, so it can be assumed that fire has been used in warfare for as long as humans have had the knowledge to control it. Homer detailed the use of fire by Greek commandos who hid in a wooden horse to burn Troy during the Trojan war. Later the Byzantine fleet used Greek fire to attack ships and men. In the First World War, the first modern flamethrowers were used by infantry, and were successfully mounted on armoured vehicles in the Second World War. In the latter war, incendiary bombs were used by Axis and Allies alike, notably on Rotterdam, London, Hamburg and, notoriously, at Dresden, in the latter two cases firestorms were deliberately caused in which a ring of fire surrounding each city was drawn inward by an updraft caused by a central cluster of fires. The United States Army Air Force also extensively used incendiaries against Japanese targets in the latter months of the war, devastating entire cities constructed primarily of wood and paper houses. In the Second World War, the use of napalm and molotov cocktails was popularized, though the former did not gain public attention until the Vietnam War. More recently many villages were burned during the Rwandan Genocide. Conventional warfare is a form of warfare conducted by using conventional military weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more states in open confrontation. ... Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ... For other uses, see Commando (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Trojan Horse (disambiguation). ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Greek fire was a burning-liquid weapon used by the Byzantine Greeks, typically in naval battles to great effect as it could continue burning even on water. ... Riverboat of the U.S. Brownwater Navy shooting ignited napalm from its mounted flamethrower during the Vietnam war. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... A simulated Napalm explosion during MCAS Air Show in 2003. ... Molotov cocktail is the generic name for a variety of crude incendiary weapons. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Rwandan Genocide was the systematic murder of the countrys Tutsi minority and the moderates of its Hutu majority, in 1994. ...


Fire and fuel

Setting fuel aflame releases usable energy. Wood was a prehistoric fuel, and is still viable today. The use of fossil fuels, such as petroleum, natural gas and coal, in power plants supplies the vast majority of the world's electricity today; the International Energy Agency states that nearly 80% of the world's power comes from these sources.[9] The fire in a power station is used to heat water, creating steam that drives turbines. The turbines then spin an electric generator to produce power. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2816x2112, 2874 KB) A Chinese power plant. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2816x2112, 2874 KB) A Chinese power plant. ... Mohave Generating Station, a 1,580 MW coal power plant near Laughlin, Nevada A fossil fuel power plant is an energy conversion center that burns fossil fuels to produce electricity, designed on a large scale for continuous operation. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Stonehenge, England, erected by Neolithic peoples ca. ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, that is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... Petro redirects here. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Mohave Generating Station, a 1,580 MW coal power plant near Laughlin, Nevada A fossil fuel power plant is an energy conversion center that burns fossil fuels to produce electricity, designed on a large scale for continuous operation. ... IEA Logo Map of members The International Energy Agency (IEA, or AIE in Romance languages) is a Paris-based intergovernmental organization founded by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the oil crisis. ... For other uses, see Power station (disambiguation). ... A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened. ...


The unburnable solid remains of a combustible material left after a fire is called clinker if its melting point is below the flame temperature, so that it fuses and then solidifies as it cools, and ash if its melting point is above the flame temperature. Incomplete combustion of a carbonaceous fuel can result in the production of soot.


Fire protection and prevention

Main article: Fire protection

Fire fighting services are provided in most developed areas to extinguish or contain uncontrolled fires. Trained firefighters use fire trucks, water supply resources such as water mains and fire hydrants or they might use A and B class foam depending on what is feeding the fire. An array of other equipment to combat the spread of fires. Fire protection is the prevention and reduction of the hazards associated with fires. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 799 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (921 × 691 pixel, file size: 165 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Fire destroys the historic Sands Dorsey Drug building in Tucumcari, New Mexico on June 8, 2007. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 799 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (921 × 691 pixel, file size: 165 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Fire destroys the historic Sands Dorsey Drug building in Tucumcari, New Mexico on June 8, 2007. ... A Structure Fire is a fire in any of various residential or commercial buildings, such as single family dwellings, Townhouses/Rowhouses, Garden Apartments, Hi-Rises, and Strip Malls. ... A repair locker hose team aboard USS John F. Kennedy (CV 67) combats a controlled fire on the mobile aircraft firefighting training device May 2, 2006. ... This article is about the profession. ... For the Scottish post-punk band, see The Fire Engines. ... A municipal water system is a large system of reservoirs and large-scale piping which supplies fresh water, suitable for human consumption, to houses and other residences. ... Fire hydrant in Charlottesville, Virginia, USA A fire hydrant (also known colloquially as a fire plug in the United States or as a johnny pump in New York City), is an active fire protection measure, and a source of water provided in most urban, suburban and rural areas with municipal...


Fire prevention is intended to reduce sources of ignition, and is partially focused on programs to educate people from starting fires.[10] Buildings, especially schools and tall buildings, often conduct fire drills to inform and prepare citizens on how to react to a building fire. Purposely starting destructive fires constitutes arson and is a criminal offense in most jurisdictions. Students in Rome, Italy. ... The CN Tower in Toronto, Ontario, Canada is the tallest free-standing structure on land in the world. ... The Skyline Parkway Motel in Afton, Virginia after an arson fire on July 9, 2004. ...


Model building codes require passive fire protection and active fire protection systems to minimize damage resulting from a fire. The most common form of active fire protection is fire sprinklers. To maximize passive fire protection of buildings, building materials and furnishings in most developed countries are tested for fire-resistance, combustibility and flammability. Upholstery, carpeting and plastics used in vehicles and vessels are also tested. In communications, a code is a rule for converting a piece of information (for example, a letter, word, or phrase) into another form or representation, not necessarily of the same type. ... Fire-resistance rated wall assembly with fire door, cable tray penetration and intumescent [1] cable coating. ... Active fire protection is one of the three types of structural fire protection. ... Fire sprinklers are an active fire protection measure subject to stringent bounding. ... Concrete and metal rebar used to build a floor Building material is any material which is used for a construction purpose. ... Furnishings (aka art objects, decorative arts, knick-knacks, bric-a-brac) are the objects, other than furniture, that occupy an interior space. ... International time/temperature curves used to run commercial furnaces for testing the Fire-resistance rating of passive fire protection systems, such as firestops, fire doors, wall and floor assemblies, etc. ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... A hazard warning symbol for flammable chemicals Flammable liquid warning sign Flammability is the ease with which a substance will ignite, causing fire or combustion. ... Upholstery is the work of providing furniture, especially seats, with padding, springs, webbing, and fabric or leather covers. ... A carpet is any loom-woven, felted textile or grass floor covering. ... The term plastics covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic condensation or polymerization products that can be molded or extruded into objects or films or fibers. ... The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) Automobiles are among the most commonly used engine powered vehicles. ... Shipping containers at a terminal in Port Elizabeth, New Jersey A container freight train in the UK Containerization is a system of intermodal freight transport cargo transport using standard ISO containers (known as shipping containers or isotainers) that can be loaded and sealed intact onto container ships, railroad cars, planes...


Fire classifications

Main article: Fire classes

In order to facilitate consistent extinguishment approaches, and maximize occupant and fire fighter safety, fires are classified using code letters in many countries. Below is a table showing the standard operated in Europe and Australasia against the system used in the United States. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Type of Fire European/Australian Classification United States Classification
Fires that involve flammable solids such as wood, cloth, rubber, paper, and some types of plastics. Class A Class A
Fires that involve flammable liquids or liquifiable solids such as petrol/gasoline, oil, paint, some waxes & plastics, but not cooking fats or oils Class B Class B
Fires that involve flammable gases, such as natural gas, hydrogen, propane, butane Class C
Fires that involve combustible metals, such as sodium, magnesium, and potassium Class D Class D
Fires that involve any of the materials found in Class A and B fires, but with the introduction of an electrical appliances, wiring, or other electrically energized objects in the vicinity of the fire, with a resultant electrical shock risk if a conductive agent is used to control the fire Class E Class C
Fires involving cooking fats and oils. The high temperature of the oils when on fire far exceeds that of other flammable liquids making normal extinguishing agents ineffective. Class F Class K

This box:      For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Textile be merged into this article or section. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... Petrol redirects here. ... Petro redirects here. ... For other uses, see Paint (disambiguation). ... candle wax This page is about the substance. ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a liquid that is transportable. ... Butane, also called n-butane, is the unbranched alkane with four carbon atoms, CH3CH2CH2CH3. ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... Conduction is the movement of electrically charged particles through a transmission medium (electrical conductor). ...

Burns

Main article: Burn

Fire causes injury in forms of first-, second-, and third-degree burns. A first-degree burn damages the epidermis only, while a second-degree burn goes through the epidermis and dermis. A third-degree burn destroys both the epidermis and dermis, and kills all nerve receptors underneath the skin. A common result of second- and third-degree burns is large amounts of granulation tissue, or scar tissue, in place of the burnt skin.[11] Look up burn, burning, burned in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cross-section of all skin layers Optical coherence tomography tomogram of fingertip, depicting stratum corneum (~500µm thick) with stratum disjunctum on top and stratum lucidum (connection to stratum spinosum) in the middle. ... The dermis is a layer of skin beneath the epidermis that consists of connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain. ... Granulation tissue is the perfused, fibrous connective tissue that replaces a fibrin clot in healing wounds. ...


Practical uses

A blacksmith's fire is used primarily for forging iron.
A blacksmith's fire is used primarily for forging iron.

Fire is or has been used: Download high resolution version (1600x1124, 255 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1124, 255 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Blacksmith (disambiguation). ... This article is about smithing. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ...

  • For light, heat (for cooking, survival and comfort), and protection
  • As a weapon of warfare, especially during Ancient and Medieval times
  • For fire-stick farming
  • For cremation
  • For welding
  • For celebration (such as, birthday candles)
  • For back-burning in fighting fires
  • For controlled burn-offs for preventing wildfires
  • For controlled burn-offs to clear land for agriculture

Fire-stick farming is a term coined by Australian archeologist Rhys Jones in 1969 to describe the practice of Indigenous Australians where fire was used regularly to burn vegetation to facilitate hunting and to change the composition of plant and animal species in an area. ... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. ... In fighting wildfires, back-burning is to clear the ground in front of an advancing fire front by starting a controlled fire which is allowed to spread towards the main fire but not away from it. ... For other uses, see Wildfire (disambiguation). ...

See also

Fire Portal

Large Bonfire File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Active fire protection is one of the three types of structural fire protection. ... A Common Household Light bulb This is a list of sources of light, including both natural and artificial sources, and both processes and devices. ... The Fire Research Laboratory (FRL) is part of the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco Firearms and Explosives (BATFE). ... Colored fire is a common pyrotechnic effect used in stage productions, fireworks and by fire performers the world over. ... This article is about the physical effect. ... For other uses, see Rust (disambiguation). ... For the industrial process, see anaerobic digestion. ... Composting is the aerobic decomposition of biodegradable organic matter, producing compost. ... Fire-resistance rated door A fire door is a type of door, or closure used as a passive fire protection item within buildings to prevent the spread of fire. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Fire lookout. ... A USFS fire lookout on Bald Mountain in Butte County, California. ... Fireproofing, a passive fire protection measure, subject to bounding, refers to the act of making materials or structures more resistant to fire, or to those materials themselves. ... Fire protection is the prevention and reduction of the hazards associated with fires. ... Fire protection engineering (also known as fire engineering or fire safety engineering) is the application of science and engineering principles to protect people and their environments from the destructive effects of fire and smoke. ... Firestop after fire exposure during fire test in Tulsa, Oklahoma. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A Fire Test is a means of determining whether or not fire protection products meet minimum performance criteria as set out in a building code or other applicable legislation. ... A fire whirl with flames in the vortex. ... Indo-Parthian stone palette, illustrating a fire worship, possibly of a Zoroastrian nature. ... The flame test carried out on a copper halide. ... An intumescent is a substance which swells as a result of heat exposure, thus increasing in volume, and decreasing in density. ... Life safety code is a set of standards involving hazards to human life. ... Not to be confused with lighting. ... A Vanuatu man making fire using a stick Many different techniques for making fire exist. ... Fire-resistance rated wall assembly with fire door, cable tray penetration and intumescent [1] cable coating. ... Property damage caused by fire Pyromania is an obsession with fire and starting fires in an intentional fashion. ... Pyrokinesis is the paranormal or legendary ability to control, ignite, and/or extinguish fire using only the mind. ... A Rubens Tube setup The Rubens tube, also known as the Standing wave flame tube, or simply flame tube, is a physics experiment demonstrating a standing wave. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ...

References

  1. ^ Spiral flames in microgravity, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2000.
  2. ^ CFM-1 experiment results, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, April 2005.
  3. ^ LSP-1 experiment results, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, April 2005.
  4. ^ "Flame Temperature Measurement"
  5. ^ "Flame Temperatures"
  6. ^ "Pyropen Cordless Soldering Irons"
  7. ^ "A Book of Steam for Engineers", The Stirling Company, 1905
  8. ^ "UNESCO - Fossil Hominid Sites of Sterkfontein, Swartkrans, Kromdraai, and Environs"
  9. ^ "Share of Total Primary Energy Supply", 2002; International Energy Agency
  10. ^ Fire & Life Safety Education, Manitoba Office of the Fire Commissioner
  11. ^ Mass Casualties: Burns. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2006-07-18). Retrieved on 2008-01-08.

NASA Logo Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-09-01, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
HowStuffWorks is a website created by Marshall Brain but now owned by the Convex Group. ... Cecil Adams is the pen name of the author of The Straight Dope since 1973, a popular question and answer column published in The Chicago Reader, syndicated in thirty newspapers in the United States and Canada, and available online. ... Adobe Flash - previously called Shockwave Flash and Macromedia Flash - is a set of multimedia technologies developed and distributed by Adobe Systems and earlier by Macromedia. ... Nova is a popular science television series from the USA produced by WGBH and can be seen on PBS and in more than 100 countries. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... A Rubens Tube setup The Rubens tube, also known as the Standing wave flame tube, or simply flame tube, is a physics experiment demonstrating a standing wave. ...

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