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Encyclopedia > Fiqh

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Islamic Jurisprudence

– a discipline of Islamic studies This is a list of academic disciplines (and academic fields). ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ...

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فقه
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Fiqh
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Islamic jurisprudence

Fiqh (Arabic: فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence. It is an expansion of what is called the Divine Law (Arabic: Sharia), complemented by the rulings (Arabic: fatwa) of Islamic jurists (Arabic: Ulema) to direct the lives of Muslims. This is a sub-article of fiqh and Law and economics. ... This is a subarticle to Islamic economics. ... Riba is the (Arabic: ربا ) term for intrest, the charging of which is forbidden by the Quran here, among other places: And that which you give in gift (loan) (to others), in order that it may increase (your wealth by expecting to get a better one in return) from other... Murabaha is defined as a particular kind of sale, compliant with shariah, where the seller expressly mentions the cost he has incurred on the commodities to be sold and sells it to another person by adding some profit or mark-up thereon which is known to the buyer. ... Takaful - Islamic Insurance ==]] “The basic fundamentals underlying the Takaful concept are very similar to cooperative and mutual principles, to the extent that the cooperative and mutual model is one that is accepted under Islamic Law. ... Sukuk is the Arabic name for a financial certificate but can be seen as an Islamic equivalent of bond. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic economical jurisprudence and inheritance. ... Islamic politics is the profession of Muslim politicians. ... - - - Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. ... Islamic leadership is what a Muslim leader is supposed to show, in order to lead in accordance to Islamic principles. ... Marriage in Islam is considered to be of the utmost importance. ... When a couple decides to marry, they draw up a Marriage contract. ... A dowry is a gift of money or valuables given by the brides family to that of the groom to permit their marriage. ... Nikah or nikkah (Arabic: النكاح ), is the contract between a bride and bridegroom and part of an Islamic marriage, a strong covenant (mithaqun Ghalithun) as expressed in Quran 4:21). ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Sexuality in Islam is largely described by the Quran, Islamic tradition, and religious leaders both past and present as being confined to marital relationships between men and women. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Istimna (استمناء) is the Arabic term for masturbation. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Islamic criminal jurisprudence is the Islamic criminal law. ... Zina (Arabic: الزناء) is extramarital sex in Islam. ... Hudud ( Arabic , also transliterated hadud, hudood; plural for hadd, , limit, or restriction) is the word often used in Islamic social and legal literature for the bounds of acceptable behaviour and the punishments for serious crimes. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and etiquette. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Sex segregation Islam discourages social interaction between men and women but not all interaction between men and women. ... In Islamic sharia legal terminology, a mahram (Arabic محرم, also transcribed mahrim or maharem) is an unmarriageable kin with whom sexual intercourse would be considered incestuous, a punishable taboo. ... Many muslims when praying their daily prayers have to say the The Salat Ibrahimiya goes like this This translates to Oh God exalt Mohammad and his progeny as you have exalted Ibrahim and his progeny in these worlds as You are All Praiseworthy All Glorious. ... Islamic theological jurisprudence is the filed of Islamic jurisprudence specialized in theological issues. ... In Islamic legal terminology, Baligh or Bulugh refers to a person who has reached maturity or puberty and has full responsibility under Islamic law. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Hajj (Arabic: , transliteration: ; Turkish: ; Ottoman Turkish: حاج, Hāc; Malay: , Bosnian: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. ... This is a sub-article to fiqh and Hygiene Hygiene in Islam is a prominent topic but one which non-Muslims are not very familiar with. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic hygienical jurisprudence and cleanliness. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... Ghusl (غسل) is an Arabic term referring to the full Ablution in Islam. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... The miswak (miswaak, siwak) is a natural tooth brush used in the muslim culture since before the days of Islams inception. ... This is a sub-article to Hygiene in Islam, Healthy diet and Food and cooking hygiene. ... DhabiÄ¥a (ذَبِيْحَة, dhabiha, zabiha) is the prescribed method of slaughtering all animals excluding fish and most sea-life as per Islam. ... In Islam, Alcohol is forbiden to drink, but is allowed to be used for medical and other purposes. ... This is a sub-article to Hygiene in Islam and Toilet The Islamic faith has particular rules regarding personal hygiene when going to the toilet. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Haraam. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... The rules and regulations concerning prisoners of war in Islam are covered in manuals of Islamic jurisprudence, based upon Islamic teachings, in both the Quran and hadith. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals. ... Look up translate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Philosophers of law ask what is law? and what should it be? Jurisprudence is the theory and philosophy of law. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Philosophers of law ask what is law? and what should it be? Jurisprudence is the theory and philosophy of law. ... Divine law is any law (or rule) that comes directly from the will of God (or a god), such as from the Bible in Christianity or in Islam the Quran from Allah himself, etcetera. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic law. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... A fatwā (Arabic: ; plural fatāwā Arabic: ), is a considered opinion in Islam made by a mufti, a scholar capable of issuing judgments on Sharia (Islamic law). ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Ulema (, translit: , singular: , translit: , scholar) (Islamic clergy) refers to the educated class of Muslim scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


The Historian Ibn Khaldun describes fiqh as "knowledge of the rules of God which concern the actions of persons who own themselves bound to obey the law respecting what is required (wajib), forbidden (haram /mahzur), recommended (mandūb), disapproved (makruh) or merely permitted (mubah)".[1] Ibn KhaldÅ«n or Ibn Khaldoun (full name Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332/732AH – March 19, 1406/808AH), was a famous Arab Muslim historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher and sociologist born in present-day Tunisia. ... Fard also farida (arabic فرض obligation, duty) is an Islamic term which denotes a religious duty. ... Mustahab, recomended, is a Islamic term denoting a actions between Mubah (neutral) and Wajib (actions which must be performed). ... Acts and substances which should be evaded by muslims. ... Mubah is an Islamic Arabic term denoting an action as neither forbidden nor commended; neutral. ...

Contents

Etymology

The word fiqh is an Arabic term linguistically meaning deep understanding or full comprehension. Technically it refers to the science of Islamic law extracted from detailed Islamic sources (which are studied in Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence). The heritage of Islam, particularly its jurisprudence, has four sources - two founded on historical records going back to the time of Muhammad and two on the development of the science of interpretation in the early centuries of Islam. ...


The process of gaining knowledge of Islam through jurisprudence, and the body of legal advisements so derived, is known as fiqh.


Introduction

There are cases where the Qur'an gives a clearly defined and concrete answer on how do deal with different issues. This includes how to perform the ritual purification (Arabic: wudu) before the obligatory daily prayers (Arabic: salat): This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


On other issues, the Qur'an alone is not enough to make things clear. For example, the Qur'an states that one needs to engage in daily prayers (Arabic: salat) and fast (Arabic: sawm) during the month of Ramadan, however, the Qur'an does not define how to engage in those issues. The details to those issues can be found in what is called the tradition of Muhammad (Arabic: Sunnah). This is true for most detailed issues, thus the Qur'an and Sunnah are the basis for the Islamic Divine Law (Arabic: Sharia). Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the Islamic calendar month by called Ramadan. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic law. ...


However, the Muslim jurists (Arabic: Fuqaha) do not always agree on how to interpret the Qur'an and Sunnah to arrive at the Sharia. This division of interpretation in more detailed issues has resulted in different schools of thought (Arabic: madh'hab). Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... A Faqih (plural Fuqaha) (Arabic: فقيه, pl. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic law. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Madhhab or Mazhab (Arabic مذهب pl. ...


And with regard to some topics, the Qur'an and Sunnah are simply silent. In those cases, the Muslim jurists (Arabic: Fuqaha) try to arrive at conclusions using other tools. Sunni jurists use analogy (Arabic: Qiyas) and historical consensus of the community (Arabic: Ijma). The conclusions arrived at with the aid of these additional tools constitute a wider array of laws than the Sharia constitutes of, and is called Fiqh. Thus, in contrast to the Sharia, Fiqh is not regarded as sacred, and the schools of thought (Arabic: madh'hab) have differing views on its details, without viewing other conclusions as sacrilegious. This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... A Faqih (plural Fuqaha) (Arabic: فقيه, pl. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Analogy is both the cognitive process of transferring information from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), and a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... In Sunni Islamic jurisprudence, Qiyas is the process of analogical reasoning from a known injunction (nass) to a new injunction. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Ijmāʿ (إجماع) is an Arabic tern referring to the consensus of the ummah, the community of Muslims, those practicing Islam, or of the ulema, those learned in the relevant topic. ... In various religions, sacred (from Latin, sacrum, sacrifice) or holy, objects, places or concepts are believed by followers to be intimately connected with the supernatural, or divinity, and are thus greatly revered. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Madhhab or Mazhab (Arabic مذهب pl. ... Sacrilege is in general the violation or injurious treatment of a sacred object. ...


This wider concept of Islamic Jurisprudence is the source of a range of laws in different topics that govern the lives of the Muslims in all facets of everyday life.


Islamic Law

Islamic law (fiqh) covers two main areas, rules in relation to actions and rules in relation to circumstances surrounding actions.


Rules in relation to actions (amaliyya) comprise:

  • Obligation (fard)
  • Recommendation (mandoob)
  • Permissibility (mubah)
  • Disrecommendation (makrooh)
  • Prohibition (haram)

Rules in relation to circumstances (wadia') comprise:

  • Condition (shart)
  • Cause (sabab)
  • Preventor (mani)
  • Permit/Enforce (rukhsah, azeemah)
  • Valid/Corrupt/Invalid (sahih, fasad, batil)

Muslim Jurist: Ulema

Main article: Ulema

The Muslim Jurists are called the Ulema, from the Arabic ilm (knowledge). They are also called the faqeeh (pl. fuqahaa) from Fiqh. Ulema (, translit: , singular: , translit: , scholar) (Islamic clergy) refers to the educated class of Muslim scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... Ilm is Arabic for knowledge, as an Islamic term it refers to knowledge of Islam. ...


Methodology : Usul al-fiqh

Main article: Usul al-fiqh

The Modus operandi of the Muslim Jurist is Usul al-fiqh. Uṣūl al-fiqh (Arabic: ‎ ) is a term which literally translates to the roots of the law and refers to the study of the origins, sources, and practice of Islamic jurisprudence. ... Modus operandi (often used in the abbreviated form MO) is a Latin phrase, approximately translated as mode of operation. ... Uṣūl al-fiqh (Arabic: ‎ ) is a term which literally translates to the roots of the law and refers to the study of the origins, sources, and practice of Islamic jurisprudence. ...


Fields of jurisprudence

This is a sub-article of fiqh and Law and economics. ... Islamic politics is the profession of Muslim politicians. ... Marriage in Islam is considered to be of the utmost importance. ... Islamic criminal jurisprudence is the Islamic criminal law. ... gadfglkjfdgvkleajbvgopigreogaerpo[gkaerokgkflgsgopsadfvgks;dfkgsdg;dlsfskgsdfgskgkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk ... Islamic theological jurisprudence is the filed of Islamic jurisprudence specialized in theological issues. ... This is a sub-article to fiqh and Hygiene Hygiene in Islam is a prominent topic but one which non-Muslims are not very familiar with. ... The rules of war in Islam are the basic religious laws of war governing the military conduct of the mujahideen (literally those who struggle [for the Islamic faith]). These rules are part of a broader Islamic military doctrine encompassed by what some Muslims call Lesser Jihad. ...

Methodologies of jurisprudence Usul al-fiqh (أصول الفقه)

There are different approaches to the methodology used in Fiqh to derive Shariah from the Islamic sources. The main methodologies are: Methodology is defined as the analysis of the // == Headline text == principles of methods, rules, and postulates employed by a discipline or the development of methods, to be applied within a discipline a particular procedure or set of procedures. [1]. It should be noted that methodology is frequently used when method... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ...

  • The four classical Sunni schools are, in chronological order: the Hanafi school, the Maliki school, the Shafi'i school and the Hanbali school. They represent the generally accepted Sunni authority for Islamic jurisprudence.

Other schools are the Thahiri, Sufian Al'thawree, Sufian bin O'yayna, Layth bin Sa'ad. The four most famous schools mentioned go back to the schools as Sufian Bin Oyayna.[citation needed] Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Madhhab(مذهب) (Madhahib, pl) is an Islamic term that refers to a school of thought or religious jurisprudence (fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... // The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... This page deals with Islamic thought. ... The Šāfiˤī madhab (Arabic: شافعي) is one of the four schools of fiqh, or religious law, within Sunni Islam. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...

Jafari school of thought, Jafari jurisprudence or Jafari Fiqh is the name of the jurisprudence of the Shia Twelvers Muslims, derived from the name of Jafar al-Sadiq, the 7:th Shia Imam. ... Quran alone Muslims, Quranic Muslims or sometimes, anti-hadith Muslims are those Muslims who reject hadith, or preserved traditions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and follow the Quran, a sacred text of Islam, exclusively. ...

The four schools of Sunni Islam

The four schools of Sunni Islam are each named by students of the classical jurist who taught them. The Sunni schools (and where they are commonly found) are Madhhab(مذهب) (Madhahib, pl) is an Islamic term that refers to a school of thought or religious jurisprudence (fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...

These four schools share most of their rulings, but differ on the particular hadiths they accept as authentic and the weight they give to analogy or reason (qiyas) in deciding difficulties. // The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... This page deals with Islamic thought. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic North Africa, including the UN subregion North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided politically from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... The Gulf states are a group of six Arab countries that border the Persian Gulf. ... The Šāfiˤī madhab (Arabic: شافعي) is one of the four schools of fiqh, or religious law, within Sunni Islam. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In Sunni Islamic jurisprudence, Qiyas is the process of analogical reasoning from a known injunction (nass) to a new injunction. ...


The Hanafi school was the earliest established under the jurist Imam Abu Hanifa, who was born and taught in Iraq. Imam Abu Hanifa (80A.H. - 150A.H.), whose real name was Nu'man ibn Thabit, was born in the city of Kufa (modern day Iraq) in the year 80 A.H (689 A.D). Born into a family of tradesmen, the Imam's family were of Persian origin. Under Imam Abu Hanifa, the witr prayer was considered to be compulsory and the Hanafis also differed with other sects in relation to methods of taking ablution, prayers and payment of tithe or zakat. Imam Abu Hanifa also differed with the other three schools in many areas including the type of punishments meted out for various crimes in Islam. On the whole, the Hanafi school of jurisprudence could be said to have the most differences with other three schools. // The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... Imam Abu Hanifa (699 - 765) was an important Islamic scholar and jurist and is considered the founder of the Hanifi school of fiqh. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: گاه‌شماری هجري قمری ‎ Gāhshomāri-ye hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to... Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ...


Students of Imam Malik established the Maliki school of which a majority now can be found in North Africa and some Persian gulf states . Imam Malik, whose real name was Abu Abdullah, Malik bin Anas, was born in Medina in the year 715 AD. His ancestral home was in Yemen, but his grandfather settled in Medina after embracing Islam. He received his education in Medina, which was the most important seat of Islamic learning, and where the immediate descendants of the Muhammad's followers lived. Imam Malik was attracted to the study of law, and devoted himself to the study of Fiqh. His principal book, the Kitab al-Muwatta, is one of the earliest surviving books on Hadith and Fiqh. Differences under the Maliki school included the fact that those following the Maliki school could state their purpose (or niat) once only for compulsory fasting which is valid for the whole month of Ramadhan whilst for the Shafi'ie school (see below), one would have to state his purpose every day of the month of Ramadhan for his fast to be valid the next day. The Muwatta is a collection of hadith of the Muhammad that form the basis for the jurisprudence of the Maliki school. ...


Ja'fari jurisprudence

The Jaferi school (Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Bahrein, Pakistan, and parts of Afghanistan and Saudi Arabia) is associated with Shia Islam. The fatwas, or time and space bound rulings of early jurists, are taken rather more seriously in this school, due to the more hierarchical structure of Shia Islam, which is ruled by the imams. But they are also more flexible, in that every jurist has considerable power to alter a decision according to his opinion. Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia are members of the group of Shias who believe in twelve Imams. ... The Kingdom of Bahrain, or Bahrain, is a borderless country in the Persian Gulf (Southwest Asia/Middle East, Asia). ... Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ... A fatwā (Arabic: ; plural fatāwā Arabic: ), is a considered opinion in Islam made by a mufti, a scholar capable of issuing judgments on Sharia (Islamic law). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The Jafari school uses uses 'aql "intellect" instead of qiyas in the Sunni achools, when establishing Islamic laws. In Shia Islamic jurisprudence, aql is the process of using intellect or logic to deduce law. ...


Each school reflects a unique al-urf or culture, that the classical jurists themselves lived in, when rulings were made. Some suggest that the discipline of isnad which developed to validate hadith made it relatively easy to record and validate also the rulings of jurists, making them far easier to imitate (taqlid) than to challenge in new contexts. The effect is, the schools have been more or less frozen for centuries, and reflect a culture that simply no longer exists. In Islamic law (Sharia Arabic: شريعة), al-urf العرف is the custom of a given society, leading to change in the Egypt, marriage the Urfi way means to get married without offical papers issued by the state (Zawag Urfi:زو&#1575... The isnad (Arabic اسناد or in Quranic era Arabic اسند) are the citations or backings that establish the legitimacy of the hadith, which are the sayings of Muhammad, Prophet of Islam. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Early shariah had a much more flexible character, and many modern Muslim scholars believe that it should be renewed, and that the classical jurists should lose special status. This would require formulating a new fiqh suitable for the modern world, e.g. as proposed by advocates of the Islamization of knowledge, and would deal with the modern context. This modernization is opposed by most conservative ulema. Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... Islamization of knowledge is a term which describes a variety of attempts and approaches to synthesize the ethics of Islam with various fields of modern thought. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Ulema (, translit: , singular: , translit: , scholar) (Islamic clergy) refers to the educated class of Muslim scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Levy (1957), p.150

References

  • Levy, Reuben (1957). The Social Structure of Islam. UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521091824. 

See also

  • The Development of Fiqh
  • Bahar-e-Shariat
  • Hadith
  • Abdallah al-Harari
  • Mizan - a comprehensive treatise on the contents of Islam written by Javed Ahmed Ghamidi

  Results from FactBites:
 
USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts (517 words)
In this article simple definitions of shari`ah and fiqh are given.
It refers to the legal rulings of the Muslim scholars, based on their knowledge of the shari`ah; and as such is the third source of rulings.
The science of fiqh started in the second century after Hijrah, when the Islamic state expanded and faced several issues which were not explicitly covered in the Qur'an and Sunnah of the Prophet (saas).
Fiqh (296 words)
Fiqh was the way of creating a law system in accordance with the principles of Islam as based on the central religious scripture, the Koran, and the stories told about the Muhammad and the first Muslims.
Much of the actual definition of fiqh, the usul al-fiqh, is from Abu Abdullah ash-Shafi'i, the founder of the Shafi'i legal school.
Fiqh and Sharia appears to be mixed in many writings, and although closely linked, they represent two distinct disciplines.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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