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Encyclopedia > Finnish people
Finns
Total population

6-7 million (est.) Image File history File links Download high resolution version (886x347, 83 KB) Information Jean Sibelius, Mikael Agricola, Eero Saarinen, and Minna Canth [1], [2], [3], and [4] License This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Johan Julius Christian Jean / Janne Sibelius ( ; December 8, 1865 – September 20, 1957) was a Finnish composer of classical music and one of the most notable composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Mikael Agricola Mikael Agricola ( ) (c. ... Saarinens Gateway Arch frames The Old Courthouse, which sits at the heart of the city of Saint Louis, near the rivers edge. ... Minna Canth (born Ulrika Wilhelmina Johnsson, March 19, 1844, Tampere - May 20, 1897, Kuopio) was a Finnish writer and social activist. ...

Regions with significant populations
Flag of Finland Finland:       over 5,200,000[1]
Other significant population centers:
Flag of the United States United States 700,000[2]
Flag of Sweden Sweden 470,000[3]
Flag of Canada Canada 120,000[4]
Flag of Russia Russia 34,000[5]
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom 30,000[6]
Flag of Germany Germany 16,000 (in 2002)[7]
Flag of Spain Spain 5000 (in 2001)[8]
Flag of Australia Australia 8,619[9]
Flag of Norway Norway 6,000[10]
Other regions
Language(s)

Finnish, Swedish
Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ...

Languages related to Finnish include Estonian, Karelian, Vepsian, Võro and to a lesser extent,
all Finno-Ugric Languages.
Swedish is a Scandinavian language, closely related to Norwegian, Danish and Icelandic, and to a lesser extent to all Indo-European Languages.
Religion(s)
Predominantly Lutheran;
Atheist and Orthodox minorities.

The terms Finns and Finnish people (Finnish: suomalaiset, Swedish: finländare) are used in English to mean "a native or inhabitant of Finland". They are also used to refer to the ethnic group historically associated with Finland or Fennoscandia, and they are only used in that sense here.[11] [12] The Karelian language is a variety closely related to Finnish, with which it is not necessarily mutually intelligible. ... Veps language, spoken by the Vepses, belongs to the Baltic-Finnic group of the Finno-Ugric languages. ... The Vyronian language (võro kiil) is a language belonging to the Baltic-Finnic branch of the Finno-Ugric languages. ... Finno-Ugric group with dark green on map of language families Finno-Ugric (IPA:[ËŒfɪnoʊˈjuːgɹɪk]) is a grouping of languages in the Uralic language family, comprising Hungarian, Finnish and Estonian, and related languages. ... The North Germanic languages (also Scandinavian languages or Nordic languages) is a branch of the Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the Faroe Islands and Iceland. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ... The Finnish Orthodox Church is the national jurisdiction of the Eastern Orthodox Church in Finland. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...

Contents

Definition

Official records for the number of "Finnish people" are not maintained. The Finnish Population Registry Center maintains information on the place of birth, citizenship and mother tongue of the people living in Finland, but does not specifically categorize any as Finns by ethnicity.[13] Like all ethnicities, Finns are subject to the phenomenon of ethnogenesis. Language—both active and lost—has traditionally been seen as a key element when defining a people or its descendants. This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... Ethnogenesis is the process by which a group of human beings comes to be understood or to understand themselves as ethnically distinct from the wider social landscape from which their grouping emerges. ...


Finnish-speaking Finns

Main article: Finnish language

With regard to language, in addition to most Finnish-speaking inhabitants of mainland Finland, also Kvens (people of Finnish descent in Norway), Tornedalians (people of Finnish descent in northernmost Sweden), and Evangelical Lutheran Ingrian Finns are usually considered Finnish people. Template:Languaklkkkhytgf Finnish ( , or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (91. ... Template:Languaklkkkhytgf Finnish ( , or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (91. ... // People The Kveens (a. ... The Tornedalians or Tornedalian Finns are members of Finnic peoples, traditionally speaking Meänkieli (which is widely considered to be a Finnish dialect). ... The Ingrian Finns (inkeriläinen or inkerinsuomalainen) are an ethnic group who speak a dialect of Finnish language and have traditionally inhabited the area called Ingria (or Ingermanland, in Finnish: Inkeri) situated between what is now Saint Petersburg and the northeastern border of Estonia. ...


The Finnish speakers form the large majority of Finns.


Swedish-speaking Finns

Main article: Swedish-speaking Finns

The area of modern Finland was part of the Swedish kingdom for several hundred years, and a small population of people having Swedish as their mother tongue exists in the country. The ethnicity of the Swedish-speaking Finns (or Finland-Swedes) is debated with positions emphasizing in one extreme a settler nature and in the other extreme a language-shifting nature of this group.  Officially monolingual Finnish-speaking municipalities (Sami bilingual municipalities not shown)  Bilingual municipalities with Finnish as the majority language  Bilingual municipalities with Swedish as the majority language  Monolingual Swedish-speaking municipalities (including Ã…land) More than 17,000 Swedish Finns live in officially monolingual Finnish municipalities, and are thus not represented on... Sverige redirects here. ...  Officially monolingual Finnish-speaking municipalities (Sami bilingual municipalities not shown)  Bilingual municipalities with Finnish as the majority language  Bilingual municipalities with Swedish as the majority language  Monolingual Swedish-speaking municipalities (including Ã…land) More than 17,000 Swedish Finns live in officially monolingual Finnish municipalities, and are thus not represented on...


Most Finnish-speakers as well as most Swedish-speakers consider the Finnish people one nation or people[14] whose members speak either or both Finnish and Swedish. In general, Swedish speaking Finns consider themselves to be just as much Finnish as the Finnish-speaking majority, but they have their own special identity distinct from that of the majority, and they wish to be recognized as such. In a 2005 survey by Svenska Finlands Folkting carried out among the Swedish speakers, when asked about the meaning of their identity, 83% of the respondents answered: "Both to belong to an own culture but also to be Finnish amongst the rest."[15] The Swedish Assembly of Finland (Svenska Finlands Folkting or Folktinget) is a semi-official body representing the Swedish-speaking minority in Finland. ...


Sweden Finns

Main article: Sweden Finns

These include recent immigrants from Finland and (at least originally) Finnish-speaking people that have lived in Sweden for centuries. An estimated 450,000 first- or second-generation Finns live in Sweden, of which approximately half speak Finnish. The majority moved from Finland to Sweden following the Second World War, with a peak in 1970 and declining thereafter. There are also historical Finnish-speaking minorities in Sweden, for example the Tornedalingar (Torne Valley Finns) and the Finns of Dalecarlia. As a result, the Finnish language has an official status in certain parts of Sweden.[16] Sweden Finns (Ruotsinsuomalaiset in Finnish, Sverigefinnarna in Swedish) are a Finnish speaking minority in Sweden. ... The Tornedalians or Tornedalian Finns are members of Finnic peoples, traditionally speaking Meänkieli (which is widely considered to be a Finnish dialect). ... The Torne Valley or Torne River Valley, is a valley on the border of Sweden and Finland. ... Dalecarlia, or Dalarna, is a historical Province or landskap in the west of middle Sweden. ...


Other groups

In some texts in the past, the term 'Finns' may have also been employed generally for other Finnic peoples, including Izhorians in Ingria, Karelians and Veps. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Izhorians (sg. ... Ingria may be seen represented in the easternmost part of the Carta Marina (1539) Ingria (Finnish: , Russian: , Swedish: , Estonian: ) is a historical region, now situated mostly in Russia, comprising the area along the basin of the river Neva, between the Gulf of Finland, the Narva River, Lake Peipsi in the... The Karelians is a name used to denote two related, yet different ethnic groups of Finnic-language speakers. ... Veps language, spoken by Vepses, belongs to the Baltic-Finnic group of the Finno-Ugric languages. ...


Terminology

The Finnish term for the Finnish people is suomalaiset (sing. suomalainen).


The Finnish and Swedish terms for the Swedish-speaking population of Finland are the expressions suomenruotsalaiset and finlandssvenskar respectively, which translate literally with regard to each other. In Finland Swedish usage and mindset the following distinctions are usually made: The nation (people) consists of Finnish speakers (Finland Swedish: finnar) and Swedish speakers (Finland Swedish: finlandssvenskar) who together with smaller minorities constitute the people of Finland (Finland Swedish: finländare). In Swedish spoken outside of Finland, in particular in Sweden, the term finländare is less known, and these distinctions are not always made. Areas where Finland-Swedish populations are found shown in yellow Finland-Swedish is a general term for the closely related cluster of dialects of Swedish spoken in Finland by Finland-Swedes as a first language. ...


Translating this terminology accurately into foreign languages, including Sweden's Swedish, is a tricky matter because the terminology closely reflects the nation's entire language issue, which played an intricate part in the process of the crystallisation of the nation's self-perception and in the interpretation of its history, and because it still affects these. Indeed, one of the very first domestic matters addressed during the process of national awakening in the 19th century was the language question. The language strife was one of the major conflicts of Finlands national history and domestic politics. ...


It is therefore debatable which English terms best match the Finnish and (Finland-)Swedish terms suomalaiset (finländare, finnar) and finlandssvenskar (suomenruotsalaiset). Nevertheless, Swedish-speaking Finns seems to be the English term most commonly used today for[17] and by[18] the Swedish-speaking population of Finland, although the term Finland Swedes is in wide use too, at least in English written by non-native speakers in Scandinavia.  Officially monolingual Finnish-speaking municipalities (Sami bilingual municipalities not shown)  Bilingual municipalities with Finnish as the majority language  Bilingual municipalities with Swedish as the majority language  Monolingual Swedish-speaking municipalities (including Ã…land) More than 17,000 Swedish Finns live in officially monolingual Finnish municipalities, and are thus not represented on...


Similarly debatable is how to best designate the people living in Sweden who are current Finnish speakers or have Finnish or Finnish-speaking ancestors. The terms used include the traditional Sweden Finns and the more modern Finnish Swedes, instead of which it may be preferable to differentiate between (recent) Finnish immigrants and the indigenous Finnish ethnic minority in Sweden.[19] Sweden Finns (Ruotsinsuomalaiset in Finnish, Sverigefinnarna in Swedish) are a Finnish speaking minority in Sweden. ...


As the meanings of these terms have changed in time, these terms may well be used with other meanings than those given above, particularly in foreign and older works.


Etymology

Main article: Origin of the name Finn

Historical references relating to Europe's north are scarce and relating to the naming of its peoples are obscure, and so the etymologies of the names of these peoples and geographic regions remain rather sketchy. Such names as Fenni, Phinnoi, Finnum, and Skrithfinni / Scridefinnum were used in a few written texts for almost two millennia in association with a people located in a northern part of Europe, but the real meaning of these terms is debatable. The earliest mentions of this kind are usually interpreted to have meant Fennoscandian hunter-gatherers whose closest successors in modern terms would be the Sami people.[20] It has been suggested that this non-Uralic ethnonym is of Germanic language origin and related to such words as finthan (Old High German) 'find', 'notice'; fanthian (Old High German) 'check', 'try'; and fendo (Old High German) and vende (Old Middle German) 'pedestrian', 'wanderer'.[21]. Another etymological interpretation associates this ethnonym with fen in a more toponymical approach. Yet another theory postulates that the words finn and kven are cognates. In the Icelandic Eddas and Norse sagas (dating about from the 11th to 14th centuries), some of the oldest written sources probably originating from the closest proximity, words like finnr and finnas are not used consistently. Most of the time, however, they seem to mean northern dwellers with a mobile life style, i.e. the Sami. Fenni was the name of an Iron Age tribe somewhere in Northern Europe. ... Phinnoi were one of the people living in Scandinavia (Scandia), mentioned by a Greek scientist Ptolemy in his Geographia around 150 CE. Ptolemy mentions them twice, but provides no other information on them. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... Geographical distribution of Finnic, Ugric, Samoyed and Yukaghir languages The Uralic languages form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Germanic languages form one of the branches of the Indo-European (IE) language family, spoken by the Germanic peoples who settled in northern Europe along the borders of the Roman Empire. ... The (Late Old High) German speaking area of the Holy Roman Empire around 950. ... Origin of the name Kven is not clear. ... For Edda great-grandmother as the ancestress of serfs see Ríg. ... The Norse sagas or Viking sagas (Icelandic: Íslendingasögur), are stories about ancient Scandinavian and Germanic history, about early Viking voyages, about migration to Iceland, and of feuds between Icelandic families. ...


Interestingly, an etymological link between the Sami and the Finns exists also in modern Finno-Ugric languages. It has been proposed that e.g. the toponyms Sapmi (Sami for Lapland), Suomi (Finnish for Finland), and Häme (Finnish for Tavastia) are of the same origin,[22] the source of which might be related to the proto-Baltic word *zeme meaning 'land'.[23] How, why, and when these designations started to mean specifically people in Southwestern Finland (Finland Proper, Varsinais-Suomi) and later the whole area of modern Finland is unknown. Finno-Ugric group with dark green on map of language families Finno-Ugric (IPA:[ËŒfɪnoʊˈjuːgɹɪk]) is a grouping of languages in the Uralic language family, comprising Hungarian, Finnish and Estonian, and related languages. ... Tavastia, Tavastland or Häme, is a historical province in the south of Finland. ... The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ... Finland Proper (Varsinais-Suomi in Finnish, Egentliga Finland in Swedish) is a region in south-western Finland. ...


Among the first written documents possibly designating western Finland as the land of Finns are two rune stones. One of these is in Söderby, Sweden, with the inscription finlont (U 582 †), and the other is in Gotland, a Swedish island in the Baltic Sea, with the inscription finlandi (G 319 M) dating from the 11th century.[24] Rundata - phreakin great guy, pwnz u all! telecommications fanatic website here - * rundata. ...   is a county, province and municipality of Sweden and the second largest island in the Baltic Sea after Zealand. ...


History

A peasant girl and a woman in traditional dress from Ruokolahti, eastern Finland, as depicted by Severin Falkman in 1882
A peasant girl and a woman in traditional dress from Ruokolahti, eastern Finland, as depicted by Severin Falkman in 1882

See also: History of Finland Image File history File links Size of this preview: 460 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (595 × 775 pixels, file size: 94 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) . A mechanical scan by Finnish national library establishes no further copyright. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 460 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (595 × 775 pixels, file size: 94 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) . A mechanical scan by Finnish national library establishes no further copyright. ... The land area that now makes up Finland was settled immediately after the Ice Age, beginning from around 8500 BC. Finland was part of Kingdom of Sweden from the 13th century to 1809, when it was ceded to the Russian Empire becoming the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. ...


With regard to the ancestry of the Finnish people, the modern view emphasises the overall continuity in Finland's archeological finds [25] and (earlier more obvious) linguistic surroundings. Archaeological data suggest the spreading of at least cultural influences from many sources ranging from the south-east to the south-west following gradual developments rather than clear-cut migrations.


The possible mediators and the timelines for the development of the Uralic majority language of the Finns are equally uncertain. On the basis of comparative linguistics, it has been postulated that the separation of the Baltic-Finnic and the Sami languages took place during the 2nd millennium BC, the proto-Uralic roots of the entire language group dating perhaps from about the 6th to the 8th millennium BC. When the Uralic or Finno-Ugric languages were first spoken in the area of contemporary Finland is a matter of debate but the current opinion is leaning towards the Stone Age.[26] Baltic-Finnic languages, also known as Finnic languages, are a subgroup of the Finno-Ugric languages, and are spoken around the Baltic Sea by about 7 million people. ... Sami is a general name for a group of Uralic languages spoken in parts of northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and extreme northwestern Russia, in Northern Europe. ... Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages  Yukaghir  Samoyedic  Ugric  Finnic The Uralic languages (pronounced: ) form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ... The land area that now makes up Finland was settled immediately after the Ice Age, beginning from around 8500 BC. Finland was part of Kingdom of Sweden from the 13th century to 1809, when it was ceded to the Russian Empire becoming the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. ...


Because the Finnish language itself reached a written form only in the 16th century, not much primary data remains of early Finnish life. For example, the origins of such cultural icons as the sauna, the kantele (a harplike instrument), and the Kalevala (national epic) have remained rather obscure. For the music festival in Finland, see Sauna Open Air Metal Festival. ... Koistinen concert kantele with 38 strings A kantele, Finnish (or kannel) in Estonian, is a traditional plucked string instrument. ... The Kalevala is an epic poem which the Finn Elias Lönnrot compiled from Finnish and Karelian folklore in the 19th century. ...


Finland's Swedish speakers descend from peasants and fishermen who settled coastal Finland ca. 1000–1250,[27] from the subsequent immigration during Swedish sovereignty over Finland ,[28] and from Finns and immigrants who adopted the Swedish language.[29]


Genetics

Haplogroup U is a group of people who descend from a woman who lived around 50,000 years ago in the Haplogroup R branch of the Genographic tree. Her descendants gave birth to several subgroups, some of which exhibit specific geographic homelands. For example a subgroup U5 is restricted to Estonia and Finland and their populations. Haplogroup U5 that first evolved in Europe is a group of people who descend from a woman who lived in Europe around 15,000 years ago. U5 is found also in small frequencies and at much lower diversity in the Near East suggesting back-migration of people from northern Europe to south.[30] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 768 pixels, file size: 200 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 768 pixels, file size: 200 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup U is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup R is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ...


As for the paternal and maternal genetic lineages of Finnish people and other peoples, see, e.g., [27]. In essence, the types of mtDNA markers of Finnish people do not differ from those of other European ethnicities. With regard to the Y-chromosome, besides the markers found in other European populations, the haplotype N3 appears in Finland at clearly higher frequencies than in most other European populations. Haplotype N3 is a subgroup of the haplogroup N (Y-DNA) distributed across northern Eurasia and estimated in a recent study to be 10-20,000 years old and suggested to have entered Europe about 12-14,000 years ago from Asia.[31] In human genetics, Haplogroup N (LLY22G) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ...


In the 1970s and 1980s, Professor Harri Nevanlinna and his colleagues claimed that genetic research has shown that Finns are genetically similar to other European peoples but also have also some uniqueness. It was determined that 25–50% of Finnish nuclear genes are Baltic, approximately 25% Siberian, and 25–50% Germanic. However all the peoples of Europe have some amount of "eastern" genes and Finns are not that different from other Europeans. Even the most genetically western population, the Basques, have more than 10% of "eastern" genes.


Recent mitochondrial genetic research, which can discover facts concerning tens of thousands of years ago, "supports the assumption of a Western, Indo-European genotype for the Finns".[32]


According to a study conducted by four scientists, including Cavalli-Sforza LL:

Principal coordinate analysis shows that Lapps/Sami are almost exactly intermediate between people located geographically near the Ural mountains and speaking Uralic languages, and central and northern Europeans. Hungarians and Finns are definitely closer to Europeans. An analysis of genetic admixture between Uralic and European ancestors shows that Lapps/Sami are slightly more than 50% European, Hungarians are 87% European, and Finns are 90% European. There is basic agreement between these conclusions and historical data on Hungary. Less is known about Finns and very little about Lapps/Sami.[33] The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ...

According to recent autosomal (genomewide, 10.000 markers instead of few looked at Y-DNA and MtDNA-studies) give distinct picture of Finnish genes. Finns are a genetic isolate. It could be said that all other Europeans have Finnish genes but Finns don't have genes of all other Europeans. Finns show very little if any Mediterranean and African genes but on the other hand almost 10% Finnish genes seem to be Siberian in origin. Nevertheless more than 80% of Finnish genes are from single ancient North-European population, while most Europeans are admixture of 3 or more principal components.[34]


Genetics of the Swedish-speaking Finns

A few studies have shown that Swedish-speaking Finns are today genetically indistinguishable from Finns but distinguishable from Swedes,[35] which means in simpler English that they share their genetic make up with Finnish people rather than Swedish people. Even today, there are however some people who erroneously believe that Swedish-speaking Finns are genetically or culturally more similar to Swedes than to Finns, and these views were widespread in the 19th century when scientists confused the concepts of language and genetics (called "race" at the time).[36] Originally, there probably were genetic differences between the Norse settlers who came from Scandinavia for many centuries starting about 1,000 years ago and the Balto-Finnic-speaking population they encountered, but the genes of these original population groups have for long been indistinguishable.


On the other hand, according to modern social science, the Swedish-speaking Finns fulfill some of the four major criteria for a separate ethnic group: self-identification of ethnicity, language, social structure, and ancestry. (The last criterion being put in question by loss of genetic differences between the linguistic groups).[37]


Theories of the origin of Finns

In the 19th century, the Finnish researcher Matthias Castrén prevailed with the theory that "the original home of Finns" was in west-central Siberia. Later, the theory of an ancient homeland of all Finno-Ugric speaking peoples situated in a region between the Volga and Kama rivers in the European part of Russia appeared more credible. Until the 1970s, most linguists believed Finns to have arrived in Finland as late as the first centuries AD. In the 1980s, these ideas changed drastically. The old theory was replaced by the concurrent version of a large "homeland" between the Volga river and Scandinavia. In the light of new archaeological findings, it was concluded that the ancestors of the Finns arrived in their present territory thousands of years ago, perhaps in many successive waves of immigration. During this immigration, the possible linguistic and cultural ancestors of the hunting-gathering Sami were pushed into the more remote northern regions. Matthias Alexander Castrén (December 2, 1813-May 7, 1853) was a Finnish ethnologist and philologist. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... Kama (Russian: ; Tatar: Çulman) is a river in Russia, the longest left tributary of the Volga. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ...


Kalevi Wiik, a professor emeritus of phonetics at the University of Turku, postulated a controversial theory in the 1990s. According to Wiik, the ancestors of the Finns lived during the Ice Age in one of three habitable areas of southern Europe, so-called refugia, the two other habitable areas being the homes of the Indo-European and Basque languages. According to this theory, Finno-Ugric speakers spread to the north as the ice melted. They populated central and northern Europe, while Basque speakers populated western Europe. As agriculture spread from the south-west into Europe, the Indo-European languages spread among the hunter-gatherers. In this process, both the hunter-gatherers speaking Finno-Ugric and those speaking Basque learned how to cultivate land and became Indo-Europeanized. According to Wiik, this is how the Celtic, Germanic, Slavic, and Baltic languages were formed. Due to their isolated location, the linguistic ancestors of modern Finns did not switch their language. This theory is not accepted by the majority of linguists because Wiik has failed to present proof of a Finno-Ugric substrate in Indo-European languages. Kalevi Wiik is a former professor of phonetics at the university of Turku, Finland. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound or voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... Language(s) Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers [4] other native languages Religion(s) Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an indigenous people[5] who inhabit parts of north-central Spain and southwestern... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ...


References

  1. ^ Finnish Population Registry Center 31.12.2006. The figure consists of inhabitants, citizens or not, of Finland living in Finland that have Finnish or Swedish as their mother tongue, born in Finland or abroad.
  2. ^ | Ancestry 2000 By Angela Brittingham and G. Patricia de la Cruz
  3. ^ (Swedish)The report of Digital radio distribution at The Swedish Parliament
  4. ^ Finland at a glance virtual.finland.fi
  5. ^ (Russian)Population of Russia
  6. ^ EMBASSY OF FINLAND, London
  7. ^ [http://www.migrationinstitute.fi/db/stat/fin/art.php?artid=56 Euroopassa asuneet Suomen kansalaiset maittain 1971-2002. Retrieved 11-21-2007. (Finnish)
  8. ^ [http://www.migrationinstitute.fi/db/stat/fin/art.php?artid=56 Euroopassa asuneet Suomen kansalaiset maittain 1971-2002. Retrieved 11-21-2007. (Finnish)
  9. ^ Siirtolaisuusinstituutti
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^ "Finn noun" The Oxford Dictionary of English (revised edition). Ed. Catherine Soanes and Angus Stevenson. Oxford University Press, 2005. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Tampere University of Technology. 3 August 2007 [2]
  12. ^ Perspectives to Finnish Identity, by Anne Ollila: Scandinavian Journal of History, Volume 23, Numbers 3-4, 1 September 1998, pp. 127-137(11). Retrieved 06 October 2006.
  13. ^ Annual population statistics of Finland.
  14. ^ [3]
  15. ^ (Swedish: Både att höra till en egen kultur, men också att vara en finländare bland alla andra. Finnish: Kuulumista omaan kulttuuriin, mutta myös suomalaisena olemista muiden joukossa.) See [4].
  16. ^ [5]
  17. ^ [6]
  18. ^ [7]
  19. ^ "Traditionally, immigrants were described in English and most other languages by an adjective indicating the new country of residence and a noun indicating their country of origin or their ethnic group. The term "Sweden Finns" corresponds to this naming method. Immigrants to the USA have however always been designated the "other way around" by an adjective indicating the ethnic or national origin and a noun indicating the new country of residence, for example "Finnish Americans" (never "American Finns"). The term "Finnish Swedes" corresponds to this more modern naming method that is increasingly used in most countries and languages because it emphasises the status as full and equal citizens of the new country while providing information about cultural roots. (For more information about these different naming methods see Swedish-speaking Finns.) Other possible modern terms are "Finnish ethnic minority in Sweden" and "Finnish immigrants". These may be preferable because they make a clear distinction between these two very different population groups for which use of a single term is questionable and because "Finnish Swedes" is often used like "Finland Swedes" to mean "Swedish-speaking Finns". It should perhaps also be pointed out that many Finnish and Swedish speakers are unaware that the English word "Finn" elsewhere than in this article usually means "a native or inhabitant of Finland" ([8], [9], [10]) and only sometimes also has the meaning "a member of a people speaking Finnish or a Finnic language" or has this as its primary but not exclusive meaning.[11]
  20. ^ [12]
  21. ^ [13]
  22. ^ [14]
  23. ^ [15]
  24. ^ [16]
  25. ^ [17]
  26. ^ [18]
  27. ^ [19]
  28. ^ [20]
  29. ^ [21]
  30. ^ The Genographic Project at National Geographic
  31. ^ [22] and [23]
  32. ^ [24]
  33. ^ Uralic genes in Europe by Guglielmino CR, Piazza A, Menozzi P, Cavalli-Sforza LL [25]
  34. ^ [26]
  35. ^ "Since the (two) population (groups') genetic, ecological and socioeconomic circumstances are equal, Swedish speakers’ longer active life is difficult to explain by conventional health-related risk factors." Markku T. Hyyppä and Juhani Mäki: Social participation and health in a community rich in stock of social capital
  36. ^ "During the past period of language disputes, language was often equated with nationality and race, and racist views have also not been rare in the history of Finland's national languages. Contemporary research however rejects most of the race doctrines presented in the name of science in the past. Today, it is recognised that a person's genetic characteristics are something different than his/her native language. The Finnish language is of Eastern origin, and most of the genotype of Finns is Western. Swedish-speaking Finns, so-called Finland Swedes, are also genetically Finns and not Swedes." Official document of a committee of experts appointed by the Finnish Ministry of Justice (Translated from p.5 beginning at "Menneiden kieliriitojen aikana...")
  37. ^ Finland has generally been regarded as an example of a monocultural and egalitarian society. However, Finland has a Swedish-speaking minority that meets the four major criteria of ethnicity, i.e. self-identification of ethnicity, language, social structure and ancestry (Allardt and Starck, 1981; Bhopal, 1997). Markku T. Hyyppä and Juhani Mäki: Social participation and health in a community rich in stock of social capital

Finnish Americans are Americans of Finnish descent, who currently number at about 700,000. ...  Officially monolingual Finnish-speaking municipalities (Sami bilingual municipalities not shown)  Bilingual municipalities with Finnish as the majority language  Bilingual municipalities with Swedish as the majority language  Monolingual Swedish-speaking municipalities (including Ã…land) More than 17,000 Swedish Finns live in officially monolingual Finnish municipalities, and are thus not represented on... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ...

See also

Look up Finn, finn in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Finnic can refer to: Finnic languages Finnic peoples Category: ... Finnish may refer to: Finland, a European country Finnish people indicating ethnicity Finnish language Finnic peoples and their languages, including Finnish and Estonian Category: ... Finnish Americans are Americans of Finnish descent, who currently number at about 700,000. ... During the late 19th century and early 20th century, over 300,000 people from Finland migrated to the United States and, to a lesser extent, Canada, in the search for a better life. ... This is a list of people from Finland, i. ... In Finnish schools, Swedish is a mandatory school subject, amounting at an average of two hours a week in classes 7-9 in the Finnish nine-year compulsory school and at an average two hours a week during three years of secondary education. ...  Officially monolingual Finnish-speaking municipalities (Sami bilingual municipalities not shown)  Bilingual municipalities with Finnish as the majority language  Bilingual municipalities with Swedish as the majority language  Monolingual Swedish-speaking municipalities (including Ã…land) More than 17,000 Swedish Finns live in officially monolingual Finnish municipalities, and are thus not represented on...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
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