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Encyclopedia > Finnish mark
Markka
Image:1markka1994front.jpg Image:1markka1994back.jpg
1 Markka coin 1994

The markka (or Finnish mark) was the currency used in Finland from 1860 until January 1, 1999 (in practice on January 1, 2002), when it was replaced by the euro (€). The currency code used for the markka was FIM, and the usual familiar notation was a postfix mk. It was divided into 100 penni. The conversion for one euro was 5.94573 markkaa. 1 markka 1994 front File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... 1 markka 1994 back File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... For the Cusco album, see 2002 (album). ... The euro (plural euro, symbol: €; banking code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union and single currency for over 300 million Europeans in the following twelve European Union member states: Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain; collectively also known as...


With numbers, Finnish uses the partitive singular forms: "10 markkaa" and "10 penniä". The basic meaning of the Partitive case is partialness, without result or without specifying identity. In the Finnish language, its used to express unknown identities and irresultative actions. ...

Contents


History

1 markka banknote from 1860
Enlarge
1 markka banknote from 1860

The markka was introduced in 1860 as a quarter of the Russian ruble. In 1865 the markka was separated from the Russian ruble and tied to the value of silver. After Finland gained independence in 1917, the Bank of Finland was founded and the markka was reintroduced as an independent currency backed by gold. The gold standard was abolished in 1940, and the markka suffered heavy inflation during the war years. In 1963 the markka was replaced by the new markka, equivalent to 100 old units. 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... The ruble or rouble (Russian: рубль, plural рубли; see note on spelling below) is the name of the currencies of the Russian Federation and Belarus (and formerly, of the Soviet Union and the Russian Empire). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... The Bank of Finland, Helsinki, with the statue of Johan Vilhelm Snellman in front. ... This article is on the monetary principle. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov, later Semyon Timoshenko Strength 180,000 450,000 Casualties 22,830 dead 43,557 wounded c. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ...


The name "markka" was based on a medieval unit of weight. Both "markka" and "penni" are loanwords based on the same roots as the German Mark and pfennig. The Deutsche Mark (DM, DEM) was the official currency of West and, from 1990, unified Germany. ... The pfennig was a small German coin valued at 1/100 of a Deutsche Mark and other German currencies with the name Mark. ...


Although the word "markka" predates the currency by several centuries, the currency was established before being named "markka". A competition was held for its name, and some of the other entries included "sataikko" (meaning "having a hundred parts"), "omena" (apple) and "suomo" (from "Suomi", the Finnish name for Finland).


During the history of the Finnish markka, spanning over 140 years, 28 coins denominated in markka have been minted. The pictorial subjects have changed over the years, but they have all been distinctly Finnish. The Finnish markka is now history, when Finland changed its currency to the euro in 1999 (markka coins and notes were not withdrawn from circulation until 2002). 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... For the Cusco album, see 2002 (album). ...


Portraits in banknotes

This section covers the last design series of the Finnish markka, designed in the 1980s by Finnish designer Erik Bruun and issued in 1986. A £20 Ulster Bank banknote. ... Erik Bruun (born 1926 in Viipuri) is a Finnish graphic designer. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • 10 markkaa (blue) - Paavo Nurmi (1897–1973), athlete and Olympic winner (note discontinued upon introduction of the 20 markkaa note)
  • 20 markkaa (blue/green) - Väinö Linna (1920–1992), author and novelist (note introduced in 1993)
  • 50 markkaa (brown) - Alvar Aalto (1898–1976), architect
  • 100 markkaa (green) - Jean Sibelius (1865-1957), composer
  • 500 markkaa (red) - Elias Lönnrot (1802-1884), historian
  • 1000 markkaa (blue/purple) - Anders Chydenius (1729-1803), priest and statesman

The series also included a preliminary design for a 5000 markkaa (red/purple) note, depicting priest and linguist Mikael Agricola, but the note was never officially introduced into use. Paavo Nurmi (June 13, 1897 – October 2, 1973) was a Finnish runner. ... Väinö Linna (December 20, 1920 - April 21, 1992) was one of the most influential Finnish authors of the 20th century. ... Hugo Alvar Henrik Aalto (February 3, 1898 - May 11, 1976) was a Finnish architect and designer. ... Sibelius redirects to this article. ... Elias Lönnrot Elias Lönnrot (April 9, 1802 - March 19, 1884) was a Finnish philologist and collector of traditional Finnish oral poetry. ... Anders Chydenius Anders Chydenius (26 February 1729 – 1 February 1803) was the leading classical liberal of Nordic history. ... Mikael Agricola Mikael Agricola (c. ...


Earlier banknotes

The second-to-last banknote design series, designed by Tapio Wirkkala, was introduced in 1955 and revised in the reform of 1963. It was the first series to depict actual specific persons. These included Juho Kusti Paasikivi on the 10 markkaa note, J. V. Snellman on the 100 markkaa note and Urho Kekkonen on the 500 markkaa note (introduced later). Tapio Wirkkala was a Finnish designer. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... Juho Kusti Paasikivi (November 27, 1870 – December 14, 1956) was President of Finland from 1946 to 1956. ... Johan Vilhelm Snellman (May 12, 1806 - July 4, 1881) was a Finnish (Fennoman of Swedish origin) writer, philosopher and statesman. ... Urho Kekkonen Urho Kaleva Kekkonen (September 3, 1900–August 31, 1986) was a Finnish politician who served as Prime Minister of Finland (1950-1953, 1954-1956) and later as President of Finland (1956–1981) and is many times referred as first dictator of Finland. ...


Unlike Erik Bruun's series, this series did not depict any other real-life subjects, but only abstract ornaments in addition to the person depictions. A popular joke at the time was to cover all but the right-hand side of Paasikivi's face on the 10 markkaa note, ending up with something resembling a mouse, said to be the only animal illustration in the entire series.


The still older notes, designed by Eliel Saarinen, were introduced in 1922. They also depicted humans, but these were generic men and women, and did not represent any specific persons. The fact that these men and women were depicted nude caused a minor controversy at the time. Gottlieb Eliel Saarinen (August 20, 1873, Rantasalmi, Finland – July 1, 1950, Cranbrook, Michigan, United States) was a Finnish architect who became famous for his art nouveau buildings in the early years of the 20th century. ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Coins

  • The last series of Finnish markka coins included five coins:
    • 10 penniä (silver-coloured) - a honeycomb on the reverse and a lily of the valley flower on the obverse
    • 50 penniä (silver-coloured) - haircap moss on the reverse and a bear on the obverse
    • 1 markka (copper-coloured) - the Finnish coat of arms on the obverse
    • 5 markkaa (copper-coloured) - a lily pad leaf and a dragonfly on the reverse and a Saimaa seal on the obverse
    • 10 markkaa (two-metal coin, copper-coloured centre and silver-coloured edge) - rowan tree branches and berries on the reverse and a wood grouse on the obverse

Binomial name Convallaria majalis Lily of the valley is a flowering plant of the Convallaria genus. ... Genera Ailuropoda Ursus Tremarctos Arctodus(extinct) A bear is a very large mammal of the order Carnivora, family Ursidae. ... Genera Barclaya Wall. ... Families Aeshnidae Austropetaliidae Cordulegastridae Corduliidae Gomphidae Libellulidae Neopetaliidae Petaluridae A dragonfly is any insect belonging to the order Odonata, the suborder Epiprocta or, in the strict sense, the infraorder Anisoptera. ... Binomial name Phoca hispida (Schreber, 1775) Saimaa Ringed Seals (Phoca hispida saimensis, norppa in Finnish) are a subspecies of Ringed Seal (Phoca hispida) . They are among the most endangered seals in the world, having a total population of only aboout 270 individuals. ... This article is about the rowan tree; for other uses of the term, see Rowan (disambiguation). ...

See also

The Scandinavian Monetary Union (Swedish: Skandinaviska myntunionen, Danish: Skandinaviske møntunion) was a monetary union formed by Sweden and Denmark on May 5, 1873 by fixing their currencies against gold at par to each other. ... The euro (plural euro, symbol: €; banking code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union and single currency for over 300 million Europeans in the following twelve European Union member states: Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain; collectively also known as...

External links

  • Overview of markka from the BBC
  • Historical Finnish banknotes and coins at the BANK OF FINLAND
  • Pictures of banknotes
  • Chronology of Finnish history
  • History of the Finnish Markka (1860-2002)
Preceded by:
Russian ruble
Finnish currency
1860-2002
Succeeded by:
euro


The ruble or rouble (Russian: рубль, plural рубли; see note on spelling below) is the name of the currencies of the Russian Federation and Belarus (and formerly, of the Soviet Union and the Russian Empire). ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... For the Cusco album, see 2002 (album). ... The euro (plural euro, symbol: €; banking code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union and single currency for over 300 million Europeans in the following twelve European Union member states: Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain; collectively also known as...

Pre-euro and other EU currencies EU Flag
Eurozone Austrian schilling | Belgian franc | Dutch gulden | Finnish mark | French franc | German mark | Greek drachma | Irish pound | Italian lira | Luxembourgian franc | Portuguese escudo | San Marinese lira | Spanish peseta | Vatican lira
ERM Cypriot pound | Danish krone | Estonian kroon | Latvian lats | Lithuanian litas | Maltese lira | Slovak koruna | Slovenian tolar
Other EU British pound | Czech koruna | Hungarian forint | Polish złoty | Swedish krona

  Results from FactBites:
 
Quotation mark - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3398 words)
Quotation marks, also called quotes or inverted commas, are punctuation marks used in pairs to set off speech, a quotation, or a phrase.
When a double quotation mark or a single quotation mark immediately follows the other, proper spacing for legibility requires that a (non-breaking) space be inserted.
In Finnish and Swedish, right quotes are being used to mark both the beginning and the end of a quote.
Finnish traffic tickets - from WSJ (1241 words)
Leena Harkimo, a Conservative Party member of the Finnish Parliament and wife of the sports-team owner, tried to introduce a bill last year that would have capped most speeding tickets at a mere $7,825.
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But as many as 20 marks may be added depending on the value of the driver's other assets, including real estate.
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