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Encyclopedia > Finnish Air Force
Suomen Ilmavoimat
Finnish Air Force


Image File history File links Suomen_Ilmavoimien_tunnus. ...

Motto: Qualitas Potentia Nostra
"Quality is our Strength"
Established 6 March 1918
Personnel 3100
Commander-in-Chief Lieutenant General Heikki Lyytinen

The Finnish Air Force (FAF) (Finnish: Ilmavoimat) is one of the branches of the Finnish Defence Forces. Its peacetime tasks are airspace surveillance, identification flights, and production of readiness formations for wartime conditions'.[1] As a separate branch of the military, the Finnish Air Force is one of the oldest in the world, having existed since the year 1918. March 6 is the 65th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (66th in Leap years). ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... The Finnish Defence Forces (Finnish Puolustusvoimat; Swedish Försvarsmakten) is a cadre army of 16500, of which 8700 professional soldiers (officers), with a standard readiness strength of 34,700 people in uniform (27,300 army, 3,000 navy, and 4,400 air force). ... // Description The FRDF arm patch insignia. ...

Contents

History

The traditional Air Force swastika is still used on some occasions.
The traditional Air Force swastika is still used on some occasions.

The first airplane was donated — against official Swedish government opinion — by the Swedish Count Eric von Rosen in 1918. To hide a flying school advertisement on the side, he had his good luck charm, the blue swastika, painted on the white, circular advertisement. This resulted in the "blue swastika in a white circle" symbol, which has been the symbol of the Finnish Air Force ever since. After the end of the Second World War, the airplane symbol was replaced by a roundel of the same colors, but the symbol remains in use in decorations and some flags. Image File history File links Ilmav_SK_ja_lippu. ... Image File history File links Ilmav_SK_ja_lippu. ... The swastika (from Sanskrit ) is an equilateral cross with its arms bent at right angles in either left-facing () or right-facing () direction. ... The modern proportion RAF roundel A roundel is a distinctive, mostly round insignia or identifying emblem, commonly painted today on military aircraft to indicate which nations air force or navy they belong to. ...


Winter War

The Winter War began on November 30, 1939 by the Soviet Union bombing 21 Finnish municipalities. From the Soviet Union's estimated 5,000 airplanes in 1939 about 700 fighters and 800 medium bombers were brought to Finland for the Red Army's ground forces command. The bombardment of Finnish industry and railways was not efficient. Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov, later Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 3,000 tanks 3,800 aircraft[3][4] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[5] 126,875 dead... November 30 is the 334th day (335th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 31 days remaining. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The Finnish army had 17 bombers and 31 fighters at the beginning of the Winter War. There were 54 liaison aircraft but 20 of them were used only for messengers.


The Finnish command had learned that the new German Blitzkrieg tactics involved the destruction of enemy aircraft on the ground at their airfields. In order to prevent similar destruction, Finnish planes were decentralized to many different airfields and hidden in forests. Fake targets were made and many airfields also had shrapnel protection for the planes. As a result, Soviet air attacks on Finnish airfields were not effective. The defining characteristic of what is commonly known as Blitzkrieg is that it is a highly mobile form of mechanized warfare. ...


The Finnish Air Force shot down 218 Soviet Air planes during the Winter War while losing only 47 to enemy fire. The Finnish anti-aircraft is also said to have shot down 314 enemy planes. 30 Soviet planes were captured.


Continuation War

The Finnish Air Force was prepared better for the Continuation War, with 550 planes, many of them quite modern. Finland had bought a large number of aircraft during the Winter War, but few of those reached service during the short conflict. Now with Hawker Hurricanes, Morane-Saulnier M.S.406s, Fiat G.50s, Curtiss Hawk 75s, and Brewster Buffalos, the FiAF was much more capable of both defensive and offensive actions. The FiAF's main mission was to achieve air superiority in the beginning of the war and after that countering Soviet fighters. The fighter squadrons were very successful at protecting the Finnish offensive of 1941. A Highly modified, more maneuverable, and significantly lightened version of the American Brewster B239 (Buffalo) was the FiAF's main fighter until 1943. Results with this fighter were very good, even though the Brewster Buffalo was considered to be a failure in the US Navy. In the Finnish use, the Brewster had a victory rate of 32:1 - 459 kills while losing only 15. German Bf 109s replaced the B239 as the main fighter of the FiAF in 1943. Combatants  Finland Germany  Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Strength 250,000 (total 530,000) Finns[1] + 100,000 (total 220,000) Germans 650,000 (total ???) [2] Casualties 58,715 dead or missing 158,000 wounded 1,500 civilian casualties[3] 200,000 dead or missing 385,000 wounded... The Hawker Hurricane is a fighter design from the 1930s which was used extensively by the Royal Air Force during the Battle of Britain. ... Morane-Saulnier M.S.406 Lyon-Bron escadre of the Polish Air Forces visited by Gen. ... Fiat G.50 The Fiat G.50 Freccia (Italian: Arrow) was an Italian fighter aircraft of World War II. It was the first Italian low-wing monoplane fighter with enclosed cockpit and retractable landing gear to go into production (without the enclosed cockpit though, as Italian pilots felt uncomfortable with... The Curtiss P-36 Hawk, also know as Curtiss Hawk Model 75, was a U.S.-built fighter aircraft of the 1930s. ... The Brewster Buffalo, or Brewster F2A, was a U.S. fighter plane which saw extensive service with both Allied and Axis air forces during World War II. In spite of an undeserved reputation for poor performance, it was relatively successful in air combat. ... This article is about the year. ... The Brewster Buffalo, or Brewster F2A, was a U.S. fighter plane which saw extensive service with both Allied and Axis air forces during World War II. The fighters, derided by some American servicemen as flying coffins,[1] had a reputation for poor construction and performance, though they were relatively... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... (Bf 109 was the official Reichsluftfahrtministerium designation, though some late_war aircraft actually carried the Me 109 designation stamped onto their aircraft type plates. ...


Dornier 17s (received as a gift from Hermann Göring in 1942) and Junkers 88s gave more capacity to the bombing capability of the Finnish Air Force. The bomber units flew assorted missions with varying results, but a large part of their time was spent in training. Thus the bomber squadrons of Flying Regiment 4 were ready for the summer battles of 1944, which included for example the Battle of Tali-Ihantala. The Dornier Do 17, sometimes referred to as the Bleistift (pencil) by its pilots, was a World War II light bomber produced by Dornier that was used for a short time by the Luftwaffe. ... Hermann Wilhelm Göring (also Goering in English) (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, and commander of the Luftwaffe. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... The Junkers Ju 88 was a WW2 Luftwaffe twin-engine multi-role aircraft. ... Combatants Finland, Germany Soviet Union Commanders Lt. ...


While the FiAF was successful in its mission, the conditions were not easy. Spare parts for the FiAF planes were scarce, as the supply routes to Britain and the USA were cut. Repairs took often a long time, and the State Aircraft Factory was burdened with repairing of Soviet war booty planes, foreign types with minimal spare parts availability, and the development of own Finnish fighter types.


The Finnish Air Force did not bomb any civilian targets during either war.[citation needed] Curiously, also overflying Soviet towns and bases was forbidden, as to avoid any unneeded provocations and to spare equipment.


F-18 Hornet

The F-18 Hornet is the Finnish Air Force variant of the Boeing IDS F/A-18 Hornet multi-role attack and fighter aircraft. It lacks certain avionics, target acquisition and weapon control features, limiting its capability to engage aerial targets. The variant is also used by the Swiss Air Force. Boeing Integrated Defense Systems (Boeing IDS), based in St. ... It has been suggested that F-18 Hornet be merged into this article or section. ... A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for attacking other aircraft, as opposed to a bomber, which is designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping bombs. ... The onboard electronics used for piloting an aircraft are called avionics (AVI-ation electr-ONICS). ... The Swiss Air Force (Schweizer Luftwaffe) It was established on July 31 1914 but did not become a separate service until 1936. ...


The decision to purchase the aircraft (64 in total, with 7 two-seat F-18D models and 57 single-seated F-18C models) was made in 1992, soon after the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. The original plan was to buy about 40 western fighters and about 20 Soviet fighters due to political reasons, but the collapse of the Soviet Union removed the political reason to also buy Soviet aircraft. The plan changed to 60 single-seat + 7 dual seat fighters of the same type, and the F-18 won the contest. Due to the F-18's high price, the number of fighters to be purchased was decreased by three, to 57+7. 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ...


A key goal in the Finnish foreign policy of that era was to take no action that might be interpreted by the Soviets as a security threat; a weapons purchase of this magnitude certainly applied. Buying only NATO-compatible, American fighter jets were not possible for Finland before the U.S.S.R.'s collapse. Finland’s basic foreign policy goal, from the end of the Continuation War with the U.S.S.R. in 1944 until 1991, was to avoid great-power conflicts and to build mutual confidence with the Soviet Union. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation[1] (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ...


The primary reason for the lack of ground attack features in the aircraft is the semantic meaning of the word "attack". For example, Finland has Defence Forces, not an army — even the possibility of Finland ever attacking its neighbors is denied on all levels. This made the policy decision to purchase attack aircraft impossible in the nineties aftermath of finlandization, leading to factory reconfiguration of the F/A-18 to the F-18 variant. A similar rationale also led the Swiss Air Force to purchase 34 F-18s in 1991. A ban on bombers was also mandated by the Paris peace treaty of 1947. This ban was later unilaterally rejected by Finland, but it played a part in the original specification and the competition. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1991: Events January January 16 - American and Continental. ... A bomber is a military aircraft designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping bombs. ... The Paris Peace Conference (July 29 to October 15, 1946) resulted in the Paris peace treaties signed on February 10, 1947. ...


It is widely believed that the removed features can be reinstalled with comparative ease if a regional conflict or a similar need so dictates.


In 7th December 2004 the Finnish Air Force announced that it will reinstall the missing features in order to enable ground attack capability for the Hornets.[2] 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The F-18 Hornet is the second U.S. Navy fighter in the Finnish Air Force, following the 1939 purchase of the Brewster F2A. The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Brewster Buffalo, or Brewster F2A, was a U.S. fighter plane which saw extensive service with both Allied and Axis air forces during World War II. In spite of an undeserved reputation for poor performance, it was relatively successful in air combat. ...


Organisation


Finnish Defence Forces
Finnish Army Air Force Finnish Navy

The Air Force is organised into three commands, each of which operates a fighter squadron: Image File history File links Suomen_Puolustusvoimien_tornileijona. ... The Finnish Defence Forces (Finnish Puolustusvoimat; Swedish Försvarsmakten) is a cadre army of 16500, of which 8700 professional soldiers (officers), with a standard readiness strength of 34,700 people in uniform (27,300 army, 3,000 navy, and 4,400 air force). ... Image File history File links Suomen_Maavoimien_tunnus. ... Image File history File links Suomen_Ilmavoimien_tunnus. ... Image File history File links Suomen_Merivoimien_tunnus. ... The Finnish Army (Finnish: Maavoimat) is one of the branches of the Finnish Defence Forces. ... Finnish Naval Ensign The Finnish Navy (Finnish: Suomen merivoimat) is one of the branches of the Finnish Defence Forces. ...

  • Air Force Headquarters and Academy at Tikkakoski
  • Lapland Air Command (Fighter Squadron 11) at Rovaniemi
  • Karelia Air Command (Fighter Squadron 31) at Kuopio
  • Satakunta Air Command (Fighter Squadron 21) at Tampere
  • Support Squadron at Tikkakoski
  • C3 Systems School at Tikkakoski
  • Finnish Air Force C3I Materiel Command at Tikkakoski
  • Air Force Training Air Wing (Fighter Squadron 41) at Kauhava
  • Aircraft and Weapon Systems School at Halli
  • Flight Test Center of Air Force at Halli
  • Air Materiel Command at Tampere

The three commands are part of the Defence Forces' Readiness formations. City Rovaniemi (1960) Administrative Province Province of Lapland Historical Province Laponia Area  - Total  - Land  - Water Ranked 5th (municipalities), and 1st (cities) 8,016 km² 7,601 km² 415 km² Population  - Total (01/2006)  - Density Ranked 13th 58,500 7. ... Kuopio is a Finnish city located in the province of Eastern Finland and the region of Northern Savonia. ... Tampere (Swedish name Tammerfors) is a city in southern Finland located between two lakes: Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi. ... Kauhava is a municipality of Finland. ... Tampere (Swedish name Tammerfors) is a city in southern Finland located between two lakes: Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi. ...


Commanders

A Finnish F-18C stands on its tail.
A Finnish F-18C stands on its tail.
  • Captain Carl Seber 28.04.1918 - 13.12.1918
  • Lieutenant Colonel Torsten Aminoff 14.12.1918 - 09.01.1919
  • Colonel Sixtus Hjelmmann 10.01.1919 - 25.10.1920
  • Major Aarne Somersalo 26.10.1920 - 02.02.1926
  • Colonel Väinö Vuori 02.02.1926 - 07.09.1932
  • Lieutenant General Jarl Lundqvist 08.09.1932 - 29.06.1945
  • Lieutenant General Frans Helminen 30.06.1945 - 30.11.1952
  • Lieutenant General Reino Artola 01.12.1952 - 05.12.1958
  • Major General Fjalar Seeve 06.12.1958 - 12.09.1964
  • Lieutenant General Reino Turkki 13.09.1964 - 04.12.1968
  • Lieutenant General Eero Salmela 07.02.1969 - 21.04.1975
  • Lieutenant General Rauno Meriö 22.04.1975 - 31.01.1987
  • Lieutenant General Pertti Jokinen 01.02.1987 - 31.01.1991
  • Lieutenant General Heikki Nikunen 01.02.1991 - 30.04.1995
  • Major General Matti Ahola 01.05.1995 - 31.08.1998
  • Lieutenant General Jouni Pystynen 01.09.1998 - 31.12.2004
  • Major General Heikki Lyytinen 1.1.2005 -

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (364x618, 33 KB)F-18C Hornet, from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (364x618, 33 KB)F-18C Hornet, from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Equipment

Finnish Air Force F-18 Hornet at Rissala airport.
Finnish Air Force F-18 Hornet at Rissala airport.
  • McDD F-18 C/D Hornet (HN), fighter interceptors (63)
  • BAE Hawk Mk51/51A (HW), trainers (50). The Hawks can also be fitted with AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles and ground attack munitions. They are to be replaced by new planes, of a so far unknown model, in the next decade.
  • Learjet 35A/S (LJ), used for transportation, surveillance, target towing and aerial photography. (3)
  • Valmet L-70 Vinka (VN), trainers (28)
  • Fokker F.27 (FF), transportation aircraft (2) (will be replaced by two EADS CASA C-295M by 2008)
  • Valmet L-90 TP Redigo (RG), liaison aircraft (9)
  • Piper PA-31-350 Chieftain (PC), liaison aircraft (6)

See also List of aircraft in the Finnish Air Force. Image File history File links F18hornet_hn428_rissala. ... Image File history File links F18hornet_hn428_rissala. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with F/A-18 Hornet. ... The BAE Hawk is an advanced jet trainer which first flew in 1974 as the Hawker-Siddeley Hawk. ... Sidewinder Missile The AIM-9 Sidewinder is a heat-seeking, short-range, air-to-air missile carried by fighter aircraft and recently, certain gunship helicopters. ... ... The Valmet L-70 Vinka (Finnish: Blast) is a Finnish-designed piston-powered military basic trainer aircraft. ... The Fokker F27 Friendship is a turboprop airliner designed and built by the Dutch aircraft manufacturer Fokker. ... The Aermacchi M-290 TP RediGO is a turboprop-powered military basic trainer aircraft. ... The PA-31 Navajo was designed by Piper Aircraft to fill a gap in their product line; a large twin for the general aviation market was sorely needed in the mid-1960s, and founder W.T. Piper requested the type be developed. ... // All helicopters have been transferred to the army aviation. ...


See also

This is a list of Air forces, sorted alphabetically by country. ...

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.ilmavoimat.fi/index_en.php?id=387
  2. ^ http://www.mil.fi/ilmavoimat/tiedotteet/896.dsp

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Finnish Air Force - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (258 words)
The Finnish Air Force (Finnish: Ilmavoimat) is one of the branches of the Finnish Defence Forces.
As a separate branch of the military, the Finnish Air Force is one of the oldest in the world, having existed since the year 1918.
Finnish Air Force C3I Materiel Command at Tikkakoski
Finnish Defence Forces - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1057 words)
The Finnish Defence Forces are under the command of the Chief of Defence, who is directly subordinate to the President of the Republic in matters related to the military command.
These Finnish Jäger troops arrived in February 1918 in the white capital city of Vaasa and formed the core of the White Army in the Finnish Civil War.
According to the Finnish law the maximum simultaneous strength of the peacekeeping forces is limited to 2000 soldiers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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