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Encyclopedia > Finnic languages
Geographical distribution of Finno-Ugric (Finno-Permic in blue, Ugric in green). Also shown are the Samoyedic and Yukaghir languages (after Ruhlen, 1987)
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Geographical distribution of Finno-Ugric (Finno-Permic in blue, Ugric in green). Also shown are the Samoyedic and Yukaghir languages (after Ruhlen, 1987)

The Finno-Ugric languages form a subfamily of the Uralic languages. The majority of linguists believe that Hungarian, Finnish and Estonian, among other languages, should be included in the group. Unlike most of the other languages spoken in Europe, the Finno-Ugric languages are not part of the Indo-European family of languages. The Uralic languages also include the Samoyedic languages, and some linguists use the terms Finno-Ugric and Uralic as synonyms. Many of the smaller Finno-Ugric languages are endangered and near extinction. , drawn after Ruhlen, Merritt, A Guide to the Worlds languages, Stanford, California (1987), p. ... , drawn after Ruhlen, Merritt, A Guide to the Worlds languages, Stanford, California (1987), p. ... Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages The Uralic languages form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ... World map showing location of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages The Samoyedic languages are spoken on both sides of the Ural mountains, in northernmost Eurasia, by perhaps 30,000 speakers altogether. ...

Contents


Origins

The "Urheimat" of Proto-Finno-Ugric, the hypothetical proto-language of the modern Finno-Ugric languages, cannot be located with any certainty. The area west of the Ural mountains is generally assumed as a likely candidate, at a time of maybe the 3rd millennium BC. This is based both on linguistic migration theory, which appears to suggest a "centre of gravity" somewhere around the middle Volga River, and on reconstructed plant and animal names (notably including spruce, Siberian pine, Siberian fir, Siberian larch, brittle willow/elm, and hedgehog). Reconstructed Proto-Finno-Ugric contains Indo-Iranian loanwords, notably the words for "honeybee" and "honey", probably from the time when Indo-Iranian tribes (such as Scythians and Sarmatians) inhabited the Eurasian steppes. Urheimat (German: ur- original, ancient; Heimat home, homeland) is a linguistic term denoting the original homeland of the speakers of a proto-language. ... Proto-Finno-Ugric is the reconstructed protolanguage for the Finno-Ugric languages, that is the ancestor of the Samic languages or Finnic languages, such as Finnish, and the Ugric languages, whose best known example is Hungarian. ... Proto-language may either refer to a language that preceded a certain set of given languages, or to system of communication during a stage in glottogony that may not yet be properly called a language. ... The Ural Mountains (Russian: Ура́льские го́ры = Ура́л) also known simply as the Urals and as the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, is a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... (4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC – 2nd millennium BC – other millennia) Events Syria: Foundation of the city of Mari (29th century BC ) Iraq: Creation of the Kingdom of Elam Germination of the Bristlecone pine tree Methuselah about 2700 BC, the oldest known tree still living now Dynasty of Lagash in... Volga in Yaroslavl (autumn morning) Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge 8,000 m³/s Area watershed 1. ... Species About 35; see text. ... Binomial name Pinus sibirica The Siberian Pine (Pinus sibirica; family Pinaceae) is a species of pine tree that occurs in Siberia from 58°E in the Ural Mountains east to 126°E in the Stanovoy Khrebet mountains in southern Sakha Republic, and from Igarka at 68°N in the lower... Species See text Elms are deciduous trees of the genus Ulmus, family Ulmaceae. ... Genera Atelerix Erinaceus Hemiechinus Mesechinus A hedgehog is any of a wide variety of small quilled mammals of the order Insectivora found through parts of Europe, Asia, Africa, and New Zealand. ... Indo-Iranian languages (also called Aryan languages) are the eastern-most group of the living Indo-European languages. ... A loanword (or a borrowing) is a word taken into by one language from another. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Sarmatian Cataphract from Tanais: compare Pausanias description of armor (text below) Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (the second form is mostly used by the earlier Greek writers, the other by the later Greeks and the Romans) were a people whom Herodotus (4. ...


There is evidence that before the arrival of the Slavic tribes to the area of modern-day Russia, speakers of Finno-Ugrian languages may have been scattered across the whole area between the Urals and the Baltic Sea. This was the distribution of the Comb Ceramic Culture, a stone age culture which appears to have corresponded to the Finno-Ugric populations, c. 4200 BC–c. 2000 BC. The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainlands of Northern Europe, Eastern Europe, Central Europe, and the Danish islands. ... The Comb Ceramic Culture was a North-East European stone age culture, ca 4200 BC - 2000 BC. The name is derived from the most common decoration on the ceramic finds that look like the imprints of a comb. ... (6th millennium BC – 5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – other millennia) Events 4713 BC – The epoch (origin) of the Julian Period described by Joseph Justus Scaliger occurred on January 1, the astronomical Julian day number zero. ... (Redirected from 2000 BC) (21st century BC - 20th century BC - 19th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 2064 - 1986 BC -- Twin Dynasty wars in Egypt 2000 BC -- Farmers and herders travel south from Ethiopia and settle in Kenya. ...


There have been attempts to relate the Finno-Ugric languages to the Indo-European languages, but there are not enough similarities to link them with any certainty. Similar inflectional endings exist, but whether or not they genetically related is not resolvable. Common lexicon not attestable to borrowing is thin, and no sound laws are established. Conversely, there have been suggestions that the Germanic languages evolved from an Indo-European language such as Celtic imposed on a Finnic substrate, but no satisfactory proof yet exists. (On the other hand, it is now believed that Germanic was initially much more akin to Balto-Slavic and moved closer to Celtic during its protohistoric development.) The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... The Germanic languages form one of the branches of the Indo-European (IE) language family, spoken by the Germanic peoples who settled in northern Europe along the borders of the Roman Empire. ... Celtic languages are the languages spoken by the ancient Celts and their modern descendants, the Gaels, Welsh, Cornish and Bretons. ... In linguistics, a substratum is a language which influences another one while that second language supplants it. ... The Balto-Slavic language group is a hypothetical language group consisting of the Baltic and Slavic language subgroups of the Indo-European family. ... Celtic languages are the languages spoken by the ancient Celts and their modern descendants, the Gaels, Welsh, Cornish and Bretons. ...


A portion of the Baltic-Finnic lexicon is not shared with the remaining Finno-Ugric languages and may be due to a pre-Finnic substrate, which may coincide in part with the substrate of the Indo-European Baltic languages. As far as the Samic (Lappic) languages are concerned, a hypothesis has been advanced that the Sami were originally speakers of a different language, who adopted their current Finno-Ugric speech under the pressure of their Finnic neighbors. In linguistics, a substratum is a language which influences another one while that second language supplants it. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... The Baltic languages are a group of genetically-related languages spoken in the Northern Europe and belonging to the Indo-European language family. ... Sami flag The Sami people (there are other names and spellings including Sámi, Saami and Lapp) are an indigenous people of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and Russia, covering a total area in the Nordic countries corresponding to the size of Sweden. ... Sami flag The Sami people (there are other names and spellings including Sámi, Saami and Lapp) are an indigenous people of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and Russia, covering a total area in the Nordic countries corresponding to the size of Sweden. ...


History

The first mention of a Uralic people is in Tacitus' Germania, mentioning the Finns as adjacent to Germanic territory. In the late 15th century, European scholars noted the resemblance of the names Hungaria and Yugria, the names of settlements east of the Ural. They assumed a connection, but did not look into linguistic evidence. In 1671, Swedish scholar Georg Stiernhielm commented on the similarities of Lapp, Estonian and Finnish, and also on a few similar words in Finnish and Hungarian, while the German scholar Martin Vogel tried to establish a relationship between Finnish, Lapp and Hungarian. These two authors were thus the first to outline what was to become the classification of a Finno-Ugric family. In 1717, Swedish professor Olaf Rudbeck proposed about 100 etymologies connecting Finnish and Hungarian, of which about 40 are still considered valid (Collinder, 1965). In the same year, the German scholar J. G. von Eckhart (published in Leibniz' Collectanea Etymologica) for the first time proposed a relation to the Samoyedic languages. By 1770, all constituents of Finno-Ugric were known, almost 20 years before the traditional starting-point of Indo-European studies. Nonetheless, these relationships were not widely accepted. Especially Hungarian intellectuals were not interested in the theory and preferred to assume connections with Turkic tribes, an attitude characterized by Ruhlen (1987) as due to "the wild unfettered Romanticism of the epoch". Still, in spite of the hostile climate, the Hungarian Jesuit J. Sajnovics suggested a relationship of Hungarian and Lapp in 1770, and in 1799, the Hungarian Samuel Gyarmathi published the most complete work on Finno-Ugric to that date. Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius or Gaius Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... The Germania (Latin title: De Origine et situ Germanorum), written by Gaius Cornelius Tacitus around 98, is an ethnographic work on the diverse set of Germanic tribes outside the Roman Empire. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Events May 9 - Thomas Blood, disguised as a clergyman, attempts to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. ... Georg Stiernhielm (August 7, 1598 - April 22, 1672) was a Swedish civil servant, linguist and poet. ... // Events January 4 — The Netherlands, Britain & France sign Triple Alliance February 26-March 6 What is now the northeastern United States was paralyzed by a series of blizzards that buried the region. ... Gottfried Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (also Leibnitz) (Leipzig July 1 (June 21 O.S.), 1646 – November 14, 1716 in Hannover) was a German philosopher, scientist, mathematician, diplomat, librarian, and lawyer of Sorb descent. ... Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages The Samoyedic languages are spoken on both sides of the Ural mountains, in northernmost Eurasia, by perhaps 30,000 speakers altogether. ... 1770 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Indo-European studies is a field of linguistics, dealing with the Indo-European languages. ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


At the beginning of the 19th century, research on Finno-Ugric was thus more advanced than Indo-European research. But the rise of Indo-European comparative linguistics absorbed so much attention and enthusiasm that Finno-Ugric linguistics was all but eclipsed in Europe; in Hungary, the only European country that would have had a vested interest in the family (Finland and Estonia being under Russian rule), the political climate was too hostile for the development of Uralic comparative linguistics. Some progress was made, however, culminating in the work of the German Jozsef Budenz, who for 20 years was the leading Finno-Ugric specialist in Hungary. Another late-19th-century contribution is that of Hungarian linguist Ignac Halasz, who published extensive comparative material of Finno-Ugric and Samoyedic in the 1890s, and whose work is at the base of the wide acceptance of the Samoyed-Finno-Ugric relationship today. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the Mauve Decade, because William Henry Perkins aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that color in fashion, and also as the Gay Nineties, under the then-current usage of the word gay which referred simply to merriment and frivolity, with no...


During the 1990s, linguists Kalevi Wiik, Janos Pusztay and Ago Künnap and historian Kyösti Julku announced a "breakthrough in Present-Day Uralistics", dating Proto-Finnic to 10,000 BC. The theory was almost entirely unsuccessful in the scientific community (cf. Merlijn de Smit, see external links). // Events and trends The 1990s are generally classified as having moved slightly away from the more conservative 1980s, but otherwise retaining the same mindset. ...


Structural features

All of the Finno-Ugric languages share structural features and basic vocabulary. Around 200 basic words have been proposed and include word stems for concepts related to humans such as names for relatives and body parts. This common vocabulary includes, according to Lyle Campbell, at least 55 words related to fishing, 33 related to hunting and eating animals, 12 related to reindeer, 17 related to plant foods, 31 related to technology, 26 related to building, 11 related to clothing, 18 related to climate, 4 related to society, 11 related to religion, and 3 related to commerce, giving an interesting picture of proto-Finno-Ugric society. Binomial name Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus, 1758) The reindeer, known as caribou in North America, is an Arctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ...


The structural features are seen by linguists as strong evidence for a common ancestry. These include inflection by adding suffixes (instead of prepositions in English). The Finno-Ugric languages are also famous for having a large number of grammatical cases, of which Finnish has at least 15 and Hungarian has at least 24. Inflection or inflexion refers to a modification or marking of a word (or more precisely lexeme) so that it reflects grammatical (i. ... Suffix has meanings in linguistics and nomenclature. ... In grammar, a preposition is a type of adposition, a grammatical particle that establishes a relationship between an object (usually a noun phrase) and some other part of the sentence, often expressing a location in place or time. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... In linguistics, declension is a feature of inflected languages: generally, the alteration of a noun to indicate its grammatical role. ...


Another feature of the Finno-Ugric languages is that verbs are inflected, i.e. conjugated, by person and number. (This is the familiar way verbs are conjugated in most Indo-European languages; but Chinese, Vietnamese and other isolating languages do not share this feature.) A verb is a part of speech that usually denotes action (bring, read), occurrence (to decompose (itself), to glitter), or a state of being (exist, live, soak, stand). Depending on the language, a verb may vary in form according to many factors, possibly including its tense, aspect, mood and voice. ... Inflection or inflexion refers to a modification or marking of a word (or more precisely lexeme) so that it reflects grammatical (i. ... In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (regular alteration according to rules of grammar). ... The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... An analytic language (or isolating language) is a language in which the vast majority of morphemes are free morphemes and considered to be full-fledged words. By contrast, in a synthetic language, a word is composed of agglutinated or fused morphemes that denote its syntactic meanings. ...


Finally, the Finno-Ugric languages lack possessive pronouns, such as my and your, communicating the same information via declension. In some languages, the genitive of the personal pronoun is used to express possession. Examples: Estonian mu koer 'my dog' (literally 'I-gen. dog'), Northern Sami mu beana 'my dog' (literally 'I-gen. dog') or beatnagan 'my dog' (literally 'dog-my'). In others, a pronominal suffix is used, optionally together with the genitive case of a pronoun: thus Finnish (minun) koirani, 'my dog' (literally 'I-gen. dog-my'), from koira "dog". Similarly, Hungarian, lacking determinative possessive pronouns, uses possessive noun suffixes, optionally together with pronouns; cf. 'the dog' = a kutya vs. 'my dog' = az én kutyám (literally, 'the I dog-my') or simply a kutyám (literally, 'the dog-my'). Hungarian, however, does have independent possessive pronouns; e.g. enyém 'mine', tiéd 'yours', etc. These are declined; e.g. nom. enyém, acc. enyémet, dat. enyémnek, etc. A possessive pronoun is a word that attributes ownership to someone or something without using a noun. ... In linguistics, declension is a feature of inflected languages: generally, the alteration of a noun to indicate its grammatical role. ... The genitive case is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship, primarily one of possession, between the noun in the genitive case and another noun. ... Northern Saami (also, Sámi or Sami, formerly Lapp) can be divided into a three major dialect groups: Torne, Finnmark and Sea Saami. ... A possessive pronoun is a word that attributes ownership to someone or something without using a noun. ... A possessive pronoun is a word that attributes ownership to someone or something without using a noun. ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun. ... The accusative case of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a verb. ... The dative case is a grammatical case generally used to indicate the noun to whom something is given. ...


Classification

It is generally agreed that the Finno-Ugric subfamily of the Uralic languages has the following members: Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages The Uralic languages form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ...


Ugric (Ugrian)

Finno-Permic (Permian-Finnic) Khanty language, also known as the Ostyak language (Хантыйский язык, Остяцкий язык in Russian), is a language of the Khant peoples. ... Mansi language, also known as Vogul language (Мансийский язык, Вогульский язык in Russian), is a language of the Mansi people. ...

Permic languages is a subgroup of the Finno-Ugric language family. ... Komi-Zyrian, (Коми Кыв - Komi Kyv) or simply Zyrian or Zyryan, is a Finno-Ugric language of the Permic branch spoken by the Komi-Zyrians ethnic group in Komi Republic and some other parts of Russia. ... Коми-Пермяцкӧй (Komi-Permjacköj) Komi-Permyak is spoken in the Autonomous district of the Komi-Permyaks, Russia, in the basin of the Kama River. ... Udmurt (удмурт кыл, udmurt kyl) is a Finno-Ugric language spoken by the Udmurts, native of the Russian constituent republic of Udmurtia, where it is co-official with the Russian language. ... Mari, or Cheremis, is a language of the Finno-Ugric family. ... Erzyan (Эрзянь Кель (Erzjanj Kelj)) is spoken in the northern and eastern parts of the republic of Mordovia and adjacent Nizhniy Novgorod, Chuvashia, Penza, Samara, Saratov, Orenburg, Ulyanovsk, Tatarstan and Bashkortostan in Russia. ... The Mokshan language (Moksha), мокшень кяль (Mokshanj kälj) is spoken in West part of the Republic of Mordovia and adjacent Penza, Ryazan, Tambov, Saratov, Samara, Orenburg, Tatarstan, Bashkortostan in Russia. ... The Merya language was the Finno-Ugric language spoken by the Merya tribe, which lived in what is today the Moscow region. ... Meshcherian was the Finno-Ugric language spoken by the Meshchera tribe, in what is today the Oka River basin in Russia. ... Muromian was the Finno-Ugric language spoken by the Muromian tribe, in what is today the Murom region in Russia. ... Sami is a general name for a group of Finno-Ugric languages spoken in parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia, in Northern Europe. ... Southern Saami is divided into two main dialects: Southern Saami sensu stricto and Ume Saami. ... Ume Sami is a Sami language spoken in Sweden and Norway. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Pite Sami is a Sami language spoken in Sweden and Norway. ... Northern Saami (also, Sámi or Sami, formerly Lapp) can be divided into a three major dialect groups: Torne, Finnmark and Sea Saami. ... Kemi Sami is a dialect of the Sami originally spoken in the southernmost district of Finnish Lapland as far south as the Sami siidas around Kuusamo. ... Inari Saami (Säämegiella) is spoken in northern Finland. ... Akkala Sami is a Sami language spoken in Russia. ... Kildin Saami is spoken by apprx 500 people at the Kola Peninsula in northwestern Russia. ... Skolt Sami (Sää´mǩiõll) is a Finno-Ugric, Sami language spoken in Finland and nearby parts of Russia. ... Ter Sami is a Sami language spoken in the esatern region of the Kola peninsula. ... Geographical distribution of Finno-Ugric (Finno-Permic in blue, Ugric in green). ... Meänkieli means in Swedish Tornedalen Finnish, but written in two words it means literally our language. Meänkieli was the informal term used by local people signifying the spoken variety in the minority region of northern Sweden. ... The Ingrian Finns (inkeriläinen or inkerin suomalainen) is a Lutheran Finnic people traditionally inhabiting the Saint Petersburg area and Northern Estonia (Ingria). ... The Izhorians (Inkeroine, Ižoralaine) can still be found in the western part of Ingria, between the Narva and Neva rivers. ... The Karelian language is a variety closely related to Finnish. ... The Karelian language is a variety closely related to Finnish. ... Ludic or Ludian is a Baltic Finnic language in the Uralic language family. ... Olonets-Karelian (East Karelian, Livvi) is the variety of Karelian language spoken by Olonets-Karelians, traditionally inhabiting the area of the Olonka River. ... Livonian (LÄ«võ kēļ) belongs to the Finnic branch of the Finno-Ugric languages. ... Veps language, spoken by Vepses, belongs to the Baltic-Finnic group of the Finno-Ugric languages. ... Võro language area - Võromaa (Võro county) in its historical boundaries between Tartu and Seto areas, Russia (Vinnemaa) and Latvia (Läti) The Võro language (võro kiil´), like Estonian, Hungarian, and Finnish, is a Finno-Ugric language. ... Votic or Votian is the language spoken by the Votes of Ingria. ...

Disputes

The classification of Finno-Ugric within Uralic, and of Finnic and Ugric within Finno-Ugric, is accepted by practically all scholars. Dispute is at present largely confined to the Finno-Permic family, surrounding different proposals for the arrangement of the its subgroups and regarding the validity of the Volgaic group.


The term Volgaic denoted a branch believed to include Mari and Mordvinic languages, but it has now become obsolete: research has shown that it was a geographic classification rather than a linguistic one. The Mordvinic languages are more closely related to the Finno-Lappic languages than they are to the Mari languages.


Another dispute surrounds the affinity of the Yukaghir languages, which is traditionally regarded as a language isolate, with some scholars proposing a strong affinity to Uralic (Collinder, 1965). Geographical distribution of Yukaghir, Finnic, Ugric and Samoyedic languages The Yukaghir languages are a family of related languages spoken in Russia by the Yukaghir, a Siberian people, living in the basin of the Kolyma River. ... A language isolate is a natural language with no demonstrable genetic relationship with other living languages; that is, one that has not been proven to descend from a common ancestor to any other language. ...


The relation of the Finno-Permic and the Ugric groups is remote by some standards. With a time depth of only 3 or 4 thousand years, it is far younger than many major families such as Indo-European or Semitic, and about the same age as, for instance, the Eastern subfamily of Nilotic. But the grouping is still far from transparent — the absence of early records constitutes an obstacle to exact reconstruction not found in, for example, Indo-European or Semitic. While much has been speculatively deduced about the Finno-Ugric Urheimat, little is certain, and, of course, the relatedness of the languages does not necessarily imply any racial or cultural unity of the peoples speaking them. The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... 12th century Hebrew Bible script The Semitic languages are a family of languages spoken by more than 250 million people across much of the Middle East, where they originated, and North and East Africa. ... The Eastern Nilotic languages are one of the three primary branches of the Nilotic languages, themselves belonging to the Eastern Sudanic subfamily of Nilo-Saharan; they are believed to have begun to diverge about 3,000 years ago, and have spread southwards from an original home in Equatoria in the... The Nilotic languages are a group of Eastern Sudanic languages spoken across a wide area between southern Sudan and Tanzania by the Nilotic peoples, particularly associated with cattle-herding. ... Urheimat (German: ur- original, ancient; Heimat home, homeland) is a linguistic term denoting the original homeland of the speakers of a proto-language. ...


Linguists criticizing the Finno-Ugric group (e.g. Angela Marcantonio, see References) believe that Ugric and Finnic are more distantly related than proponents advertise, and possibly are no closer than the Turkic and Ugric groups. These linguists propose an Ural-Altaic supergroup. Such proposals do not contest the ultimate relatedness of Finno-Ugric, but rather try to include more languages (on even more tenuous grounds) into the family. Other supergroups have been advanced (Uralo-Dravidian, Finno-Basque, Hungaro-Sumerian) but are almost universally regarded as spurious. Geographical distribution of Finno-Ugric (Finno-Permic in blue, Ugric in green). ... The Ural-Altaic language family is a grouping of languages which was once widely accepted by linguists, but has since been largely rejected. ...


Common vocabulary

This is a small sample of cognates in basic vocabulary across Uralic, illustrating the sound laws (based on the Encyclopædia Britannica and Hakkinen 1979). Note that in general two cognates don't have the same meaning; they merely have the same origin. Thus, the English word in each row should be regarded as an approximation of the original meaning, not a translation of the other words. Cognates are words that have a common origin. ...

English Finnish Estonian North Sami Inari Sami Mari Komi Khanty Hungarian Finno-Ugric reconstruction
heart sydän, sydäm- süda, südam- čotta, čoddaga - šüm śələm səm szív *śiδä(-mɜ) / *śüδä(-mɜ)
lap syli süli salla, sala solla šəl syl jöl öl *süle / *sile
vein suoni soon suotna, suona suona šön sən jan ín 'sinew, tendon' *sōne / *se̮ne
go mennä, men- minna, min- mannat moonnađ mije- mun- mən- menni, megy  ?
fish kala kala guolli, guoli kyeli kol - kul hal  ?
hand käsi, käte-
gen. käden, part. kättä
käsi, kät-
gen. käe, part. kätt
giehta, gieđa kieta kit ki köt kéz *käte
eye silmä silm čalbmi, čalmmi čalme, šalme šinča śin sem szem *śilmä
one yksi, yhte-
gen. yhden, part. yhtä
üks, üht-
gen. ühe, part. üht(e)
okta, ovtta ohta ikte ət'ik ĭt egy  ?
two kaksi, kahte-
gen. kahden, part. kahta
kaks, kaht-
gen. kahe, part. kaht(e)
guokte kyeh´ti kokət kyk kät kettő/két *kakta / *käktä
three kolme kolm golbma kulma kumət kujim koləm három *kolme / *kulme
ice jää jää jiekŋa, jieŋa jiena ij ji jöŋk jég *jäŋe
louse täi täi dihkki tikke tij toj tögtəm tetű  ?

(Orthographical notes: The hacek (š) denotes postalveolar articulation, while the accent (ś) denotes a secondary palatal articulation. The Finnish letter 'y' [y] represents the same phoneme (a rounded or centralized [i]) as the letter 'ü' in other languages. The voiced dental spirant [ð] is the origin of the standard Finnish 'd', which is realized differently in each dialect today. The same sound is marked with the letter đ in the Sami languages. The Sami 'č' is a voiceless postalveolar affricate [ʧ]. Hungarian 'gy' is the palatalized [dʲ], not a 'g'.) The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Northern Saami (also, Sámi or Sami, formerly Lapp) can be divided into a three major dialect groups: Torne, Finnmark and Sea Saami. ... Inari Saami (Säämegiella) is spoken in northern Finland. ... Mari, or Cheremis, is a language of the Finno-Ugric family. ... . Komi language edition of Wikipedia The Komi language, also known as Zyrian, or Komi-Zyrian, is a language spoken by the Komi peoples in the northeastern European part of Russia. ... Khanty language, also known as the Ostyak language (Хантыйский язык, Остяцкий язык in Russian), is a language of the Khant peoples. ...


Numbers

The numbers from 1 to 10 in Finnish, Estonian, Võro, North Sami, Erzya, Meadow Mari, Mansi, Hungarian, and Proto-Finno-Ugric.

Number Finnish Estonian Võro North Sami Inari Sami Erzya Meadow Mari Mansi Hungarian Proto-F-U
1 yksi üks ütś okta ohta vejke ikte akva egy *ykte
2 kaksi kaks katś guokte kyeh´ti kavto kokət kityg kettő *kakte
3 kolme kolm kolm golbma kulma kolmo kumət hurum három *kolm-
4 neljä neli nelli njeallje nelji ńiľe nələt nila négy *neljä-
5 viisi viis viiś vihtta vitta veƭe wizət at öt *vit(t)e
6 kuusi kuus kuuś guhtta kutta koto kuδət hot hat *kut(t)e
7 seitsemän seitse säidse čieža čiččam śiśem šəmət sat hét n/a
8 kahdeksan kaheksa katõsa gávcci käävci kavkso kandaš(e) ńololov nyolc n/a
9 yhdeksän üheksa ütesä ovcci oovce vejkse indeš(e) ontolov kilenc n/a
10 kymmenen kümme kümme logi love kemeń lu lov tíz n/a

One reconstruction for numbers 8 and 9 is *kak+teksa '10–2' and *yk+teksa '10–1', where *teksa cf. deka is a Indo-European loan; notice that the difference between /t/ and /d/ is not phonemic, unlike in Indo-European.


Finno-Ugric Swadesh lists

100-word Swadesh lists for certain Finno-Ugric languages can be compared and contrasted at the Rosetta Project website: Finnish, Estonian, Hungarian, Erzya. Notice that particularly the Finnish list is unreliable, because it contains several neologisms or formal words, e.g. henkilö (from henki life + place suffix) instead of the more commonly used ihminen, which is a Baltic Finnic word. The Finnish list has also spelling errors suggesting it was compiled by a person who does not know Finnish. A Swadesh list is a tool of glottochronology, proposed by Morris Swadesh (1950). ... The Rosetta Project is a global collaboration of language specialists and native speakers working to develop a contemporary version of the historic Rosetta Stone to last from 2000 to 2100. ...


See also

Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages The Uralic languages form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ...

External links

  • [1] A more comprehensive link collection
  • FAQ about Finno-Ugrian Languages
  • Linguistic Shadow-Boxing Johanna Laakso's book review of Angela Marcantonio's "The Uralic language family. Facts, myths and statistics"
  • Uralic Linguistics Vs. Voodoo Science! A collection of links about the "new paradigm" debate by Merlijn de Smit
  • Numbers in Asian languages Counting to ten in a variety of languages
  • Ugri.info Finno-Ugric peoples infobase

References

  • Benkő, Loránd: Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Ungarischen (Etymological Dictionary of Hungarian). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1992-1997., ISBN 9630562278
  • Collinder, Björn: Fenno-Ugric Vocabulary. Uppsala, 1955, ISBN 3871181870.
  • Collinder, Björn: An introduction to the Uralic languages. Berkely, California
  • Campbell, Lyle: Historical Linguistics: An Introduction. Edinburgh University Press 1998.
  • Csepregi Márta (ed.): Finnugor kalauz (Finno-Ugric Guide). Budapest: Panoráma, 1998., ISBN 9632438620
  • Encyclopædia Britannica 15th ed.: Languages of the World: Uralic languages. Chicago, 1990.
  • Häkkinen, Kaisa: Suomalais-ugrilaisten kielten etymologisen tutkimuksen asemasta ja ongelmista (About the situation and problems of the etymological research of the Finno-Ugric languages) (1979), in Nykysuomen rakenne ja kehitys (Structure and development of modern Finnish) volume 2, (NRJK 2) Pieksämäki 1984, ISBN 951-717-360-1.
  • Laakso, Johanna: Karhunkieli. Pyyhkäisyjä suomalais-ugrilaisten kielten tutkimukseen (A Bear Tongue. Views on the Research of the Finno-Ugric Languages). Helsinki: SKS, 1999.
  • Laakso, Johanna (ed.): Uralilaiset kansat (Uralic Peoples). Porvoo - Helsinki - Juva: WSOY, 1992, ISBN 951-0-16485-2.
  • Marcantonio, Angela: What Is the Linguistic Evidence to Support the Uralic Theory or Theories? - In Linguistica Uralica 40, 1, pp 40-45, 2004.
  • Marcantonio, Angela: The Uralic Language Family: Facts, Myths and Statistics. 2003.
  • Marcantonio, Angela, Pirjo Nummenaho, and Michela Salvagni: The "Ugric-Turkic Battle": A Critical Review. In Linguistica Uralica 37, 2, pp 81-102, 2001. Online version.
  • Ruhlen, Merritt, A Guide to the World's languages, Stanford, California (1987), pp. 64–71.
  • Sammallahti, Pekka: Historical phonology of the Uralic languages. - In: Denis Sinor (ed.), The Uralic languages. Description, history and foreign influences. Leiden - New York - København - Köln: Brill, 1998.
  • Sammallahti, Pekka, Matti Morottaja: Säämi - suoma - säämi škovlasänikirje (Inari Sami - Finnish - Inari Sami School Dictionary). Helsset/Helsinki: Ruovttueatnan gielaid dutkanguovddaš/Kotimaisten kielten tutkimuskeskus, 1983, ISBN 951-9475-36-2.
  • Sammallahti, Pekka: Sámi - suoma - sámi sátnegirji (Northern Sami - Finnish - Northern Sami Dictionary). Ohcejohka/Utsjoki: Girjegiisá, 1993, ISBN 951-8939-28-4.
  • Sinor, Denis (ed.): Studies in Finno-Ugric Linguistics: In Honor of Alo Raun (Indiana University Uralic and Altaic Series : Volume 131). Indiana Univ Research, 1977, ISBN 0933070004.
  • Vikør, Lars S. (ed.): Fenno-Ugric. In: The Nordic Languages. Their Status and Interrelations. Novus Press, pp. 62-74, 1993.
  • Языки народов СССР III. Финно-угорские и самоитйские языки (Languages of the Peoples in the USSR III. Finno-Ugric and Samoyedic Languages). Москва (Moscow): Наука (Nauka), 1966.
  • A magyar szókészlet finnugor elemei. Etimológiai szótár (The Hungarian Vocabulary of Finno-Ugric Origin. Etymological Dictionary). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1967-1978.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Finnish language (2672 words)
It is a member of the Finno-Ugric language family and is an agglutinative language which modifies the forms of both noun and adjective depending on their roles in the sentence.
It is believed that the Baltic Finnic languages evolved from a proto-Finnic language, from which Sami was separated around 1500–1000 BC.
Finnish is an agglutinative language and an inflected language which modifies both noun and verb forms depending on their role in the sentence.
Uralic (from language) --  Britannica Student Encyclopedia (778 words)
Finnish, Estonian, and Lapp are the best-known Finnic languages.
Sami, or Lapp, is the language of the Sami people of Lapland and is spoken mostly in Norway, Sweden, and Finland.
The language belongs to the Germanic group of the Indo-European language family and is similar to Danish and Swedish.
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