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Encyclopedia > Finland
Suomen tasavalta
Republiken Finland
Republic of Finland
Flag of Finland Coat of arms of Finland
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemMaamme  (Finnish)
Vårt land  (Swedish)
Location of  Finland  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (light green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (light green)  —  [ Legend] Finland is a country in northern Europe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Finland. ... Flag ratio: 11:18 Flag ratio: 11:18 Flag ratio: 11:19 The flag of Finland, also called Siniristilippu (The Blue-Cross Flag), dates from the beginning of the 20th century, and is modelled on the Danish flag, the Dannebrog. ... The Coat of Arms of Finland were granted for the sarcophagus of Gustav Vasa around 1580 and still remain the arms of the Republic of Finland. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Maamme in The Tales of Ensign StÃ¥l Our Land, Maamme (Finnish), or VÃ¥rt land (Swedish), is the title of Finlands de facto national anthem. ... Maamme in The Tales of Ensign StÃ¥l Our Land, Maamme (Finnish), or VÃ¥rt land (Swedish), is the title of Finlands de facto national anthem. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 721 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2056 × 1710 pixel, file size: 178 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 721 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2056 × 1710 pixel, file size: 178 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Capital
(and largest city)
Helsinki
60°10′N, 24°56′E
Official languages Finnish, Swedish
Demonym Finnish, Finn
Government Parliamentary republic1
 -  President Tarja Halonen (sd)
 -  Prime Minister Matti Vanhanen (c)
Independence from Russian Empire 
 -  Autonomy March 29, 1809 
 -  Declared December 6, 1917 
 -  Recognised January 4, 1918 
EU accession January 1, 1995
Area
 -  Total 338,145 km² (65th)
130,558 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 10,0
Population
 -  2008 estimate 5,308,208[1] (111th)
 -  2000 census 5,155,000 
 -  Density 16/km² (201st)
40/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2005 estimate
 -  Total $163 billion (52nd)
 -  Per capita $34,819 (12th)
GDP (nominal) 2005 estimate
 -  Total $193.491 billion (31st)
 -  Per capita $44,912 (12th)
Gini (2000) 26.9 (low
HDI (2007) 0.952 (high) (11th)
Currency Euro ()² (EUR)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Internet TLD .fi, .ax ³
Calling code +358
1 Semi-presidential system
2 Before 2002: Finnish markka
3 The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

Finland, officially the Republic of Finland[2] (Finnish: Suomi; Swedish: Finland ), is a Nordic country situated in Northern Europe. It has borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, and Norway to the north, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland. The capital city is Helsinki. Not to be confused with capitol. ... Finland numbers some five million inhabitants and has an average population density of 17 inhabitants per square kilometre. ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Mayor Jussi Pajunen Area  - Total 187. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Finns may refer to: Finnish people the Fenni described by Tacitus in his Germania. ... Parliamentary republics around the world, shown in Orange (Parliamentary republics with a non-executive President) and Green (Parliamentary republics with an executive President linked to Parliament). ... The President of Finland is the Head of State of Finland. ... {{Infobox President|name= Tarja Halonen |order=11th President of Finland |image=Finland. ... The Social Democratic Party of Finland (SDP) is one of the most influential political parties in Finland, along with the Centre Party and the Coalition Party. ... The Prime Minister (Finnish Pääministeri, Swedish: Statsminister) is the head of government in Finland. ... Matti Taneli Vanhanen ( ) (born November 4, 1955, in Jyväskylä) is the current Prime Minister of Finland, as well as Chairman of the Centre Party. ... The Centre Party (in Finnish: Suomen Keskusta, ) is a centrist political party in Finland. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Bolshevist government led by Lenin approve Finlands independence The Finnish declaration of independence was adopted by the Parliament of Finland on 6 December 1917. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ... World map of GDP (Nominal and PPP). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Map of countries by 2006 GDP (nominal) per capita (IMF, October 2007). ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... The euro (€; ISO 4217 code EUR) is the currency of twelve of the twenty-five nations that form the European Union (and four outside it, as well as Montenegro and Kosovo), which form the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .fi is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Finland. ... The government of the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD). ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Country Code: 358 International Call Prefix: 00 Finlands numbering plan was reorganised in 1996, with the number of area codes being reduced, and the trunk code being changed from 9 to 0. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... The markka or mark was the currency used in Finland from 1861 until January 1, 1999, when it was replaced by the euro (€). The currency code used for the markka was FIM, and the usual familiar notation was a postfix mk. ... Image File history File links Suomi_Finland. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Mayor Jussi Pajunen Area  - Total 187. ...


Around 5.3 million people reside in Finland, with the majority concentrated in the southern part of country.[1] It is the eighth largest country in Europe in terms of area and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union. Most Finns are native in Finnish, which is related to Estonian and is one of the few official EU languages not of Indo-European origin. The largest minority language, Swedish, is spoken natively by 5.5 percent of the population.[3] Finland is a democratic, parliamentary republic with a central government and local governments in 415 municipalities. Greater Helsinki (including Helsinki, Espoo, and Vantaa) totals a million residents and a third of the GDP. Other major cities include Tampere, Turku, and Oulu. Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... Chameleon, a symbol of the multilingualism of the European Union. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ...  Officially monolingual Finnish-speaking municipalities (Sami bilingual municipalities not shown)  Bilingual municipalities with Finnish as the majority language  Bilingual municipalities with Swedish as the majority language  Monolingual Swedish-speaking municipalities (including Ã…land) More than 17,000 Swedish Finns live in officially monolingual Finnish municipalities, and are thus not represented on... // In ancient times, India, Greece, and Rome had governments similar to constitutional democracies. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule of law, popular sovereignty and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ... Map of the Metropolitan Area (Light Green) and the Capital Region (Dark Green). ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Mayor Jussi Pajunen Area  - Total 187. ... Founded 1972 Province Southern Finland Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Area - Of which land - Rank 528 km² 312 km² ranked 279th Population - Density - Change - Rank 229,443 (2005) 729 inh. ... Founded 1974 Province Southern Finland Region Uusimaa Sub-region Greater Helsinki Area - Of which land - Rank 243 km² 240,84 km² ranked 316th Population - Density - Rank 190 058 (2007) 790. ... Tampere ( , IPA: ; Swedish: Tammerfors ) is a city in southern Finland located between two lakes, Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi. ... For the traditional Turkish folk songs, see Türkü. Location of Turku in Northern Europe Location of Turku in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Finland Proper Sub-region Turku sub-region Government  - Mayor Mikko Pukkinen Area  - City 306. ... Location of Oulu in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Finland Province Oulu Province Region Northern Ostrobothnia Sub-region Oulu sub-region Charter 1605 Government  - City manager Matti Pennanen Area  - City 449. ...


Finland was historically part of Sweden and from 1809 an autonomous Grand Duchy within the Russian Empire. Finland's declaration of independence in 1917 from Russia was followed by a civil war, wars against the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany, and the period of Finlandization during the Cold War. Finland joined the European Union in 1995 and participates in the Eurozone. The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... The Bolshevist government led by Lenin approve Finlands independence The Finnish declaration of independence was adopted by the Parliament of Finland on 6 December 1917. ... Finnish ski troops in Northern Finland in January 1940 The Military history of Finland during World War II covers the history of Finland from 1939 to 1944. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The Eurozone (less frequently called the Euro Area or Euroland) refers to a currency union among the European Union member states that have adopted the euro as their sole official currency. ...


Finland has seen excellent results in many international comparisons of national performance such as the share of high-technology manufacturing, the rate of gross domestic product growth, and the protection of civil liberties.[4] This article is about the country in northern Europe. ...

History

Main article: History of Finland

The land area that now makes up Finland was settled immediately after the Ice Age, beginning from around 8500 BC. Finland was part of Kingdom of Sweden from the 13th century to 1809, when it was ceded to the Russian Empire becoming the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. ...

Prehistory

Prehistoric red ochre painted rock art of moose, human figures and boats in Astuvansalmi in Ristiina, the Southern Savonia region from ca. 3800–2200 BCE.
Prehistoric red ochre painted rock art of moose, human figures and boats in Astuvansalmi in Ristiina, the Southern Savonia region from ca. 3800–2200 BCE.[5]

According to archaeological evidence, the area now composing Finland was first settled around 8500 BCE during the Stone Age as the ice shield of the last ice age receded. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers, living primarily off what the tundra and sea could offer. Pottery is known from around 5300 BCE (see Comb Ceramic culture).The arrival of the Battle Axe culture (or Cord-Ceramic culture) in southern coastal Finland around 3200 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture. However, the earliest certain records of agriculture are from the late third millennium BCE. Even with the introduction of agriculture, hunting and fishing continued to be important parts of the subsistence economy, especially in the northern and eastern parts of the country. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 678 KB) Prehistoric paintings from Astuvansalmi. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 678 KB) Prehistoric paintings from Astuvansalmi. ... Red ochre and yellow ochre (pronounced //, from the Greek ochros, yellow) are pigments made from naturally tinted clay. ... Rock art is a term in archaeology for any man-made markings made on natural stone. ... Ristiina (Kristina in Swedish) is a municipality of Finland. ... Southern Savonia is a region (maakunta / landskap) in the south-east of Finland. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... Europe and surrounding areas in the 9th millennium BC. Blue areas are covered in ice. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... For other uses, see Tundra (disambiguation). ... (7th millennium BC – 6th millennium BC – 5th millennium BC – other millennia) Events c. ... The Comb Ceramic Culture or the Pit-Comb Ware culture was a North-East European stone age culture, ca 4200 BC - 2000 BC. The name is derived from the most common decoration on the ceramic finds that look like the imprints of a comb. ... Approximate extent of the Corded Ware horizon with adjacent 3rd millennium cultures (after EIEC). ... (33rd century BC - 32nd century BC - 31st century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Varna nekropol: The oldest gold in the world found near Varna lake. ... (4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC – 2nd millennium BC – Syria) (29th century BC ) Creation of the Kingdom of Elam (Iraq) Germination of the Bristlecone pine tree Methuselah about 2700 BC, the oldest tree still living now Dynasty of Lagash in Sumeria Golden age of Ur in Mesopotamia. ...


The Bronze Age (1500–500 BCE) and Iron Age (500 BCE – 1200 CE) were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions. There is no consensus on when Finno-Ugric languages and Indo-European languages were first spoken in the area of contemporary Finland. The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Population density in the wider Baltic region. ... Finno-Ugric group with dark green on map of language families Finno-Ugric (IPA:[ËŒfɪnoʊˈjuːgɹɪk]) is a grouping of languages in the Uralic language family, comprising Hungarian, Finnish and Estonian, and related languages. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ...


The first verifiable written documents appeared in the 12th century.[citation needed]


Swedish era

The sea fortress of Suomenlinna was founded by a decision of the Swedish Diet in 1747 as a defence works and naval base, to be built on the islands off Helsinki.
The sea fortress of Suomenlinna was founded by a decision of the Swedish Diet in 1747 as a defence works and naval base, to be built on the islands off Helsinki.

Sweden established its official rule of Finland in the 13th century. Swedish became the dominant language of the nobility, administration and education; Finnish was chiefly a language for the peasantry, clergy and local courts in predominantly Finnish-speaking areas. The Bishop of Turku was the most socially pre-eminent person in Finland before the Reformation. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1810x1360, 488 KB) Description: Suomenlinna, a fortress near Helsinki, Finland. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1810x1360, 488 KB) Description: Suomenlinna, a fortress near Helsinki, Finland. ... Suomenlinna or Viapori (Finnish), or Sveaborg (Swedish), is an inhabited sea fortress built on six islands, today within Helsinki, the capital of Finland. ... The Riksdag of the Estates, or Ståndsriksdagen, was the name used for the Estates of the Swedish realm, or Rikets ständer, when they were assembled. ... A dockyard primarily serving a navy See: Royal Navy Dockyards Naval Dockyard (Bombay) Categories: Stub ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Mayor Jussi Pajunen Area  - Total 187. ... Second Swedish Crusade was a semi-historical Swedish military expedition to Finland by Birger jarl in the 13th century. ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... The Archbishop of Turku, or the Archbishop of Åbo is the head of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. ...


During the Reformation, the Finns gradually converted to Lutheranism. In the 16th century, Mikael Agricola published the first written works in Finnish. The first university in Finland, The Royal Academy of Turku, was established in 1640. In the 18th century, wars between Sweden and Russia led to the occupation of Finland twice by Russian forces, known to the Finns as the Greater Wrath (1714–1721) and the Lesser Wrath (1742–1743). By this time Finland was the predominant term for the whole area from the Gulf of Bothnia to the Russian border. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... -1... Mikael Agricola Mikael Agricola ( ) (c. ... The Royal Academy of Turku (Fi: Turun akatemia), (Sv: Ã…bo Kungliga Akademi), was the name of the University of Helsinki until 1809, when it was renamed the Imperial Academy of Turku. ... Language(s) Finnish, Swedish Languages related to Finnish include Estonian, Karelian, Vepsian, Võro and to a lesser extent, all Finno-Ugric Languages. ... Combatants Sweden Ottoman Empire (1710–1714) Ukrainian Cossacks Russia Denmark-Norway Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Saxony after 1718 Prussia Hanover Commanders Charles XII of Sweden Ahmed III Ivan Mazepa Peter the Great Frederick IV of Denmark Augustus II the Strong Strength 77,000 in the beginning of the war. ... The Russo-Swedish War of 1741–1743, known as the Hats Russian War in Sweden and the Lesser Wrath (Finnish: Pikkuviha, Swedish: Lilla ofreden) in Finland, was instigated by the Hats, a Swedish political party which aspired to regain the territories lost to Russia during the Great Northern War, and... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Bothnia (Fin. ...


Russian Empire era

Finnish folk dancers in a 1907 postcard sent from Mustamäki, Finland
Finnish folk dancers in a 1907 postcard sent from Mustamäki, Finland
See also: Finland's language strife and Russification of Finland

On March 29, 1809, after being conquered by the armies of Alexander I of Russia in the Finnish War, Finland became an autonomous Grand Duchy in the Russian Empire until the end of 1917. During the Russian era, the Finnish language started to gain recognition. From the 1860s onwards, a strong Finnish nationalist movement, known as the Fennoman movement, grew. Milestones included the publication of what would become Finland's national epic, the Kalevala, in 1835, and the Finnish language achieving equal legal status with Swedish in 1892. The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ... The language strife was one of the major conflicts of Finlands national history and domestic politics. ... The policy of Russification of Finland, 1899–1917, aimed at the termination of Finland’s autonomy but resulted in fierce Finnish resistance that ultimately led to Finlands declaration of independence in 1917. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Alexander I of Russia (Russian: Александр I Павлович / Aleksandr I Pavlovich) (December 23, 1777 – December 1?, 1825) served as Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801 to 1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815 to 1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... Combatants Russia Sweden Commanders Fyodor Buxhoeveden Boris Knorring Barclay de Tolly Wilhelm Mauritz Klingspor Carl Johan Adlercreutz Georg Carl von Döbeln The Finnish War was fought between Sweden and Russia from February 1808 to September 1809. ... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Ethnic nationalism is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from historical cultural or hereditary groupings (ethnicities); the underlying assumption is that ethnicities should be politically distinct. ... The Fennomans were the most important political movement in the 19th century Grand Duchy of Finland. ... A national epic is an epic poem or similar work which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular nation; not necessarily a nation-state, but at least an ethnic or linguistic group with aspirations to independence or autonomy. ... The Kalevala is an epic poem which the Finn Elias Lönnrot compiled from Finnish and Karelian folklore in the 19th century. ...


The Finnish famine of 1866–1868 killed 15 percent of the population, making it the last and one of the worst famines in European history. The famine led the Russian Empire to ease financial regulations, and investment rose in following decades. Economic and political development was rapid.[6] The GDP per capita was still a half of United States and a third of Great Britain.[6] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In 1906, universal suffrage was adopted in the Grand Duchy of Finland. However, the relationship between the Grand Duchy and the Russian Empire soured when the Russian government made moves to restrict Finnish autonomy. For example, the universal suffrage was, in practice, virtually meaningless, since the emperor did not have to approve any of the laws adopted by the Finnish parliament. Desire for independence gained ground, first among radical nationalists and socialists. Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Civil war and early independence

On December 6, 1917, shortly after the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, Finland declared its independence, which was approved by Bolshevist Russia. The Bolshevist government led by Lenin approve Finlands independence The Finnish declaration of independence was adopted by the Parliament of Finland on 6 December 1917. ... Combatants Whites: White Guards, German Empire, Swedish volunteers Reds: Red Guards, Russian SFSR Commanders C.G.E. Mannerheim Ali Aaltonen, Eero Haapalainen, Eino Rahja, Kullervo Manner Strength 80,000–90,000 Finns, 550 Swedish volunteers, 13,000 Germans[1] 80,000–90,000 Finns, 4,000–10,000 Russians[1... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... The Bolshevist government led by Lenin approve Finlands independence The Finnish declaration of independence was adopted by the Parliament of Finland on 6 December 1917. ... Bolshevist Russia is a common term that refers to the Bolshevik side in the Russian Civil War, or more specifically the Russian government between the October Revolution (November 7, 1917) and the constitution of the Soviet Union (December 30, 1922). ...


Months after in 1918, the violent wing of the Social Democratic Party started a coup, which led a brief but bitter civil war that affected domestic politics for many decades afterwards. The civil war was fought between "the Whites", who were supported by Imperial Germany, and "the Reds", supported by Bolshevist Russia. Eventually, the Whites overcame the Reds. The deep social and political enmity between the Reds and Whites remained. The civil war and activist expeditions (see Heimosodat) to the Soviet Union strained Eastern relations. The Social Democratic Party of Finland (SDP) is one of the most influential political parties in Finland, along with the Centre Party and the Coalition Party. ... Combatants Whites: White Guards, German Empire, Swedish volunteers Reds: Red Guards, Russian SFSR Commanders C.G.E. Mannerheim Ali Aaltonen, Eero Haapalainen, Eino Rahja, Kullervo Manner Strength 80,000–90,000 Finns, 550 Swedish volunteers, 13,000 Germans[1] 80,000–90,000 Finns, 4,000–10,000 Russians[1... The White Guards is one translation of the Finnish term Suojeluskunta (plural: Suojeluskunnat, Finland-Swedish: Skyddskår) that unfortunately has received many different translations to English, for instance: Security Guard, Civil Guard, National Guard, White Militia, Defence Corps, Protection Guard, Protection Corps and Protection Militia. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... During the Civil War in Finland, 1918, the Red Guards were the rebellious supporters of totalitarian who were defeated by the anti-Socialist White Guards and (Imperial) German forces, who feared the Russian Revolution was spread to Finland by the Reds rebellion. ... For other meanings of activism, see Activism. ... Portrait by Bolsheviks Finnic wars (in Finnish: Heimosodat) were conflicts, in which Finnish volunteers took part between 1918 and 1922. ...

Finland 1920–1940
Finland 1920–1940

After a brief flirtation with monarchy, Finland became a presidential republic, with Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg elected as its first president in 1919. The Finnish–Russian border was determined by the Treaty of Tartu in 1920, largely following the historic border but granting Pechenga (Finnish: Petsamo) and its Barents Sea harbour to Finland. Finnish democracy didn't see any more Soviet coup attempts and survived the anti-Communist Lapua Movement. The relationship between Finland and the Soviet Union was tense. Finnish ethnicity was targeted by genocides in the Soviet Union. Germany's Nazism led to a deterioration of relations with Germany. Military was trained in France instead and relations to Western Europe and Sweden were strengthened. Coat of arms Capital Helsinki Language(s) Finnish, Swedish Government Constitutional monarchy King  - 1918 Prince Frederick¹ (elect) Regent  - 1917-1918 Pehr Evind Svinhufvud Legislature Parliament  - Monarch elected October 9, 1918  - German surrender November 9, 1918  - Throne renounced December 14, 1918 ¹ The style of the monarch was intended to be Charles... Kaarlo Juho StÃ¥hlberg (January 28, 1865 - September 22, 1952) was the first President of Finland (1919-1925) and a Nationalist Liberal. ... The Finnish-Russian border was decided in the Treaty of Tartu. ... Petsamo is located at the Barents Sea coast between Russia in the east, Norway in the west and Finland to the south. ... Location of the Barents Sea. ... Lapua Movement (Lapuan liike) was a political movement in Finland, started in 1929, initially dominated by ardent anti-communist nationalists, emphasizing the legacy of the nationalist activism, the White Guards and the Civil War in Finland, however soon turning into more of a Fascist movement. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ...


In 1917 the population was 3 million. Credit-based land reform was enacted after the civil war, increasing the proportion of capital-owning population.[6] About 70% of workers were occupied in agriculture and 10% in industry.[7] The largest export markets were the United Kingdom and Germany. The Great Depression in the early 1930s was relatively light in Finland.-1... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ...


World War II

Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union after the Winter War in 1940 and the Continuation War in 1944. The Porkkala land lease was returned to Finland in 1956.
Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union after the Winter War in 1940 and the Continuation War in 1944. The Porkkala land lease was returned to Finland in 1956.

During World War II, Finland fought the Soviet Union twice: in the Winter War of 1939–40 after the Soviet Union had attacked Finland and in the Continuation War of 1941–44, following Operation Barbarossa, in which Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union. Following German losses on the Eastern Front and the subsequent Soviet advance, Finland was forced to make peace with the Soviet Union. This was followed by the Lapland War of 1944–45, when Finland forced the Germans out of northern Finland. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (619x800, 50 KB) Summary Map of Finnish areas ceded to the Soviet Union in 1944, after the Continuation War. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (619x800, 50 KB) Summary Map of Finnish areas ceded to the Soviet Union in 1944, after the Continuation War. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875 dead... Belligerents Finland Germany Italy1 Soviet Union  United Kingdom2 Commanders C.G.E. Mannerheim Kirill Meretskov Leonid Govorov Strength 530,000 Finns[1] 220,000 Germans 900,000–1,500,000 Soviets[2] Casualties and losses 58,715 dead or missing 158,000 wounded 1,500 civilian deaths[3] 3401 captured... Porkkala is a peninsula in the Gulf of Finland located at Kirkkonummi in Southern Finland. ... Finnish ski troops in Northern Finland in January 1940 The Military history of Finland during World War II covers the history of Finland from 1939 to 1944. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875 dead... Belligerents Finland Germany Italy1 Soviet Union  United Kingdom2 Commanders C.G.E. Mannerheim Kirill Meretskov Leonid Govorov Strength 530,000 Finns[1] 220,000 Germans 900,000–1,500,000 Soviets[2] Casualties and losses 58,715 dead or missing 158,000 wounded 1,500 civilian deaths[3] 3401 captured... Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky... Combatants Germany Finland Commanders Lothar Rendulic Hjalmar Siilasvuo Strength 200,000 60,000 Casualties 950 killed 2,000 wounded 1,300 captured 774 killed 3,000 wounded 262 missing The Lapland War (Finnish: ; German: ; Swedish: ) is a name used for the hostilities between Finland and Germany between September 1944 and...


The treaties signed in 1947 and 1948 with the Soviet Union included Finnish obligations, restraints, and reparations as well as further Finnish territorial concessions (cf. the Moscow Peace Treaty of 1940). Finland ceded most of Finnish Karelia, Salla, and Pechenga, which amounted to ten percent of its land area and twenty percent of its industrial capacity. Some 400,000 evacuees, mainly women and children, fled these areas. Some were left behind and were not able to immigrate in Finland until the Soviet Union collapsed (after which they formed a large immigrant group). Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union The Moscow Peace Treaty was signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on March 12, 1940. ... Finnish Karelia, historically also Swedish Karelia or Carelia, is a historical province divided today between eastern Finland and northwestern Russia. ... Salla is a municipality of Finland and is located in Lapland. ... Petsamo is located at the Barents Sea coast between Russia in the east, Norway in the west and Finland to the south. ... Evacuation of Finnish Karelia was the resettlement of the population of Finnish Karelia into Finland from the territory ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union. ... During World War II some 70,000 war children were evacuated from Finland to Scandinavia, chiefly to Sweden. ...


Finland had to reject Marshall aid. United States shipped secret development aid such as much of welding equipment and helped the still non-communist SDP in hope of saving Finland's independence.[8] Establishing trade with the Western powers, such as the United Kingdom, and the reparations to the Soviet Union caused Finland to transform itself from a primarily agrarian economy to an industrialised one. Even after the reparations had been paid off, Finland continued to trade with the Soviet Union in the framework of bilateral trade. U.S. postage stamp issued 1997 honoring the 50th anniversary of the Marshall Plan. ... Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants, animals and other life forms. ... A factory in Ilmenau (Germany) around 1860 Industrialisation (also spelt Industrialization) or an Industrial Revolution is a process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed from a pre-industrial society (an economy where the amount of capital accumulated per capita is low) to an industrial one... Bilateralism is a term referring to trade or political relations between two states. ...


Cold War

In 1950 half of the Finnish workers were occupied in agriculture and a third lived in urban areas.[9] The new jobs in manufacturing, services and trade quickly attracted people to the towns. The average number of births per woman declined from a baby boom peak of 3.5 in 1947 to 1.5 in 1973.[9] When baby boomers entered the workforce, the economy did not generate jobs fast enough and hundreds of thousands emigrated to the more industrialized Sweden, with emigration peaking in 1969 and 1970 (today 4.7 percent of Swedes speak Finnish).[9] The 1952 Summer Olympics brought international visitors. Finland took part in trade liberalization in the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. A baby boom is any period of greatly increased birth rate during a certain period, and usually within certain geographical bounds. ... The 1952 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XV Olympiad, were held in 1952 in Helsinki, Finland. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... IMF redirects here. ... The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (typically abbreviated GATT) was originally created by the Bretton Woods Conference as part of a larger plan for economic recovery after World War II. The GATTs main objective was the reduction of barriers to international trade. ...


Officially claiming to be neutral, Finland lay in the grey zone between the Western countries and the Soviet Union. The YYA Treaty (Finno-Soviet Pact of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance) gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics. This was extensively exploited by President Urho Kekkonen against his opponents. He maintained an effective monopoly on Soviet relations from 1956 on, which was crucial for his continued popularity. In politics, there was a tendency of avoiding any policies and statements that could by interpreted as anti-Soviet. This phenomenon was given the name "Finlandisation" by the German press (fi. suomettuminen). Self-censorship vis-à-vis anything negative associated with the Soviet Union was prevalent in the media. Public libraries pulled from circulation thousands of books that were considered anti-Soviet, and the law made it possible for the authorities to directly censor movies with supposedly anti-Soviet content. Asylum-seeking Soviet citizens were frequently returned to the Soviet Union by the Finnish authorities. A neutral country takes no side in a war between other parties, and in return hopes to avoid being attacked by either of them. ... Occident redirects here. ... The Agreement of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance, also known as the YYA Treaty from the Finnish Ystävyys-, yhteistyö- ja avunantosopimus (YYA-sopimus) (Swedish: Vänskaps-, samarbets- och bistÃ¥ndsavtalet (VSB-avtalet)), was the basis for Finno–Soviet relations from 1948 to 1992. ... Urho Kaleva Kekkonen (IPA: ) (September 3, 1900 Pielavesi – August 31, 1986 Helsinki) was a Finnish politician who served as Prime Minister of Finland (1950–1953, 1954–1956) and later as President of Finland (1956–1981). ...


Despite close relations with the Soviet Union, Finland remained a market economy. Various industries benefited from trade privileges with the Soviets, which explains the widespread support that pro-Soviet policies enjoyed among business interests in Finland. Economic growth was rapid in the postwar era, and by 1975 Finland's GDP per capita was the 15th highest in the world. In the 1970s and 1980s, Finland built one of the most extensive welfare states in the world. In 1981, President Urho Kekkonen's failing health forced him to retire after holding office for 25 years. There are three main interpretations of the idea of a welfare state: the provision of welfare services by the state. ... Urho Kaleva Kekkonen (IPA: ) (September 3, 1900 Pielavesi – August 31, 1986 Helsinki) was a Finnish politician who served as Prime Minister of Finland (1950–1953, 1954–1956) and later as President of Finland (1956–1981). ...


Miscalculated macroeconomic decisions, a banking crisis, the collapse of the Soviet Union and a global economic downturn caused a deep recession in Finland in the early 1990s. The depression bottomed out in 1993, and Finland has seen steady economic growth ever since.


Recent history

Like other Nordic countries, Finland has liberalized its economy since the late 1980s. Financial and product market regulation was loosened. Some state enterprises have been privatized and there have been some modest tax cuts. Finland joined the European Union in 1995, and the Eurozone in 1999. The Eurozone (less frequently called the Euro Area or Euroland) refers to a currency union among the European Union member states that have adopted the euro as their sole official currency. ...


The population is aging with the birth rate at 10.42 births per 1,000 population, or a fertility rate of 1.8.[9] With a median age of 41.6 years, Finland is one of the oldest countries;[10] half of voters are estimated to be over 50 years old. Like most European countries, without further reforms or much higher immigration, Finland is expected to struggle with demographics, even though macroeconomic projections are healthier than in most other developed countries. The (total) fertility rate of a population is the average number of child births per woman. ...


Etymology

The name Suomi (Finnish for "Finland") has uncertain origins but a strong candidate for a cognate is the proto-Baltic word *zeme, meaning "land". According to an earlier theory the name was derived from suomaa (fen land) or suoniemi (fen cape).


The exonym Finland has resemblance with, e.g., the Scandinavian placenames Finnmark, Finnveden and hundreds of other toponyms starting with Fin(n) in Sweden and Norway. Some of these names are obviously derived from finnr, a Germanic word for a wanderer/finder and thus supposedly meaning nomadic "hunter-gatherers" or slash and burn agriculturists as opposed to the Germanic sedentary farmers and sea-faring traders and pirates. It is unknown how, why and when Finnr started referring to the people of Finland Proper in particular (from where the name spread from the 15th century onwards to refer to the people of the entire country). An exonym is a name for a place that is not used within that place by the local inhabitants (neither in the official language of the state nor in local languages[1]), or a name for a people or language that is not used by the people or language to... The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the East Germanic languages. ... County NO-20 Region Nord-Norge Administrative centre Vadsø County mayor   Area  - Total  - Percentage Ranked 1 48,618 km² 15. ... Finnveden or Finnheden is one of the ancient small lands of SmÃ¥land. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... This article is about the agricultural practice of slash and burn. ... Finland Proper (Varsinais-Suomi in Finnish, Egentliga Finland in Swedish) is a region in south-western Finland. ...


Among the first documents to mention "a land of the Finns" are two rune-stones. There is one in Söderby, Sweden, with the inscription finlont (U 582) and one in Gotland, a Swedish island in the Baltic Sea, with the inscription finlandi (G 319), dating from the 11th century.[11] The Baltic expeditions runestones are Varangian Runestones in memory of men who took part in peaceful or warlike expeditions across the Baltic Sea, where Finland and the Baltic States are presently located. ...   is a county, province and municipality of Sweden and the second largest island in the Baltic Sea after Zealand. ... The Baltic expeditions runestones are Varangian Runestones in memory of men who took part in peaceful or warlike expeditions across the Baltic Sea, where Finland and the Baltic States are presently located. ...


Geography and environment

Detailed map of Finland. See also: Atlas of Finland
Detailed map of Finland. See also: Atlas of Finland
Forest in Punkaharju.
Forest in Punkaharju.
Reindeer in northwest Lapland.
Reindeer in northwest Lapland.
Main article: Geography of Finland
See also: List of cities and towns in Finland, List of lakes in Finland, and List of national parks of Finland

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1662x2000, 1540 KB) Finland. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1662x2000, 1540 KB) Finland. ... Punkaharju is a municipality of Finland. ... National anthem Sámi soga lávlla Languages Sami, Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, Russian Area ca. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This is a list of towns in Finland. ... There are 187,888 lakes in Finland. ... There are 35 national parks in Finland. ...

Topography and geology

Finland is a country of thousands of lakes and islands – 187,888 lakes (larger than 500 m²) and 179,584 islands to be precise.[12] One of these lakes, Saimaa, is the fifth largest in Europe. The Finnish landscape is mostly flat with few hills, and its highest point, the Halti at 1,324 meters, is found in the extreme north of Lapland at the border between Finland and Norway. Saimaa, or Saimen in Swedish, is a lake in southeastern Finland. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Halti mountain is the highest point in Finland, at 1,328m above sea level. ... Lappi, or the Province of Lapland is one of the Provinces of Finland, and a part of the larger geographical area of Lapland, which spans over four countries. ...


The landscape is covered mostly (seventy-five percent of land area) by coniferous taiga forests and fens, with little arable land. The most common type of rock is granite. It is a ubiquitous part of the scenery, visible wherever there is no soil cover. Moraine or till is the most common type of soil, covered by a thin layer of humus of biological origin. The greater part of the islands are found in the southwest in the Archipelago Sea, part of the archipelago of the Åland Islands, and along the southern coast in the Gulf of Finland. For other uses, see Taiga (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... This article is about geological phenomena. ... Glacial till with tufts of grass Till is an unsorted glacial sediment. ... -1... Hiittinen, 25 km west of Hanko Archipelago Sea (Finnish Saaristomeri, Swedish SkärgÃ¥rdshavet) is a part of the Baltic Sea between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, within Finnish territorial waters. ... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... “Aland” redirects here. ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ...


Finland is one of the few countries in the world whose surface area is still growing. Owing to the post-glacial rebound that has been taking place since the last ice age, the surface area of the country is growing by about 7 square kilometres (2.7 square miles) a year.[13] Changes in the elevation of Lake Superior due to glaciation and post-glacial rebound Post-glacial rebound (sometimes called continental rebound, isostatic rebound or isostatic adjustment) is the rise of land masses that were depressed by the huge weight of ice sheets during the last ice age, through a process... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ...


The distance from the most Southern point – Hanko – to the most northern point of Finland – Nuorgam – is 1,445 kilometres (898 miles) (driving distance), which would take approximately 18.5 hours to drive. This is very similar to Great Britain (Land's End to John o' Groats – 1,404 kilometres (872 miles) and 16.5 h). The word Hanko may refer to Hanko, Finland, town and municipality Hanko Peninsula Hanko, a Japanese signature stamp Hanko is sometimes a misspelling of Hankou (汉口), China This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Nuorgam is a village in the province of Lapland, Finland. ... “km” redirects here. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... Lands End shown within Cornwall Lands End, the most westerly point in England The wreck of the RMS Mülheim at Lands End, 2003 This article is about the location at the western tip of Cornwall. ... John o Groats (Taigh Iain Ghròt in Scottish Gaelic) (grid reference ND380734) is a village in the traditional county of Caithness, in the Highland council area of Scotland, and is usually regarded as the most northerly settlement on the mainland of Great Britain. ...


Flora and fauna

Phytogeographically, Finland is shared between the Arctic, Central European and Northern European provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the WWF, the territory of Finland can be subdivided into three ecoregions: the Scandinavian and Russian taiga, Sarmatic mixed forests and Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands. Phytogeography is the branch of biogeography that is concerned with the geographic distribution of plant species. ... The Boreal Kingdom is a Floristic kingdom identified by botanist Ronald Good, which includes the temperate-to-arctic portions of North America and Eurasia. ... The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization for the conservation, research and restoration of the natural environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in the United States and Canada. ... An ecoregion, sometimes called a bioregion, is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ... Forest of Pinus sylvestris with an understory of Calluna vulgaris in the Karelian Isthmus Scandinavian and Russian taiga is an ecoregion within the boreal forests/taiga zone as defined by the WWF classification (ecoregion PA0608). ... Hardangervidda, the largest mountain plateau in northern Europe The Scandinavian Montane Birch forests and grasslands PA 1110 is one of the terrestrial ecoregions as defined by the World Wildlife Fund. ...


All terrestrial life in Finland was completely wiped out during the last ice age that ended some 10,000 years ago, following the retreat of the glaciers and the appearance of vegetation. Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ...


Today, there are over 1,200 species of vascular plant, 800 bryophytes and 1,000 lichen species in Finland, with flora being richest in the southern parts of the country. Plant life, like most of the Finnish ecology, is well adapted to tolerate the contrasting seasons and extreme weather. Many plant species, such as the Scots Pine, spruce, and birch, spread throughout Finland from Norway and only reached the western coast less than three millennia ago. Oak and maple grows in nature only in the southern part of Finland. Divisions Non-seed-bearing plants †Rhyniophyta †Zosterophyllophyta Lycopodiophyta †Trimerophytophyta Pteridophyta Superdivision Spermatophyta †Pteridospermatophyta Pinophyta Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta Gnetophyta Magnoliophyta Vascular plants (also known as tracheophytes or higher plants) are those plants that have lignified tissues for conducting water, minerals, and photosynthetic products through the plant. ... The bryophytes are those embryophytes (land plants) that are non-vascular: they have tissues and enclosed reproductive systems, but they lack vascular tissue that circulates liquids. ... For other uses, see Lichen (disambiguation). ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Binomial name L. Distribution The Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.; family Pinaceae) is a species of pine native to Europe and Asia, ranging from Great Britain and Spain east to eastern Siberia, south to the Caucasus Mountains, and as far north as Lapland. ... Species About 35; see text. ... Species Many species; see text and classification Birch is the name of any tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), which are listed in the List of Quercus species, and some related genera, notably... For other uses, see Maple (disambiguation). ...

The Archipelago Sea, between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, is the largest archipelago in the world by number of islands; estimates vary between 20,000 and 50,000.
The Archipelago Sea, between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, is the largest archipelago in the world by number of islands; estimates vary between 20,000 and 50,000.

Similarly, Finland has a diverse and extensive range of fauna. There are at least sixty native mammalian species, 248 breeding bird species, over seventy fish species and eleven reptile and frog species present today, many migrating from neighbouring countries thousands of years ago. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1486x1028, 927 KB) Schärengebiet vor Turku (Ausschnitt) selbst fotografiert am 15. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1486x1028, 927 KB) Schärengebiet vor Turku (Ausschnitt) selbst fotografiert am 15. ... Hiittinen, 25 km west of Hanko Archipelago Sea (Finnish Saaristomeri, Swedish Skärgårdshavet) is a part of the Baltic Sea between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, within Finnish territorial waters. ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Bothnia (Fin. ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ...


Large and widely recognised wildlife mammals found in Finland are the Brown Bear (the national animal), Gray Wolf, elk (moose) and reindeer. Other common mammals include the Red Fox, Red Squirrel, and Mountain Hare. Some rare and exotic species include the flying squirrel, Golden Eagle, Saimaa Ringed Seal and Arctic fox. Two of the more striking birds are the Whooper Swan, a large European swan and the national bird of Finland, and the Capercaillie, a large, black-plumaged member of the grouse family. The latter is considered an indicator of old-growth forest connectivity, and has been declining due to landscape fragmentation.[14] The most common breeding birds are the Willow Warbler, Chaffinch and Redwing.[15] Of some seventy species of freshwater fish, the northern pike, perch and others are plentiful. Atlantic salmon remains the favorite of fly rod enthusiasts. Bears are big and have big ass, thats why bears are hot, and thats why cats are not. ... For other uses, see Wolf (disambiguation), Gray Wolves (disambiguation), or Timber Wolf (comics). ... For other uses, see Moose (disambiguation). ... Caribou redirects here. ... For the American comedian, see Redd Foxx. ... For the North American red squirrel, see American Red Squirrel. ... Binomial name Lepus timidus Linnaeus, 1758 The Mountain Hare (Lepus timidus) is a hare, which is largely adapted to polar and mountainous habitats. ... Binomial name Pteromys volans (Linnaeus, 1758) The Siberian Flying Squirrel (Pteromys volans) is an Old World flying squirrel with a range from western Finland and the Baltic states to the Pacific coast. ... For other uses, see Golden Eagle (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Phoca hispida (Schreber, 1775) Saimaa Ringed Seals (Phoca hispida saimensis, norppa in Finnish) are a subspecies of Ringed Seal (Phoca hispida) . They are among the most endangered seals in the world, having a total population of only aboout 270 individuals. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Arctic Fox range The Arctic Fox (Vulpes lagopus), also known as the White Fox or Snow Fox, is a fox of the order Carnivora. ... Binomial name Cygnus cygnus (Linnaeus, 1758) Whooper Swan (Cygnus cygnus) is a large Northern Hemisphere swan. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), also known as the Wood Grouse or more specifically Western Capercaillie is the largest member of the grouse family, reaching over 100 cm in length and 4 kg in weight. ... Genera Tetrao Lagopus Falcipennis Centrocercus Bonasa Dendrapagus Tympanuchus Grouse are from the order Galliformes which inhabit temperate and subarctic regions of the northern hemisphere. ... Old growth forest, sometimes called late seral forest or ancient forest is an area of forest that has attained great age and exhibits unique biological features. ... Binomial name Phylloscopus trochilus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Willow Warbler, Phylloscopus trochilus , is a very common and widespread leaf warbler which breeds throughout northern and temperate Europe and Asia. ... Binomial name Fringilla coelebs Linnaeus, 1758 The Chaffinch, (Fringilla coelebs), is a small passerine bird in the finch family Fringillidae. ... Binomial name Turdus iliacus Linnaeus, 1766 The Redwing (Turdus iliacus) is a member of the thrush family Turdidae. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The northern pike (known as the pike in Britain), Esox lucius, is a species of carnivorous fish of the genus Esox (the pikes). ... Species P. flavescens (Yellow perch) P. fluviatilis (European perch) P. schrenkii (Balkhash perch) For other meanings of the word perch, including fish not in the Perca genus, see Perch (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758 Atlantic salmon, known scientifically as Salmo salar, is a species of fish in the family Salmonidae, which is found in the northern Atlantic Ocean and in rivers that flow into the Atlantic. ... Fly rod and reel with a wild brown trout from a chalk stream. ...


The endangered Saimaa Ringed Seal, one of only three lake seal species in the world, exists only in the Saimaa lake system of southeastern Finland, down to only 300 seals today. It has become the emblem of the Finnish Association for Nature Conservation.[16] Saimaa, or Saimen in Swedish, is a lake in southeastern Finland. ...


Due to hunting and persecution in history, many animals such as the Golden Eagle, Brown Bear and Eurasian Lynx all experienced significant declines in population. However, their numbers have increased again in the 2000s, mainly as a result of careful conservation and the establishment of vast national parks. For other uses, see Golden Eagle (disambiguation). ... Bears are big and have big ass, thats why bears are hot, and thats why cats are not. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Eurasian lynx range The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized cat native to European and Siberian forests, where it is one of the predators. ... There are 35 national parks in Finland. ...


Climate

The climate in Southern Finland is a northern temperate climate. In Northern Finland, particularly in the Province of Lapland, a subarctic climate dominates, characterised by cold, occasionally severe, winters and relatively warm summers. The main factor influencing Finland's climate is the country's geographical position between the 60th and 70th northern parallels in the Eurasian continent's coastal zone, which shows characteristics of both a maritime and a continental climate, depending on the direction of air flow. Finland is near enough to the Atlantic Ocean to be continuously warmed by the Gulf Stream, which explains the unusually warm climate considering the absolute latitude. For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... Lappi, or the Province of Lapland is one of the Provinces of Finland, and a part of the larger geographical area of Lapland, which spans over four countries. ... Regions having a subarctic climate (also called boreal climate) are characterized by long, usually very cold winters, and brief, warm summers. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... World map showing the oceanic climate zones. ... Regions containing a continental climate exist in portions of Northern Hemisphere continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other parts of the world. ... For the album by Ocean Colour Scene, see North Atlantic Drift (album) The Gulf Stream is orange and yellow in this representation of water temperatures of the Atlantic. ... This article is about the geographical term. ...


A quarter of Finland's territory lies above the Arctic Circle, and as a consequence the midnight sun can be experienced – for more days, the farther north one travels. At Finland's northernmost point, the sun does not set for 73 consecutive days during summer, and does not rise at all for 51 days during winter. For the fast food restaurant chain, see Arctic Circle Restaurants. ... The midnight sun at Nordkapp, Norway. ...


Demographics

Population of Finland, 1750–2000[17]
Year Population Year Population
1750 421,000 1880 2,060,800
1760 491,000 1890 2,380,100
1770 561,000 1900 2,655,900
1780 663,000 1910 2,943,400
1790 705,600 1920 3,147,600
1800 832,700 1930 3,462,700
1810 863,300 1940 3,695,617
1820 1,177,500 1950 4,029,803
1830 1,372,100 1960 4,446,222
1840 1,445,600 1970 4,598,336
1850 1,636,900 1980 4,787,778
1860 1,746,700 1990 4,998,478
1870 1,768,800 2000 5,181,000

Finland numbers some five million inhabitants and has an average population density of 17 inhabitants per square kilometre. ...

Population

Finland currently numbers 5,302,778 inhabitants and has an average population density of 17 inhabitants per square kilometre.[1] This makes it, after Norway and Iceland, the most sparsely populated country in Europe. Finland's population has always been concentrated in the southern parts of the country, a phenomenon even more pronounced after 20th century urbanisation. The biggest and most important cities in Finland are the cities of the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area – Helsinki, Espoo and Vantaa. Other large cities include Tampere, Turku and Oulu. Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The city of Los Angeles is an example of urbanisation Urbanization or Urbanisation means the removal of the rural characteristics of a town or area, a process associated with the development of civilization. ... Map of the Metropolitan Area (Light Green) and the Capital Region (Dark Green). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Mayor Jussi Pajunen Area  - Total 187. ... Founded 1972 Province Southern Finland Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Area - Of which land - Rank 528 km² 312 km² ranked 279th Population - Density - Change - Rank 229,443 (2005) 729 inh. ... Founded 1974 Province Southern Finland Region Uusimaa Sub-region Greater Helsinki Area - Of which land - Rank 243 km² 240,84 km² ranked 316th Population - Density - Rank 190 058 (2007) 790. ... Tampere ( , IPA: ; Swedish: Tammerfors ) is a city in southern Finland located between two lakes, Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi. ... For the traditional Turkish folk songs, see Türkü. Location of Turku in Northern Europe Location of Turku in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Finland Proper Sub-region Turku sub-region Government  - Mayor Mikko Pukkinen Area  - City 306. ... Location of Oulu in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Finland Province Oulu Province Region Northern Ostrobothnia Sub-region Oulu sub-region Charter 1605 Government  - City manager Matti Pennanen Area  - City 449. ...


The share of immigrants in Finland is among the lowest of the European Union countries. Foreign citizens comprise 2.3 percent of the population.[18] Most of them are from Russia, Estonia and Sweden.[18] Immigration is the movement of people into one place from another. ...


Language

See also: Finnish alphabet, Finnish grammar, and Finnish phonology

Most of the Finnish people (92 percent[19]) speak Finnish as their mother tongue. Finnish is a member of the Baltic-Finnic subgroup of the Uralic languages and is typologically between inflected and agglutinative languages. It modifies and inflects the forms of nouns, adjectives, pronouns, numerals and verbs, depending on their roles in the sentence. In practice, this means that instead of prepositions and prefixes there is a great variety of different suffixes and that compounds form a considerable percentage of the vocabulary of Finnish. It has been estimated that approximately 65–70 percent of all words in Finnish are compounds.[20] A close linguistic relative to the Finnish language is Estonian, which, though similar in many aspects, is not mutually intelligible with it. These languages, together with Hungarian (all members of the Uralic language family), are the primary non-Indo-European languages spoken in Europe. Finland, together with Estonia and Hungary, is one of three independent countries where a Uralic language is spoken by the majority. Finnish ( , or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (92% as of 2006[3]) and by ethnic Finns outside of Finland. ... Areas where Finland-Swedish populations are found shown in yellow Finland-Swedish is a general term for the closely related cluster of dialects of Swedish spoken in Finland by Finland-Swedes as a first language. ... The two official languages of Finland are Finnish and Swedish. ... The Finnish alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet, and especially its Swedish extension. ... This article deals with the grammar of the Finnish language. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Language(s) Finnish, Swedish Languages related to Finnish include Estonian, Karelian, Vepsian, Võro and to a lesser extent, all Finno-Ugric Languages. ... Baltic-Finnic languages, also known as Finnic languages, are a subgroup of the Finno-Ugric languages, and are spoken around the Baltic Sea by about 7 million people. ... Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages  Yukaghir  Samoyedic  Ugric  Finnic The Uralic languages (pronounced: ) form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ... Morphological typology was developed by brothers Friedrich and August von Schlegel. ... This article is in need of attention. ... It has been suggested that Agglutination be merged into this article or section. ... Inflection of the Spanish lexeme for cat, with blue representing the masculine gender, pink representing the feminine gender, grey representing the form used for mixed-gender, and green representing the plural number. ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase with or without a determiner, such as you and they in English. ... A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols that represents a number. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with adposition. ... In linguistics, a prefix is a type of affix that precedes the morphemes to which it can attach. ... Look up Suffix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (a word) that consists of more than one other lexeme. ... Geographical distribution of Finnic, Ugric, Samoyed and Yukaghir languages The Uralic languages form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages  Yukaghir  Samoyedic  Ugric  Finnic The Uralic languages (pronounced: ) form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ...


The largest minority language is Swedish, which is the second official language in Finland, spoken by 5.5 percent of the population.[19] Other minority languages are Russian (0.8 percent[19]) and Estonian (0.3 percent[19]). To the north, in Lapland, are also the Sami people, numbering around 7,000[21] and recognized as an indigenous people. About a quarter of them speak a Sami language as their mother tongue.[3] There are three Sami languages that are spoken in Finland: Northern Sami, Inari Sami and Skolt Sami.[22] Other minority languages are Finnish Romani, Finnish Sign Language (spoken natively by 4,000–5,000 people[23]) and Finland-Swedish Sign Language (spoken natively by about 150 people). The rights of minority groups (in particular Sami, Swedish-speaking Finns and Romani people) to cherish their culture and language is protected by the constitution.[24] Lappi, or the Province of Lapland is one of the Provinces of Finland, and a part of the larger geographical area of Lapland, which spans over four countries. ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... The term indigenous peoples has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... Sami is a general name for a group of Finno-Ugric languages spoken in parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia, in Northern Europe. ... Northern or North Sami (also written Sámi or Saami; formerly Lappish or Lapp) is the most widely spoken of all Sami languages. ... Inari Sami (anarâškielâ) is a Finno-Ugric, Sami language spoken in Finland by some 300-400 people, the majority of which are middle-aged or older and live in the town of Inari. ... Skolt Sami (Sää´mÇ©iõll) is a Finno-Ugric, Sami language spoken in Finland and nearby parts of Russia. ... Finnish Sign Language is the sign language most commonly used in Finland. ... Look up Sami, sami in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...  Officially monolingual Finnish-speaking municipalities (Sami bilingual municipalities not shown)  Bilingual municipalities with Finnish as the majority language  Bilingual municipalities with Swedish as the majority language  Monolingual Swedish-speaking municipalities (including Ã…land) More than 17,000 Swedish Finns live in officially monolingual Finnish municipalities, and are thus not represented on... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Romani people (as a noun, singular Rom, plural Roma; sometimes Rrom, Rroma) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ...


In a 2005 Eurobarometer survey studying languages of the European Union, 60% percent of residents claimed to know English, 38% claimed to know Swedish, and 17% claimed to know German.[25] Ranking those claiming a knowledge of English, Finland ranked fifth behind Malta, the Netherlands (86%), Sweden (85%), and Denmark (83%). Relatively many Finns knew German, while relatively few knew French or Spanish. Eurobarometer is a series of surveys regularly performed on behalf of the European Commission since 1973. ... Chameleon, a symbol of the multilingualism of the European Union. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Religion

The Helsinki Cathedral with the statue of Emperor Alexander II of Russia.
The Helsinki Cathedral with the statue of Emperor Alexander II of Russia.
See also: Roman Catholicism in Finland, Judaism in Finland, Islam in Finland, and Hinduism in Finland
Religion in Finland
religion percent
Lutheran
 
84.2%
Unaffiliated
 
15.1%
Other
 
1.2%
Orthodox
 
1.1%

Most Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland (84.2 percent).[26] A minority belong to the Finnish Orthodox Church (1.1 percent; see Eastern Orthodox Church). Other Protestant denominations and the Roman Catholic Church in Finland are significantly smaller, as are the Muslim, Jewish and other non-Christian communities (totaling 1.2 percent). 15.1 percent[27] of the population is unaffiliated. The main Lutheran and Orthodox churches are constitutional national churches of Finland with special roles in ceremonies and often in school morning prayers. Politicians to Lutheran Church assemblies are selected in church elections every four years. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1986x1490, 1128 KB) Image of the Helsinki Lutheran Cathedral with the statue of Emperor Alexander II of Russia in the front. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1986x1490, 1128 KB) Image of the Helsinki Lutheran Cathedral with the statue of Emperor Alexander II of Russia in the front. ... The Helsinki Cathedral The Helsinki Cathedral (in Finnish Helsingin tuomiokirkko) is an Evangelical Lutheran cathedral located in the centre of Helsinki, Finland. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland is the Lutheran national church of Finland (The Finnish Orthodox Church is also recognized as a state church). ... The Finnish Orthodox Church is the national jurisdiction of the Eastern Orthodox Church in Finland. ... The church of the Holy Family of Nazareth Parish in Oulu, built by the Neocatechumenal Way. ... The History of the Jews in Finland began when the Jews first settled in the Kingdom of Sweden-Finland in the 18th century, during the tolerant reign of King Gustavus III. They were allowed to reside in a few towns in Swedish parts of the kingdom, such as Marstrand, Stockholm... Islam in Finland was introduced by Baltic Tatars at the end of the 19th century and now also includes Muslim immigrants. ... Hinduism is Finland is a very new Concept. ... The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland is the Lutheran national church of Finland (The Finnish Orthodox Church is also recognized as a state church). ... The Finnish Orthodox Church is the national jurisdiction of the Eastern Orthodox Church in Finland. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The term national church is usually a reference to a church organization in Christianity that claims pastoral jurisdiction over a nation. ...


Over half of Finns say they pray at least once a month, the highest proportion in Nordics.[28] However, the majority of Lutherans attend church only for special occasions like Christmas, weddings and funerals.[29] According to a 2005 Eurobarometer poll, 41 percent of Finnish citizens responded that "they believe there is a god"; 41 percent answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force"; and 16 percent that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force".[30] Eurobarometer is a series of surveys regularly performed on behalf of the European Commission since 1973. ...


Family structure

Finnish family life is centered on the nuclear family. Relations with the extended family are often rather distant, and Finnish people do not form politically significant clans, tribes or similar structures. According to UNICEF, Finland ranks fourth in the world in child well-being.[31] The term nuclear family developed in the western world to distinguish the family group consisting of parents (usually a father and mother) and their children, from what is known as an extended family. ... Extended family (or joint family) is a term with several distinct meanings. ... UNICEF Logo Org type: Fund Acronyms: UNICEF Head: Ann Veneman Status: Active Established: 1946 Website: http://www. ...


Health

There are 307 residents for each doctor.[32] About 18.9 percent of health care is funded directly by households and 76.6 percent by public and other insurances. Finland limits medicine sales to the around 800 licensed pharmacies. Some significant institutions include Ministry of Health and National Public Health Institute.


The life expectancy is 82 years for women and 75 years for men. After having one of the highest death rates from heart disease in the world in the 1970s, improvements in the Finnish diet and exercise have paid off. Finland has exceptionally low smoking rates: 26% for males and 19% for females.[33] This article is about the measure of remaining life. ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... The cuisine of Finland uses a large amount of wholemeal products (rye, barley, oats) and berries (such as blueberries, lingonberries, cloudberries, and sea buckthorn). ...


Finland's health problems are similar to other developed countries: circulatory diseases make up about half of all causes of death and cancer is the second most common cause of death.[34] Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


The total annual consumption of pure alcohol of residents is lower than other European countries, even though heavy drinking is common at parties on the weekend. However, becoming intoxicated has remained the central characteristic of Finnish drinking habits.[35] In the working-age population, diseases or accidents caused by alcohol consumption have recently surpassed coronary artery disease as the biggest single cause of death.[36]


National Public Health Institute claims 54% male obesity and 38% female obesity, while other estimates put obesity rates at 70% and 50%.[37] The rate of diabetes is predicted to grow to 15% by 2015.[37] Finland has the world's highest rate of Type I diabetes. Suicide mortality in Finland has generally been one of the highest in Europe, especially significant among males under 35 years. This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ...


Schools teach sports, health and hands-on cooking classes. Finnish schoolchildren have one of the lowest amounts of sport classes in the European Union and according to National Public Health Institute only a third of adults exercise enough.[37]


Administrative divisions

Main articles: Provinces of Finland and Historical provinces of Finland
Main articles: Regions of Finland, Sub-regions of Finland, and Municipalities of Finland

The state organisation is divided into six administrative provinces (lääni, pl. läänit), though they have little significance.[38] Police, prosecutors, and other state services operate under the administration of the province, which is again divided to admistratively insignificant districts. After 1997 reforms the provinces have been Southern Finland, Western Finland, Eastern Finland, Oulu, Lapland, Åland. The province of Åland Islands is autonomous. As of 1 January 2005, Finland is divided into: 6 provinces (Finnish lääni, Swedish län) the provinces are divided into 20 regions (Finnish maakunta, Swedish landskap) the regions are divided into 74 sub-regions (Finnish seutukunta, Swedish ekonomisk region) the sub-regions are divided into 432 municipalities (Finnish... Finland consists of 6 provinces (Finnish: läänit, Swedish: län). ... The historical provinces (Finnish: maakunnat or provinssit – singular maakunta or provinssi, Swedish: landskap) of Finland is a legacy of the countrys joint history with Sweden. ... Finland is divided into 20 regions (maakunta/landskap in Finnish/Swedish). ... In 2005 Finland is divided into 77 sub-regions (seutukunta in Finnish, ekonomisk region in Swedish). ... The municipalities (kunta in Finnish, kommun in Swedish) represent the local level of administration in Finland and act as the fundamental administrative units of the country. ... Finland consists of 6 provinces (Finnish: läänit, Swedish: län). ... Look up plural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Province of Southern Finland is a province of Finland. ... The Province of Western Finland is a province of Finland. ... The Province of Eastern Finland is a province of Finland. ... The Province of Oulu is a province of Finland. ... Lappi, or the Province of Lapland is one of the Provinces of Finland, and a part of the larger geographical area of Lapland, which spans over four countries. ... “Aland” redirects here. ... “Aland” redirects here. ... Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of organization. ...

Municipalities and regions map of Finland (2007).Black borders refer to municipalities, red to regions.
Municipalities and regions map of Finland (2007).
Black borders refer to municipalities, red to regions.

Municipalities (which may also call themselves towns or cities) account for half of public spending. Spending is financed by municipal income tax, state subsidies, and other revenue. As of 2008, there were 415 municipalities and most were under 5,000 residents. In Finland, state has started the Municipality and Service Structure Reform Program to reform the complex and expensive municipal system, but initiatives have encountered much opposition from local bureaucrats and interest groups. People often identify with their municipality. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1905x3296, 192 KB) Map of Finnish municipalities as of 2007 Author: BishkekRocks Date: 2007-01-13 Based on Image:Finnish municipalities and provinces. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1905x3296, 192 KB) Map of Finnish municipalities as of 2007 Author: BishkekRocks Date: 2007-01-13 Based on Image:Finnish municipalities and provinces. ... The municipalities (kunta in Finnish, kommun in Swedish) represent the local level of administration in Finland and act as the fundamental administrative units of the country. ... Finland is divided into 20 regions (maakunta/landskap in Finnish/Swedish). ...


In addition to municipalities, there are complex other arrangements. Municipalities co-operate in seventy-four sub-regions and twenty regions. These are governed by the member municipalities. The Åland region has a permanent, democratically elected regional council as a part of the autonomy. In the Kainuu region, there is a pilot project underway, with regional elections. Sami people have a semi-autonomous Sami Domicile Area in Lapland for issues on language and culture. In 2005 Finland is divided into 77 sub-regions (seutukunta in Finnish, ekonomisk region in Swedish). ... Finland is divided into 20 regions (maakunta/landskap in Finnish/Swedish). ... “Aland” redirects here. ... Kainuu (Swedish: Kajanaland) is a region (maakunta / landskap) of Finland. ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... Location of the Sami Domicile Area in Finland. ... Lappi, or the Province of Lapland is one of the Provinces of Finland, and a part of the larger geographical area of Lapland, which spans over four countries. ...


In the following chart, the number of inhabitants includes those living in the entire municipality (kunta/kommun), not just in the built-up area. The land area is given in km², and the density in inhabitants per km² (land area). The figures are as of January 1, 2007. Notice that the capital region – comprising Helsinki, Vantaa, Espoo and Kauniainen (see Greater Helsinki) – forms a continuous conurbation of one million people. However, common administration is limited to voluntary cooperation of all municipalities, e.g. in Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council. A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Capital Region is a common term for the region or district surrounding a state, provincial or national capital city. ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Mayor Jussi Pajunen Area  - Total 187. ... Founded 1974 Province Southern Finland Region Uusimaa Sub-region Greater Helsinki Area - Of which land - Rank 243 km² 240,84 km² ranked 316th Population - Density - Rank 190 058 (2007) 790. ... Founded 1972 Province Southern Finland Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Area - Of which land - Rank 528 km² 312 km² ranked 279th Population - Density - Change - Rank 229,443 (2005) 729 inh. ... Founded 1920 Province Southern Finland Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Area - Of which land - Rank 6. ... Map of the Metropolitan Area (Light Green) and the Capital Region (Dark Green). ... A conurbation is an urban area comprising a number of cities, towns and villages which, through population growth and expansion, have physically merged to form one continuous built up area. ... The Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council (Pääkaupunkiseudun yhteistyövaltuuskunta, or YTV, in Finnish, Huvudstadsregionens samarbetsdelegation in Swedish) is a co-operation agency operating in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area. ...

Municipality Population Land area Density
Helsinki &0000000000564474.000000564,474 &0000000000000184.470000184.47 &0000000000003061.0000003,061.00
Espoo &0000000000235100.000000235,100 &0000000000000312.000000312.00 &0000000000000751.6.0E+5751.60
Tampere &0000000000206171.000000206,171 &0000000000000523.4.0E+5523.40 &0000000000000393.9.0E+5393.90
Vantaa &0000000000189442.000000189,442 &0000000000000240.540000240.54 &0000000000000780.4.0E+5780.40
Turku &0000000000177502.000000177,502 &0000000000000243.4.0E+5243.40 &0000000000000720.5.0E+5720.50
Oulu &0000000000130049.000000130,049 &0000000000000369.430000369.43 &0000000000000351.4.0E+5351.40
Lahti &0000000000098773.00000098,773 &0000000000000134.950000134.95 &0000000000000730.1.0E+5730.10
Kuopio &0000000000091026.00000091,026 &0000000000001127.4.0E+51,127.40 &0000000000000081.00000081.00
Jyväskylä &0000000000084482.00000084,482 &0000000000000105.9.0E+5105.90 &0000000000000789.000000789.00
Pori &0000000000076211.00000076,211 &0000000000000503.170000503.17 &0000000000000150.830000150.83
Lappeenranta &0000000000059077.00000059,077 &0000000000000758.000000758.00 &0000000000000077.7.0E+577.70
Rovaniemi &0000000000058100.00000058,100 &0000000000007600.7300007,600.73 &0000000000000007.6.0E+57.60
Joensuu &0000000000057879.00000057,879 &0000000000001173.4.0E+51,173.40 &0000000000000049.1.0E+549.10
Vaasa &0000000000057266.00000057,266 &0000000000000183.000000183.00 &0000000000000311.2.0E+5311.20
Kotka &0000000000054860.00000054,860 &0000000000000270.740000270.74 &0000000000000203.000000203.00
Further information: List of Finnish municipalities, List of Finnish municipalities by population, List of Finnish municipalities by area, and Former municipalities of Finland

Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Mayor Jussi Pajunen Area  - Total 187. ... Founded 1972 Province Southern Finland Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Area - Of which land - Rank 528 km² 312 km² ranked 279th Population - Density - Change - Rank 229,443 (2005) 729 inh. ... Tampere ( , IPA: ; Swedish: Tammerfors ) is a city in southern Finland located between two lakes, Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi. ... Founded 1974 Province Southern Finland Region Uusimaa Sub-region Greater Helsinki Area - Of which land - Rank 243 km² 240,84 km² ranked 316th Population - Density - Rank 190 058 (2007) 790. ... For the traditional Turkish folk songs, see Türkü. Location of Turku in Northern Europe Location of Turku in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Finland Proper Sub-region Turku sub-region Government  - Mayor Mikko Pukkinen Area  - City 306. ... Location of Oulu in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Finland Province Oulu Province Region Northern Ostrobothnia Sub-region Oulu sub-region Charter 1605 Government  - City manager Matti Pennanen Area  - City 449. ... Location within Finland Lahti (Lahtis in Swedish) is a Finnish city of 100,049 inhabitants (2006), bordering the Vesijärvi lake. ... Kuopio is a Finnish city located in the province of Eastern Finland and the region of Northern Savonia. ... Fireworks in Jyväskylä Jyväskylä (IPA: [jyʋæsËŒkylæ]) is a city located in central Finland, 147 km from Tampere and 270 km from Helsinki, near the lakes Päijänne and Keitele. ... Court House of Pori The Juselius Mausoleum, designed by Josef Stenbäck For other uses, see Pori (disambiguation). ... Lappeenranta (or Villmanstrand in Swedish) is a city and municipality that resides on the shore of the lake Saimaa in South-Eastern Finland, about 30 km from the Russian border. ... City Rovaniemi (1960) Administrative Province Province of Lapland Historical Province Lappland Area  - Total  - Land  - Water Ranked 5th (municipalities), and 1st (cities) 8,016 km² 7,601 km² 415 km² Population  - Total (01/2006)  - Density Ranked 13th 58,500 7. ... Joensuu City Hall Joensuu is a city in eastern Finland. ... For other uses, see Vaasa (disambiguation). ... The centre of Kotka Kotka (Finnish word for Eagle) is a town and municipality of Finland. ... This is a listing in alphabetical order of the current municipalities in Finland as of 2005. ... This is a list of the municipalities of Finland sorted by population as of 31st of December 2005: Helsinki (Helsingfors) 560 905 {+0,3%} Espoo (Esbo) 231 704 {+1,9%} Tampere (Tammerfors) 204 337 {+0,7%} Vantaa (Vanda) 187 281 {+1,0%} Turku (Ã…bo) 174 868 {+0,0%} Oulu (Ule... This is a list of the municipalities of Finland sorted by area as of 2003: 17321,32 km²: Inari/Enare 12416,81 km²: Sodankylä 8463,59 km²: Enontekiö/Enontekis 8411,79 km²: Kittilä 7915,51 km²: Rovaniemen_mlk/Rovaniemi_lk 6470,65 km²: Savukoski 5878,00 km²: Salla 5865,79 km²: Pudasj... This is a list of the former municipalities of Finland. ...

State-level politics and administration

Politics

Main article: Politics of Finland
See also: List of political parties in Finland
Eduskuntatalo, the main building of the Parliament of Finland (Eduskunta) in Helsinki.
Eduskuntatalo, the main building of the Parliament of Finland (Eduskunta) in Helsinki.

The Constitution of Finland defines the political system. Finland is a representative democracy with a semi-presidential parliamentary. Aside from state-level politics, residents use their vote in municipal elections and in the European Union elections. Finland has a primarily parliamentary system, although the president also has some notable powers. ... Political parties in Finland lists political parties in Finland. ... Eduskuntatalo The Eduskuntatalo (in Finnish), or the Riksdagshuset (in Swedish), is the building in which the Parliament of Finland meets. ... The Eduskunta (in Finnish), or the Riksdag (in Swedish), is the Parliament of Finland. ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Mayor Jussi Pajunen Area  - Total 187. ... For the constitution of the Grand Duchy of Finland see: Swedish Constitution of 1772 The Constitution of Finland (in Finnish, Suomen perustuslaki, or in Swedish, Finlands grundlag) is the supreme source of national law of Finland. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... Elections in the European Union gives information on election and election results in the European Union. ...


According to the Constitution, the President is the head of state and responsible for foreign policy (which excludes affairs related to the European Union) in cooperation with the cabinet. Other powers include Commander-in-Chief, decree, and appointive powers. Direct vote is used to elect the president for a term of six years and maximum two consecutive terms. The current president is Tarja Halonen (SDP). The President of Finland is the Head of State of Finland. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... Finland’s basic foreign policy goal, from the end of the Continuation War with the U.S.S.R. in 1944 until 1991, was to avoid great-power conflicts and to build mutual confidence with the Soviet Union. ... This article is about the governmental body. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... {{Infobox President|name= Tarja Halonen |order=11th President of Finland |image=Finland. ...


The 200-member unicameral Parliament of Finland exercises the supreme legislative authority in Finland. The parliament may alter laws, the constitution, bring about the resignation of the Council of State, and override presidential vetoes. Its acts are not subject to judicial review. Various parliament committees listen to experts and prepare legislation. Proportional vote in multi-seat constituencies is used to elect the parliament for a term of four years. The Speaker of Parliament, the first person in the presidential line of succession, is currently Sauli Niinistö (National Coalition Party). The cabinet (the Finnish Council of State) exercises most executive powers. It is headed by the Prime Minister of Finland and includes other ministers and the Chancellor of Justice. Parliament majority decides its composition and a vote of no confidence can be used to modify it. The current prime minister is Matti Vanhanen (Centre Party). For unicameral alphabets, see the article letter case. For The unicameral, see Nebraska Legislature. ... The Eduskunta (in Finnish), or the Riksdag (in Swedish), is the Parliament of Finland. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Speaker of the Parliament of Finland (Finnish Eduskunnan puhemies, Swedish Riksdagens talman), along with two Deputy Speakers, is elected by Parliament during the first plenary session each year. ... Sauli Niinistö Sauli Väinämö Niinistö (born August 24, 1948, Salo, Finland) is a Director at the European Investment Bank, a lawyer, former Finnish finance minister and was the Kokoomus candidate in the 2006 presidential election. ... The Council of State (Finnish: Valtioneuvosto, Swedish: StatsrÃ¥det) is Finlands cabinet; it directs the Government of Finland. ... The Prime Minister (Finnish Pääministeri, Swedish: Statsminister) is the head of government in Finland. ... The Chancellor of Justice (Justitiekanslern) is a government official charged with representing the Swedish government in various legal matters. ... Matti Taneli Vanhanen ( ) (born November 4, 1955, in Jyväskylä) is the current Prime Minister of Finland, as well as Chairman of the Centre Party. ...


Since equal and common suffrage was introduced in 1906, the parliament has been dominated by the Centre Party (former Agrarian Union), National Coalition Party, and Social Democrats, which have approximately equal support, and represent 65–80 percent of voters. After 1944 Communists were a factor to consider for a few decades. The relative strengths of the parties vary only slightly in the elections due to the proportional election from multi-member districts, but there are some visible long-term trends. The autonomous Åland islands has separate elections, where Liberals for Åland was the largest party in 2007 elections. Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... The Centre Party (in Finnish: Suomen Keskusta, ) is a centrist political party in Finland. ... The National Coalition Party (Kansallinen Kokoomus or Samlingspartiet) is a political party in Finland. ... The Social Democratic Party of Finland (SDP) is one of the most influential political parties in Finland, along with the Centre Party and the Coalition Party. ... The Communist Party of Finland (Finnish: Suomen kommunistinen puolue, Swedish: Finlands kommunistiska parti, abbreviated SKP) is a former political party endorsing communism in Finland. ... The Liberals for Ã…land (Swedish: Liberalerna pÃ¥ Ã…land) is a liberal party of the Ã…land Islands. ...


After the parliamentary elections on March 18, 2007, the seats were divided among eight parties as follows: The 2007 Finnish parliamentary election was held on March 18, 2007. ...

Party Seats Net Gain/Loss  % of seats  % of votes
Centre Party 51   –4 25.5 23.1
National Coalition Party 51 +10 25.0 22.3
Social Democratic Party 45   –8 22.5 21.4
Left Alliance 17   –2 8.5 8.8
Green League 14   +1 7.5 8.5
Swedish People's Party 9   +1 4.5 4.5
Christian Democrats 7     0 3.5 4.9
True Finns 5   +2 2.5 4.1
Others  1*     0 0.5 2.4

* Province of Åland representative. The Centre Party (in Finnish: Suomen Keskusta, ) is a centrist political party in Finland. ... The National Coalition Party (Kansallinen Kokoomus or Samlingspartiet) is a political party in Finland. ... The Social Democratic Party of Finland (SDP) is one of the most influential political parties in Finland, along with the Centre Party and the Coalition Party. ... The Left Alliance (in Finnish: Vasemmistoliitto, ; in Swedish: Vänsterförbundet) is a political party in Finland. ... This article refers to the political party, for the university environmental performance table, see Green League 2007 The Green League (in Finnish: Vihreä liitto, ; in Swedish: Gröna förbundet), is a green political party in Finland. ... The Swedish Peoples Party (Swedish: ; Finnish: ) is a Swedish speaking minority and mainly liberal party in Finland. ... The Christian Democrats (Kristillisdemokraatit or Kristdemokraterna) is a political party in Finland. ... True Finns (Perussuomalaiset in Finnish or Sannfinländarna in Swedish) is a small party in Finland, founded in 1995 on the ruins of The Finnish Rural Party. ... “Aland” redirects here. ...


Judicial system and law enforcement

A mounted police officer in Helsinki.
A mounted police officer in Helsinki.

The judicial system of Finland is a civil law system divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with responsibility for litigation between the individuals and the administrative organs of the state and the communities. Finnish law is codified and based on Swedish law and in a wider sense, civil law or Roman law. Its court system consists of local courts, regional appellate courts, and the Supreme Court. The administrative branch of justice consists of administrative courts and the Supreme Administrative Court. In addition to the regular courts, there are a few special courts in certain branches of administration. There is also a High Court of Impeachment for criminal charges against certain high-ranking offices. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (600x762, 160 KB) A mounted police officer at KontuFestari, a free festival happening in Kontula, one of Helsinkis eastern suburbs, in August 2004. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (600x762, 160 KB) A mounted police officer at KontuFestari, a free festival happening in Kontula, one of Helsinkis eastern suburbs, in August 2004. ... Under the Constitution of Finland, everyone is entitled to have their case heard by a court or an authority appropriately and without undue delay. ... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... Under the Constitution of Finland, everyone is entitled to have their case heard by a court or an authority appropriately and without undue delay. ... Under the Constitution of Finland, everyone is entitled to have their case heard by a court or an authority appropriately and without undue delay. ... Under the Constitution of Finland, everyone is entitled to have their case heard by a court or an authority appropriately and without undue delay. ...


A general court of first instance (käräjäoikeus) has professional judges and in complex cases, includes non-professional lay judges (lautamies) appointed by municipal councils. Administrative courts, appeals courts and supreme courts consist of professional judges only. Like the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, Finland has no constitutional court, and courts may not strike down laws or pronounce on their constitutionality. In principle, the constitutionality of laws in Finland is verified by parliament's constitutional committee and a simple vote in the parliament.


Around 92% of residents are confident in Finland's security institutions.[39] Crime in Finland has some unique features. The overall crime rate of Finland is not high in the EU context. Some crime types are above average, notably the highest homicide rate in Western Europe.[40] Crime is prevalent among lower educational groups and is often committed by intoxicated persons. A day fine system is in effect and also applied to offences such as speeding. Fines and jail sentences tend to be among the world's lowest, with an official emphasis on rehabilitation. Crime in Finland. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ... Homicide (Latin homicidium, homo human being + caedere to cut, kill) refers to the act of killing another human being. ... The day-fine (Finnish: päiväsakko, Swedish: dagsbot) is a unit of fine payment that, above a minimum fine, is based on the daily personal income. ...


Finland has successfully fought against the corruption which was larger in the 1970s and 1980s.[41] For instance, economic reforms and EU membership introduced stricter requirements for open bidding and many public monopolies were abolished.[41] Today Finland has a very low number of corruption charges; Transparency International ranks Finland as one of the least corrupted countries. Also, Finland's public records are among the world's most transparent. In one court case, a line was drawn when judge was convicted for accepting a 10-euro lunch. Finland has not implemented central corruption monitoring systems or agencies recommended by GRECO, citing that local corruption is too small. However, Finland is not totally free from corruption. Even some famous irregularities in the municipal sector rarely lead to investigations. Transparency International (TI) is an international organisation addressing corruption, including, but not limited to, political corruption. ...


Finland has strict libel standards, and in one case a blogger was convicted for incitement to hatred when referring to statistics about an ethnic group. The voluntary Internet censorship list, similar to other Nordic countries, is classified "nominal" censorship by the ONI. Nevertheless, Worldwide Press Freedom Index 2007 edition ranked Finland (along with Belgium and Sweden) fifth out of 169 countries. In English and American law, and systems based on them, libel and slander are two forms of defamation (or defamation of character), which is the tort or delict of making a false statement of fact that injures someones reputation. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Internet censorship is control or suppression of the publishing or accessing of information on the Internet. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... The OpenNet Initiative is a joint project of three academic institutions: the Citizen Lab at the Munk Centre for International Studies, University of Toronto, Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard Law School, and the Advanced Network Research Group at the Cambridge Security Programme, University of Cambridge. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF, German: Reporter ohne Grenzen or ROG) is a Paris-based international non-governmental organization that advocates for freedom of the press. ...


Foreign relations

According to the latest constitution of 2000, the President (currently Tarja Halonen) leads foreign policy in cooperation with the government (currently Prime Minister Matti Vanhanen and Foreign Minister Alexander Stubb), except that the government leads EU affairs. In surveys, most diplomats and foreign policy experts consider the current constitution flawed because it is often unclear who is in charge.[42] The Ministry of Foreign Affairs implements the foreign policy. Finland’s basic foreign policy goal, from the end of the Continuation War with the U.S.S.R. in 1944 until 1991, was to avoid great-power conflicts and to build mutual confidence with the Soviet Union. ... {{Infobox President|name= Tarja Halonen |order=11th President of Finland |image=Finland. ... Matti Taneli Vanhanen ( ) (born November 4, 1955, in Jyväskylä) is the current Prime Minister of Finland, as well as Chairman of the Centre Party. ... Alexander Stubb Alexander Stubb (born on 1 April 1968 in Helsinki) is a Finnish politician and Member of the European Parliament with the National Coalition Party, part of the European Peoples Party and sits on the European Parliaments Committee on Budgetary Control and its Committee on Constitutional Affairs. ...


During the Cold War, Finland conducted its foreign policy in association with the Soviet Union and simultaneously stressed Nordic cooperation (as a member of the Nordic Council). After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Finland freed itself from the last restrictions imposed on it by the Paris peace treaties of 1947 and the Finno-Soviet Agreement of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance. Although opposed by socialists and agrarians, the government filed an EU membership application three months after the dissolution of the USSR and became a member in 1995. Unlike all other post-Soviet countries in the Baltic sea and elsewhere, Finland did not attempt to join NATO, and even opposed defence cooperation. Political map of the Nordic countries and associated islands. ... This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ... The Paris Peace Conference (July 29 to October 15, 1946) resulted in the Paris peace treaties signed on February 10, 1947. ... The Agreement of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance, also known as the YYA Treaty from the Finnish Ystävyys-, yhteistyö- ja avunantosopimus (YYA-sopimus) (Swedish: Vänskaps-, samarbets- och biståndsavtalet (VSB-avtalet)), was the basis for Finno–Soviet relations from 1948 to 1992. ...


President Martti Ahtisaari and the coalition governments led Finland closer to the core EU in the late 1990s. Finland was considered a cooperative model state, and Finland did not oppose proposals for a common EU defence policy.[42] This was reversed in the 2000s, when the socialist-wing trio of Tarja Halonen and Erkki Tuomioja made Finland's official policy to resist other EU members' plans for common defense. This received some criticism, because many considered that Finland would have been the largest beneficiary of defense cooperation.[42] However, Halonen allowed Finland to join European Union Battlegroups in 2006 and the NATO Response Force in 2008. Relations with most countries except Russia have been good. Martti Oiva Kalevi Ahtisaari (IPA: ) (born June 23, 1937 Viipuri, Finland) is a former President of Finland (1994–2000) and a United Nations diplomat and mediator, noted for his international peace work. ... {{Infobox President|name= Tarja Halonen |order=11th President of Finland |image=Finland. ... Erkki Tuomioja (born 1 July 1946) is the foreign affairs minister of Finland (since 2000). ... European Union battlegroups (EU BGs) are military forces of 1500 combat soldiers under the control of the European Union. ... The NATO Response Force (NRF) is a coherent, high readiness, joint, multinational force package of approximately 25,000 troops that is technologically advanced, flexible, deployable, interoperable and sustainable. Its role is to act as a stand alone military force that can be rapidly deployed by the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation...


Relations with Russia are cordial and common issues include bureaucracy (particularly at the Vaalimaa border crossing), airspace violations, development aid Finland gives to Russia (especially in environmental problems that affect Finland), and Finland's energy dependency on Russian gas and electricity. Behind the scenes, the administration has witnessed a resurrection of Soviet-era tactics. The National Security Agency, SUPO, estimates that the known number of Russian agents from SVR and GRU now exceeds Cold War levels and there are unknown numbers of others.[43] Old methods such as KGB-style connections have been restored. Internet brigades target Finnish Internet forums. To combat Russian agents' connections with Finnish politicians, Finland has limited the time Russian diplomats can stay in the country. Analysts have hinted worry about Finland's ability to maintain sovereignty, for instance, if Russian leadership decides to start a crisis such as the ones experienced in Estonia and elsewhere in the Eastern Europe. Socialists are more willing to formulate policy based on Russia's preferences and maintain that NATO should be just an "option" or strongly rejected, though there is a small pro-NATO socialist opposition. Some socialists and agrarians want to exit the EU.[44] Right-wing politicians are more supportive of integration, with the current Foreign Minister Alexander Stubb one of the most pro-EU politicians in Finnish history and one of the first Finnish politicians to have openly supported NATO membership. After socialist parties lost elections in 2007, the term "non-allied" was dropped from the official policy publication (replicated by Sweden just months later).[42] Vaalimaa is a border crossing between Finland and Russia. ... Sluzhba Vneshney Razvedki (Служба внешней разведки) (SVR) is Russian for Foreign Intelligence Service and is the name of Russias primary external intelligence agency. ... For other uses, see GRU (disambiguation). ... The Internet brigades (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: Russian: ) [1][2] are state-sponsored information warfare teams that conduct psychological operations on-line. ... Alexander Stubb Alexander Stubb (born on 1 April 1968 in Helsinki) is a Finnish politician and Member of the European Parliament with the National Coalition Party, part of the European Peoples Party and sits on the European Parliaments Committee on Budgetary Control and its Committee on Constitutional Affairs. ...


The electorate is polarized between internationalists and isolationists. Support for international cooperation, global markets, and European integration is common among the young, right-wing, urban electorate.[45][44] Nevertheless, the old, left-wing, rural electorate contributes to Finland's extraordinary levels of opposition to the EU, NATO, and immigration.[45][44] Studies indicate that few have knowledge about the EU or NATO, and many of the electorate's conceptions date back to the Soviet Era when both were opposed as too Western institutions. Critics sometimes call the current political era a "paused era".[42] Internationalism is a political movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation between nations for the benefit of all. ... For the electronic album, see Isolationism (album). ...


Defence Forces

See also: Military history of Finland and List of Finnish wars

The Finnish Defence Forces is a cadre army of 16,500, of which 8,700 are professional soldiers (officers), with a standard readiness strength of 34,700 people in uniform (27,300 Army, 3,000 Navy, and 4,400 Air Force). A universal male conscription is in place, under which all men above 18 years of age serve for 6, 9, 11 (unarmed service) or 12 months. Alternative non-military service and volunteer service by women (chosen by around 500 annually[46]) are possible. The Finnish Defence Forces (Finnish Puolustusvoimat; Swedish Försvarsmakten) is a cadre army of 16500, of which 8700 professional soldiers (officers), with a standard readiness strength of 34,700 people in uniform (27,300 army, 3,000 navy, and 4,400 air force). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This is a list of wars fought by independent Finland between 1917 and 1945: The Civil War (1918) Treaty of Tarto (1920) Heimosodat by Finnish volunteers The Estonian Liberation War (1918-1920) The Viena expedition (1918) The Petsamo expedition (1918 and 1920) The Aunus expedition (1919) The Rising of East... En cadre is a French expression denoting a military unit composed mostly of officers. ... John T. Neufeld was a WWI conscientious objector sentenced to 15 years hard labour in the military prison at Leavenworth. ...


Finland is the only non-NATO EU country bordering Russia. Finland's official policy states that the 350,000 reservists with mostly ground weaponry are a sufficient deterrent. The military strategy is to hide in forests when attacked, perhaps abandon some regions, and attempt to defeat the enemy from forests in planned places.[47] Most military experts call for NATO membership, but are careful to avoid politics. Finland's defence budget equals about 2 billion euro or 1.4–1.6 percent of the GDP. In international comparisons the defense expenditure is around the third highest in the EU.[48] The voluntary overseas service is highly popular and troops serve around the world in UN, NATO and EU missions. Residents claim around 80% homeland defense willingness, one of the highest rates in Europe.[47]


The Finnish Defence Forces are under the command of the Chief of Defence (currently Juhani Kaskeala), who is directly subordinate to the President of the Republic in matters related to the military command. The military branches are the Finnish Army, Finnish Navy and Finnish Air Force. The Border Guard is under the Ministry of the Interior but can be incorporated into the Defence Forces when required by defence readiness. The Chief of Defence (puolustusvoimain komentaja) is the commander of the Finnish Defence Forces, under the authority of the Commander in Chief, President of Finland. ... Admiral Juhani Kaskeala Juhani Kaskeala (born 1946) is a Finnish admiral and commander of the Finnish Defence Forces. ... The President of Finland is the Head of State of Finland. ... The Finnish Army (Finnish: Maavoimat) is one of the branches of the Finnish Defence Forces. ... The Finnish Navy (Finnish: Suomen merivoimat, Swedish: Finländska marinen) is one of the branches of the Finnish Defence Forces. ... The Finnish Air Force (FAF) (Finnish: Ilmavoimat) is one of the branches of the Finnish Defence Forces. ... The Border Guard (Finnish: Rajavartiolaitos, Swedish: Gränsbevakningsväsendet) of Finland is the Finnish security authority responsible for the border security. ...


Economy

Real GDP growth, 1998–2007.
Real GDP growth, 1998–2007.
Main article: Economy of Finland
See also: List of Finnish companies and Helsinki Stock Exchange

Finland has a highly industrialized, free-market economy with a per capita output equal to that of other western economies such as France, Germany, Sweden or the UK. The largest sector of the economy is services at 65.7 percent, followed by manufacturing and refining at 31.4 percent. Primary production is at 2.9 percent.[49] With respect to foreign trade, the key economic sector is manufacturing. The largest industries[50] are electronics (21.6 percent), machinery, vehicles and other engineered metal products (21.1 percent), forest industry (13.1 percent), and chemicals (10.9 percent). Finland has timber and several mineral and freshwater resources. Forestry, paper factories, and the agricultural sector (on which taxpayers spend around 2 billion euro annually) are politically sensitive to rural residents. The Greater Helsinki area generates around a third of GDP. In a 2004 OECD comparison, high-technology manufacturing in Finland ranked second largest after Ireland. Knowledge-intensive services have also ranked the smallest and slow-growth sectors – especially agriculture and low-technology manufacturing – second largest after Ireland. Investment was below expected.[51] Overall short-term outlook was good and GDP growth has been above many EU peers. Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy, based on abundant forest resources, capital investments, and technology. ... This is a list of Finnish publicly listed corporations: Akado, electronics Ahlstrom, pulp and paper Aldata Solution, software Alma Media, media Amer Sports, sport Aspo, chemicals BaseN, measurement services Benefon, mobile phones Biotie Therapies, biotechnology Cargotec, lifting solutions Chips Abp, potato chips and snacks Citycon, real estate Eccu Finland, market... For the numeral system, Hex, see Hexadecimal For Wikipedias help pages, see Help:Contents. ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Primary production is one of the fundamental sectors of an economy. ... International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries or territories. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... Surface mount electronic components Electronics is the study of the flow of charge through various materials and devices such as semiconductors, resistors, inductors, capacitors, nano-structures and vacuum tubes. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants, animals and other life forms. ... Map of the Metropolitan Area (Light Green) and the Capital Region (Dark Green). ...


As an economic environment, Finland's judiciary is efficient and effective. Finland is highly open to investment and free trade. Finland has top levels of economic freedom in many areas, although there is a heavy tax burden and inflexible job market. Finland is ranked 16th (ninth in Europe) in the 2008 Index of Economic Freedom.[52] Recently, Finland has topped the patents per capita statistics, and overall productivity growth has been strong in areas such as electronics. While the manufacturing sector is thriving, OECD points out that the service sector would benefit substantially from policy improvements.[53] The data-based IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook 2007 ranked Finland 17th most competitive, next to Germany, and lowest of the Nordics.[54] The World Economic Forum report, based on loose opinion polls, has ranked Finland the most competitive country.[55] The central government has officially given many promised such as emphasis on information technology, but critics question the central government's competency to deliver much. For instance, Finland did not have an Internet-based tax filing system as of 2007.[56] Finland is one of the most fiscally responsible EU countries. Inflation has been low, averaging 1.8 percent between 2004 and 2006. Map of Economic Freedom released by the Heritage Foundation. ... The International Institute for Management Development is a business school located in Lausanne, Switzerland. ... Competitiveness is a comparative concept of the ability and performance of a firm, sub-sector or country to sell and supply goods and/or services in a given market. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information Technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... From a Keynesian point of view, a balanced budget in the public sector is achieved when the government has enough fiscal discipline to be able to equate the revenues with expenditure over the business cycles. ...


Finland is highly integrated in the global economy, and international trade is a third of GDP. The European Union makes 60 percent of the total trade. The largest trade flows are with Germany, Russia, Sweden, United Kingdom, USA, Netherlands and China. Trade policy is managed by the European Union, where Finland has traditionally been among the free trade supporters, except for agriculture. Finland is the only Nordic country to have joined the Eurozone. The Eurozone (less frequently called the Euro Area or Euroland) refers to a currency union among the European Union member states that have adopted the euro as their sole official currency. ...


Income and consumption

Aleksanterinkatu, a commercial street.
Aleksanterinkatu, a commercial street.

Notable companies in Finland include Nokia, the market leader in mobile telephony; Stora Enso, the largest paper manufacturer in the world; Neste Oil, an oil refining and marketing company; UPM-Kymmene, the third largest paper manufacturer in the world; Aker Finnyards, the manufacturer of the world's largest cruise ships (such as Royal Caribbean's Freedom of the Seas); Instrumentarium Imaging, the creator of the Orthopantomograph (Pan X-Ray machine) and world innovative leader of dental imaging systems and software.; KONE, a manufacturer of elevators and escalators; Wärtsilä, a producer of power plants and ship engines; and Finnair, the largest Helsinki-Vantaa based international airline.[57] Finland has sophisticated financial markets comparable to UK in efficiency.[52] The largest foreign-headquartered companies included names such as ABB, Tellabs, Carlsberg, and Siemens.[58] Aleksanterinkatu Aleksanterinkatu (Swedish Alexandersgatan) is famous street in the centre of Helsinki, Finland. ... This article is about the telecommunications corporation. ... 1/8 share of the Stora Kopparberg mine, dated June 16, 1288. ... Petrol station logo Neste Oil is an independent Finnish oil refining and marketing company producing mainly traffic fuels and other petroleum products. ... UPM (or UPM-Kymmene Oyj; NYSE: UPM) is a Finnish pulp and paper manufacturer. ... Aker Finnyards is a Finnish shipbuilding company. ... U.S. headquarters in Miami, Florida. ... M/S Freedom of the Seas is a Royal Caribbean International cruise ship and the name ship of her class. ... Kone Corporation, founded in 1910 and headquartered at Espoo, Finland, is an international engineering and service company employing about 30,000 people. ... Wärtsilä is a Finnish manufacturer of large (diesel) engines and power plants. ... Finnair is Finlands largest airline and the flag carrier. ... The Helsinki-Vantaa Airport in Vantaa, Finland is the main airport of the Helsinki metropolitan region. ... An Airbus A380 of Emirates Airline An airline provides air transport services for passengers or freight. ... ABB can mean: Gladynah Famas Guapa Akron and Barberton Belt Railroad (AAR reporting mark ABB) Allman Brothers Band, a southern rock band Anybody but Bush - a political slogan associated with the John Kerry campaign Asea Brown Boveri or ABB Group - a multinational industrial company specializing in power and automation technologies... Tellabs, Inc. ... Note: Carling beer is not produced by the Carlsberg brewery. ... Siemens has the following uses: Siemens is a German family name carried by generations of the telecommunications industrialists, including Werner von Siemens, Sir William Siemens, Wilhelm von Siemens and Peter von Siemens Siemens AG is a German electrical and telecommunications company, founded as a telegraph equipment manufacturer by Werner von...


Finland has approximately 1.8 million private sector workers, who make an average 25.1 euro per hour (before the approximately 60% median tax wedge) in 2007.[59] In 2003 residents worked a high average of 10 years for the same employer.[60] 62 percent worked for small and medium-size enterprises.[61] Female employment rate was relatively high, perhaps affected by the individual taxation (as opposed to family taxation) and other policies. Gender segregation between male-dominated professions and female-dominated professions was higher than in the US.[62] In 1999 the proportion of part-time workers was one of the lowest in OECD.[62] The tax wedge is the difference between workers take home pay and the costs of employing them (taking into account social security contributions and tax). ...


Unemployment rate was 6.8% and employment rate 68% in early 2008.[63] Unlike in Sweden, where pension savers can manage their investments, in Finland employer chooses a pension fund for the employee. The pension funding rate is much higher than in most Western European countries, but still only a portion of is funded and pensions exclude health insurances and other unaccounted promises.[64] Directly held public debt has been reduced to around 32 percent in 2007.[65] In 2007, the average household savings rate was -3.8 and household debt 101 percent of annual disposable income, a typical level in Europe.[66] This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... Consumer debt is debt that develops due to everyday expenditures. ...


In 2006, around 2,381,500 households resided in Finland and the average size was 2.1 persons. Around 40 percent of households consisted of a single person, 32 percent two persons and 28 percent three or more persons. There were 1.2 million residential buildings in Finland and the average residential space was 38 square meters per person. The average residential property (without land) cost 1,187 euro per sq metre (without land) and residential land on 8.6 euro per sq metre. Consumer energy prices were 8-12 euro per kilowatt hour.[67] 74 percent of households had a car. There were 2.5 million cars and 0.4 other vehicles.[68] Around 92 percent has mobile phone and 58 percent Internet connection at home. The average total household consumption was 20,000 euro, out of which housing at around 5500 euro, transport at around 3000 euro, food and beverages excluding alcoholic at around 2500 euro, recreation and culture at around 2000 euro. Upper-level white-collar households (409,653) consumed an average 27,456 euro, lower-level white-collar households (394,313) 20,935 euro, and blue-collar households (471,370) 19,415 euro euro.[69] This is a list of countries by number of internet users mostly based on The World Factbook [1] accessed in September 2007. ...


Education, science and technology

Auditorium in the Helsinki University of Technology's main building, designed by Alvar Aalto.
Auditorium in the Helsinki University of Technology's main building, designed by Alvar Aalto.
Main article: Education in Finland
See also: List of universities in Finland

Even though many or most schools were started as private schools, today only around 3% students are enrolled in private schools (mostly Helsinki-based schools such as SYK) compared to around 8% in Sweden, 10% in the US, and 70% in Netherlands.[70] Pre-school education is rare compared to other EU countries. Formal education is usually started at the age of 7. The primary school takes normally 6 years, the lower secondary school 3 years, and most schools are managed by municipal officials. The flexible curriculum is set by the Ministry of Education and the Education Board. Attendance is compulsory between the ages of 7 and 16, and free meals are served. According to PISA assessments of the age group 15, students had high average results and low variation between schools or students.[71] McKinsey has attributed the result distribution to high teacher education (Master's degree), high continuing teacher training, and emphasis on laggards. Homogeneous population may also contribute.[72] After lower secondary school, students apply to further studies. Trade schools prepare for professions, though they can be used to enter tertiary education as well. Academically-oriented Gymnasiums prepare for Abitur and further tertiary education. Helsinki University of Technology, auditorium of the main building, photographed by Jpk, 2004. ... Helsinki University of Technology, auditorium of the main building, photographed by Jpk, 2004. ... Helsinki University of Technology (TKK) (Finnish: Teknillinen korkeakoulu; Swedish: Tekniska högskolan) is the premier technical university in Finland and the largest in the Nordic Countries with over 15000 students. ... “Aalto” redirects here. ... Educational oversight Minister of Education Minister of Culture Ministry of Education Antti Kalliomäki Tanja Karpela National education budget € 5. ... University of Helsinki University of Joensuu University of Jyväskylä University of Kuopio University of Lapland in Rovaniemi University of Oulu University of Tampere University of Turku University of Vaasa in Vaasa Åbo Akademi University in Turku Helsinki University of Technology Lappeenranta University of Technology Tampere University of Technology Helsinki... Helsingin Suomalainen Yhteiskoulu, commonly abbreviated SYK, is a free Finnish private school located in the district of Etelä-Haaga in the city of Helsinki. ... The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a triennial world-wide test of 15-year-old schoolchildrens scholastic performance, the implementation of which is coordinated by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). ... A vocational school, providing vocational education and also as referred to as a trade school or career college, and school is operated for the express purpose of giving its students the skills needed to perform a certain job or jobs. ... A gymnasium (pronounced with or, in Swedish, as opposed to ) is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English Grammar Schools and U.S. High Schools. ... Abitur (from Latin abire = go away, go off) is the word commonly used in Finland and Germany for the final exams young adults (aged 18, 19 or 20) take at the end of their secondary education, usually after 12 or 13 years of schooling. ...


In tertiary education, two, mostly separate and non-interoperating sectors are found: the profession-oriented higher vocational schools and the research-oriented universities. Finns used to take student loans and scholarships, but for the past decades the financial risk has been moved solely to the government. There are 20 universities and 30 polytechnics in the country. The World Economic Forum ranks Finland's tertiary education #1 in the world.[73] Around 33% of residents has a tertiary degree, similar to Nordics and more than in most other OECD countries except Canada (44%), United States (38%) and Japan(37%).[74] For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Finnish researchers are leading contributors to such fields as forest improvement, new materials, the environment, neural networks, low-temperature physics, brain research, biotechnology, genetic technology and communications.[75]


Energy

Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant with two existing units. The third unit and Finland's fifth (far left) is computer manipulated and will be ready by 2011.
Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant with two existing units. The third unit and Finland's fifth (far left) is computer manipulated and will be ready by 2011.
See also: Nordic energy market
See also: Nuclear power in Finland

Anyone can enter the free and largely privately-owned Nordic energy market traded in Nord Pool exchange, which has provided competitive prices compared to other EU countries. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x633, 169 KB) Summary The EPR Power Plant of Olkiluoto, Finnland Published with the friendly permission of Framatome ANP, Germany Weblink: http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x633, 169 KB) Summary The EPR Power Plant of Olkiluoto, Finnland Published with the friendly permission of Framatome ANP, Germany Weblink: http://www. ... The Olkiluoto island with two existing nuclear power plants and one under construction Olkiluoto is an island located in western Finland in the municipality of Eurajoki. ... As of 2006, Finlands nuclear power program has four nuclear reactors. ... Nord Pool ASA, the Nordic Power Exchange, is the worlds only multinational exchange for trading electric power. ...


In 2006, the energy market was around 90 terawatt hours and the peak demand around 15 gigawatts in winter. Industry and construction consumed 51% of total consumption.[76][77] Finland's hydrocarbon resources are limited to peat and wood, while neighboring Norway has oil and Estonia oil shale. Finland has little hydropower capacity compared to Sweden or Norway. Most energy demand is satisfied with fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. Finland has four privately-owned nuclear reactors producing 18 percent of the country's energy.,[78] one research reactor in Otaniemi campus, and the fifth AREVA-Siemens-built reactor – the world's largest at 1600 MWe and a focal point of Europe's nuclear industry – is scheduled to be operational by 2011. Renewable energy forms (industrial and consumer wood, peat, industrial residue, garbage) make high 25 percent compared to the EU average 10 percent. A varying amount (5–17 percent) of electricity has been imported from Russia (at around 3 gigawatt power line capacity), Sweden and Norway. A new submarine power cable from Russia has been considered a national security issue and one permit application has already been rejected. The gigawatt (symbol: GW) is a unit for measuring power corresponding to one billion (109) watts. ... A 3-dimensional rendered Ball-and-stick model of the methane molecule. ... Peat in Lewis, Scotland Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Oil shale Oil shale is a general term applied to a fine-grained sedimentary rock containing significant traces of kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) that have not been buried for sufficient time to produce conventional fossil fuels. ... Undershot water wheels on the Orontes River in Hama, Syria Saint Anthony Falls Hydropower or hydraulic power is the force or energy of moving water. ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, that is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... Otaniemi from the air, 1989. ... AREVA (Euronext: CEI) is a France-based multinational industrial conglomerate that deals in energy, especially in nuclear power. ... Siemens redirects here. ... For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... The HVDC Russia-Finland (also: Kernovo-Mussalo cable) is a proposed 1000 MW HVDC submarine power cable between Kernovo, Leningrad Oblast (Russia) and Mussalo, Kotka (Finland). ... Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ...


Finland negotiated itself expensive Kyoto and EU emission terms. They are causing a sharp increase in energy prices and 1-2 billion euro annual cost, amplified by the aging and soon commissioned capacity.[79] Nuclear power is by far the most inexpensive energy form and energy companies are already ready to file applications for several new reactors. Each reactor requires a permit from the parliament, where The Green League and a sect of The Centre Party are particularly opposed, and the discussion about the permit can take years. Some industries are excepted to exit because of the rising energy costs.


Transportation

Wild animals, chiefly moose and reindeers, cause several thousand accidents every year.
Wild animals, chiefly moose and reindeers, cause several thousand accidents every year.
Main article: Transport in Finland
See also: Highways in Finland, List of airports in Finland, and Public transport in Helsinki

The extensive road system is utilized by most internal cargo and passenger traffic. As of 2005, the country's network of main roads has a total length of 13,258 km and all public roads 78,186 km, of which 50,616 km are paved. The motorway network totals 653 km. The annual road network expenditure of around 1 billion euro is paid with vehicle and fuel taxes which amount to around 1.5 billion euro and 1 billion euro. For other uses, see Moose (disambiguation). ... Caribou redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This is a list of airports in Finland Civil airports Enontekiö Airport, Enontekiö (ENF) Helsinki-Malmi Airport, Helsinki (HEM) Helsinki-Vantaa Airport, Vantaa (HEL) Hyvinkää Airport, Hyvinkää (HYV) Ivalo Airport, Inari (IVL) Joensuu Airport, Liperi (JOE) Jyväskylä Airport, Jyväskylän maalaiskunta (JYV) Kajaani Airport, Kajaani (KAJ) Kauhava Airport... An old series 100 metro Public transport in Helsinki consists of bus, tram, metro, train, and ferry services. ... Motorway symbol in UK, Australia, Spain, France and Ireland. ...


The main international passenger gateway is Helsinki-Vantaa Airport with over 13 million passengers in 2007. About 25 airports have scheduled passenger services. Many airports are semi-privatized. The Helsinki-Vantaa based Finnair (known for an Asia-focused strategy), Blue1 and Finncomm Airlines sell air services both domestically and internationally. Helsinki has an optimal location for great circle routes between Western Europe and the Far East. Hence, many international travelers visit Helsinki on a stop-over between Asia and Europe. International terminal departure hall One of Helsinki-Vantaas runways Helsinki-Vantaa Airport (IATA: HEL, ICAO: EFHK) in Vantaa, Finland, is the main airport of the Helsinki metropolitan region and the whole of Finland. ... Finnair is Finlands largest airline and the flag carrier. ... Blue1 is an airline based in Helsinki, Finland. ... Finncomm Airlines Embraer ERJ 145 Finncomm Airlines (short for Finnish Commuter Airlines Oy), is a regional airline based in Seinäjoki, Finland. ... For the Brisbane bus routes known collectively as the Great Circle Line (598 & 599), see the following list of Brisbane Transport routes A great circle on a sphere A great circle is a circle on the surface of a sphere that has the same diameter as the sphere, dividing the... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... This article is about the Asian regions. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Despite low population density, taxpayers spend annually around 350 million euro in maintaining 5,865 km railway tracks even to many rural towns. Operations are privatized and currently the only operator is VR. It has 5 percent passenger market share (out of which 80 percent are urban trips in Greater Helsinki) and 25 percent cargo market share.[80] Helsinki has an urban rail network. VR or VR Group (VR-Yhtymä) is a state-owned railway company in Finland, and formerly known as Suomen Valtion Rautatiet (Finnish State Railways) until 1922 and Valtionrautatiet (State Railways) until 1995. ...


The majority of international cargo utilizes ports. Port logistics prices are low. Vuosaari harbour is the largest container port after completion in 2008. There is passenger traffic from Helsinki and Turku, which have ferry connections to Tallinn, Mariehamn, Sweden and several other destination. The busy Helsinki-Tallinn route is also served by a helicopter line. County Area 159. ... Founded 1861 Province Ã…land Region Ã…land Sub-region Mariehamn Area - Of which land - Rank 11. ...


Nordic model

See also: Nordic model

Finnish politicians have often emulated other Nordics and the Nordic model.[81] Nordics have been free-trading and relatively welcoming to skilled migrants for over a century, though in Finland immigration is relatively new. The level of protection in commodity trade has been low, except for agricultural products.[81] Nordic model refers to the social models of the Nordic countries of the European Union (Denmark, Finland, Sweden). ... Nordic model refers to the social models of the Nordic countries of the European Union (Denmark, Finland, Sweden). ...


Economists attribute much growth to reforms in the product markets. According to OECD, only four EU-15 countries have less regulated product markets (UK, Ireland, Denmark and Sweden) and only one has less regulated financial markets (Denmark). Nordic countries were pioneers in liberalizing energy, postal, and other markets in Europe.[81] The legal system is clear and business bureaucracy less than most countries.[82] For instance, starting a business takes an average of 14 days, compared to the world average of 43 days and Denmark's average of 6 days. Property rights are well protected and contractual agreements are strictly honored.[52] Finland is rated one of the least corrupted countries in Corruption Perceptions Index. Finland is rated 13th in the Ease of Doing Business Index. It indicates exceptional ease to trade across borders (5th), enforce contracts (7th), and close a business (5th), and exceptional hardship to employ workers (127th) and pay taxes (83rd).[83] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Overview of the index of perception of corruption, 2006 Since 1995, Transparency International has published an annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)[1] ordering the countries of the world according to the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians.[2] The organization defines corruption as... World map of the Ease of Doing Business Index. ...


According to OECD, the job market is the most inflexible among Nordic countries.[81] Finland increased job market regulation in the 1970s to provide stability to manufacturers. In the 90s, Denmark liberalized its job market, Sweden moved to more decentralized contracts, and Finnish trade unions blocked most reforms. Finnish law forces all workers to obey the lengthy and bureaucracy-imposing country-wide contracts that are drafted every few years for each profession (copy machinist, metallurgical engineer, etc.) and seniority level, usually in Comprehensive Income Policy Agreement.[81] Along with tax rates, the system is a key contributor to unemployment and distorted prices, and possibly slows down structural change as there are less incentives to acquire better skills.[51][81] Trade unions have traditionally lobbied for anti-immigrant policies, but Finland has now made some effort to improve the economy's competitiveness and marketing as a destination for skilled workers. Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning of the market for labour. ... The Comprehensive Income Policy Agreement (Finnish: tulopoliittinen kokonaisratkaisu) is a tri-lateral treaty crafted by the Finnish government together with employees and employers trade unions. ...


The middle income worker suffers from a nearly 60 percent tax wedge[81] and effective marginal tax rates are very high.[51] Value-added tax is 22 percent for most items. Capital gains tax and corporate tax are 26 percent, about the EU median. Property taxes are low, but there is a stamp duty of 4% for home sellers.[51] Alcoholic beverages are separately taxed and highly restricted. For instance, McKinsey estimates that a worker has to pay around 1600 euro for another's 400 euro service[84] - restricting service supply and demand - though some taxation is avoided in the black market and self-service culture. Another study by Karlson, Johansson & Johnsson estimates that the percentage of the buyer’s income entering the service vendor’s wallet (inverted tax wedge) is slightly over 15%, compared to 10% in Belgium, 25% in France, 40% in Switzerland and 50% in the United States.[85] Tax cuts have been in every post-depression government's agenda and the overall tax burden is now around 43% of GDP compared to 51.1% in Sweden, 34.7% in Germany, 33.5% in Canada, and 30.5% in Ireland.[86] State and municipal politicians have struggled to cut their consumption, which is very high at 51.7% of GDP compared to 56.6% in Sweden, 46.9 in Germany, 39.3 in Canada, and 33.5% in Ireland.[52] Much of the taxes are spent on public sector employees, many of which are jobs-for-life and amount to 124,000 state employees and 430,000 municipal employees.[51] That is 113 per 1000 residents (over a quarter of workforce) compared to 74 in the US, 70 in Germany, and 42 in Japan (8% of workforce).[87] The Economist Intelligence Unit's ranking for Finland's e-readiness is high at 13th, compared to 1st for United States, 3rd for Sweden, 5th for Denmark, and 14th for Germany. Also, early and generous retirement schemes have contributed to high pension costs.[51] Social spending such as health or education is around OECD median.[51] Social transfers are also around OECD median. In 2001 Finland's outsourced proportion of spending was below Sweden's and above most other Western European countries. Outsourcing to free market has saved costs and increased customer satisfaction. For instance, Finland's health care is more bureaucrat-managed than in most Western European countries, though many use private insurance or cash to enjoy private clinics. Better access to private services is is very popular among voters and small reforms toward more equal marketplace have been made in 2007-2008.[88] In education, child nurseries, and elderly nurseries private competition is bottom-ranking compared to Sweden and most other Western countries.[81] Some public monopolies such Alko remain, and are sometimes challenged by the European Union. The tax wedge is the difference between workers take home pay and the costs of employing them (taking into account social security contributions and tax). ... Value added tax (VAT) is a sales tax levied on the sale of goods and services. ... For all other forms of taxation, see tax Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        A capital gains... Corporate tax refers to a direct tax levied by various jurisdictions on the profits made by companies or associations. ... Property tax, millage tax is an ad valorem tax that an owner of real estate or other property pays on the value of the property being taxed. ... Stamp duty is a form of tax that is levied on documents. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into underground economy. ... This entity, also known as EIU is part of The Economist Group. ... e-Readiness is the ability to use Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to develop ones economy and to foster ones welfare. ... Alko is the national alcoholic beverage retailing monopoly in Finland. ...


Tourism

The M/S Silja Symphony leaving from Helsinki. Cruises are a popular tourist activity throughout Finland.
The M/S Silja Symphony leaving from Helsinki. Cruises are a popular tourist activity throughout Finland.
Main article: Tourism in Finland

In 2005, Finnish tourism grossed over €6.7 billion with a five percent increase from the previous year. Much of the sudden growth can be attributed to the globalisation and modernisation of the country as well as a rise in positive publicity and awareness. There are many attractions in Finland which attracted over 4 million visitors in 2005. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 218 KB) Summary M/S Silja Symphony leaving from Helsinki, photo by Antti Havukainen File was originally uploaded to Finnish Wikipedia as Silja Symphony Kustaanmiekka. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 218 KB) Summary M/S Silja Symphony leaving from Helsinki, photo by Antti Havukainen File was originally uploaded to Finnish Wikipedia as Silja Symphony Kustaanmiekka. ... M/S Silja Symphony at Kustaanmiekka strait. ... M/S Silja Symphony passing through the Kustaanmiekka strait outside Helsinki, Finland on its route to Stockholm, Sweden via Mariehamn. ... Finland Suomi logo by the Finnish Tourist Board. ... Tourist redirects here. ... Globalization is a term used to describe the changes in societies and the world economy that are the result of dramatically increased trade and cultural exchange. ... Modernization is the process of changing the conditions of a society, an organisation or another group of people in ways that change the privileges of that group according to modern technology or modern knowledge. ...


The Finnish landscape is covered with thick pine forests, rolling hills and complemented with a labyrinth of lakes and inlets. Much of Finland is pristine and virgin as it contains 35 national parks from the Southern shores of the Gulf of Finland to the high fells of Lapland. It is also an urbanised region with many cultural events and activities. Subgenera Subgenus Strobus Subgenus Ducampopinus Subgenus Pinus See Pinus classification for complete taxonomy to species level. ... Lulworth Cove in Dorset, England (Great Britain) A fjord (Lysefjorden) in Norway An inlet is a body of water, usually seawater, which has characteristics of one or more of the following: a bay a cove an estuary a firth a fjord a geo a sea loch a sea lough a... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ... The Ylläs fell in Finland Fell (from the Old Norse fjall, mountain) is a word used to refer to mountains, or certain types of mountainous landscape, in parts of England and Scandinavia. ... Lappi, or the Province of Lapland is one of the Provinces of Finland, and a part of the larger geographical area of Lapland, which spans over four countries. ...


Commercial cruises between major coastal and port cities in the Baltic region, including Helsinki, Turku, Tallinn, Stockholm and Travemünde, play a significant role in the local tourism industry. Finland is regarded as the home of Saint Nicholas or Santa Claus, living in the northern Lapland region. Above the Arctic Circle, there is a polar night, a period when the sun doesn't rise for days or weeks, or even months. Lapland, the extreme north of Finland, is so far north that the Aurora Borealis, atmospheric fluorescence, is seen regularly in winter. M/S Silja Symphony passing through the Kustaanmiekka strait outside Helsinki, Finland on its route to Stockholm, Sweden via Mariehamn. ... Population density in the wider Baltic region. ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Mayor Jussi Pajunen Area  - Total 187. ... For the traditional Turkish folk songs, see Türkü. Location of Turku in Northern Europe Location of Turku in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Finland Proper Sub-region Turku sub-region Government  - Mayor Mikko Pukkinen Area  - City 306. ... County Area 159. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... Barque Passat in Travemünde Travemünde is a borough of Lübeck located at the mouth of river Trave into Lübeck Bay. ... A typical depiction of Santa Claus. ... Lappi, or the Province of Lapland is one of the Provinces of Finland, and a part of the larger geographical area of Lapland, which spans over four countries. ... For the fast food restaurant chain, see Arctic Circle Restaurants. ... The polar night is the night lasting more than 24 hours, usually inside the polar circles. ... Lappi, or the Province of Lapland is one of the Provinces of Finland, and a part of the larger geographical area of Lapland, which spans over four countries. ... Aurora borealis Polar aurorae are optical phenomena characterized by colorful displays of light in the night sky. ... Fluorescence induced by exposure to ultraviolet light in vials containing various sized Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots. ...


Outdoor activities range from Nordic skiing, golf, fishing, yachting, lake cruises, hiking, kayaking among many others. At Finland's northernmost point, in the heart of summer, the Sun does not completely set for 73 consecutive days. Wildlife is abundant in Finland. Bird-watching is popular for those fond of flying fauna, however hunting is also popular. Elk, reindeer and hare are all common game in Finland. There are many churches, cathedrals, museums and castles. Olavinlinna in Savonlinna hosts the annual Savonlinna Opera Festival. The capital city of Helsinki, on the other hand, is famous for its Grand Duchy era architecture, which resembles that of imperial St. Petersburg. Nordic skiing is a winter sport that encompasses all types of skiing where the heel of the boot cannot be fixed to the ski. ... This article is about the game. ... For the computer security term, see Phishing. ... Yachting is a physical activity involving boats. ... Two hikers in the Mount Hood National Forest Eagle Creek hiking Hiking is a form of walking, undertaken with the specific purpose of exploring and enjoying the scenery. ... Sea Kayaking at Wilsons Promontory in Victoria, Australia Kayaking is the use of a kayak for moving across water. ... Birding or birdwatching is a hobby concerned with the observation and study of birds (the study proper is termed American origin; birdwatching is (or more correctly, was) the commonly-used word in Great Britain and Ireland and by non-birders in the United States. ... This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... For other uses, see Moose (disambiguation). ... Caribou redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hare (disambiguation). ... External links Savonlinna Opera Festival - Official site Categories: Stub | Castles in Finland | Fortresses in the Swedish Realm ... Savonlinna or Nyslott in Swedish, (literally Newcastle) is a municipality of about 28,000 inhabitants in the southeast of Finland, in the heart of the Saimaa lake region. ... St. ... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...


Culture

A Juhannus bonfire ("kokko") in Mäntsälä
A Juhannus bonfire ("kokko") in Mäntsälä
Students on Helsinki's Esplanadi wearing their caps on Vappu.
Students on Helsinki's Esplanadi wearing their caps on Vappu.
A lakeside smoke sauna ("savusauna") in Kannonkoski
A lakeside smoke sauna ("savusauna") in Kannonkoski
Main article: Culture of Finland

Throughout Finland's prehistory and history, cultural contacts and influences have concurrently, or at varying times, come from all directions. As a result of 600 years of Swedish rule, Swedish cultural influences are still notable. Today, cultural influences from North America are prominent. Into the twenty-first century, many Finns have contacted cultures from distantly abroad, such as with those in Asia and Africa. Beyond tourism, Finnish youth in particular have been increasing their contact with peoples from outside Finland by travelling abroad to both work and study. For the AC/DC box set, see Bonfire (album). ... Walpurgis Night (Valborgsmässoafton in Swedish, Vappu in Finnish, Volbriöö in Estonian, Valpurģu nakts or Valpurģi in Latvian, Walpurgisnacht in German) is a holiday celebrated on April 30, in Finland, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia and Germany. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 615 KB) Traditional Finnish Savusauna (smoke sauna) next to a lake in Kannonkoski I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 615 KB) Traditional Finnish Savusauna (smoke sauna) next to a lake in Kannonkoski I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The culture of Finland combines indigenous heritage, as represented by the countrys rare Finno-Ugric national language, Finnish, the sauna, and the traditional idea of self-suffiency with common Nordic and European culture. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... 20XX redirects here. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


There are still differences between regions, especially minor differences in accents and vocabulary. Minorities, such as the Sami, Finland Swedes, Romani, and Tatar, maintain their own cultural characteristics. Many Finns are emotionally connected to the countryside and nature, as urbanisation is a relatively recent phenomenon. The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ...  Officially monolingual Finnish-speaking municipalities (Sami bilingual municipalities not shown)  Bilingual municipalities with Finnish as the majority language  Bilingual municipalities with Swedish as the majority language  Monolingual Swedish-speaking municipalities (including Ã…land) More than 17,000 Swedish Finns live in officially monolingual Finnish municipalities, and are thus not represented on... The Finnish Roma are a group of the Roma people that lives primarily in Finland and Sweden. ... The Finnish Tatar community, about 800 people, is recognized as a national minority by the government of Finland, which considers their language as a non-territorial language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. ...


Literature

Main article: Finnish literature

Though Finnish written language could be said to exist since Mikael Agricola translated the New Testament into Finnish in the sixteenth century as a result of the Protestant Reformation, few notable works of literature were written until the nineteenth century, which saw the beginning of a Finnish national Romantic Movement. This prompted Elias Lönnrot to collect Finnish and Karelian folk poetry and arrange and publish them as Kalevala, the Finnish national epic. The era saw a rise of poets and novelists who wrote in Finnish, notably Aleksis Kivi and Eino Leino. The history of Finland has been tumultuous. ... Mikael Agricola Mikael Agricola ( ) (c. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Reformation redirects here. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Romantics redirects here. ... Elias Lönnrot ( ) (April 9, 1802 – March 19, 1884) was a Finnish philologist and collector of traditional Finnish oral poetry. ... The Kalevala is an epic poem which the Finn Elias Lönnrot compiled from Finnish and Karelian folklore in the 19th century. ... A national epic is an epic poem or similar work which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular nation; not necessarily a nation-state, but at least an ethnic or linguistic group with aspirations to independence or autonomy. ... Aleksis Kivi (October 10, 1834 - December 31, 1872), born Alexis Stenvall, was a Finnish author who wrote the first significant novel in the Finnish language, Seven Brothers (Finnish title: Seitsemän veljestä). Aleksis Kivi was born at Nurmijärvi, Finland, in a tailors family. ... Eino Leino (July 6, 1878 - January 10, 1926) was a Finnish poet and journalist, considered one of the important developers of Finnish poetry. ...


After Finland became independent there was a rise of modernist writers, most famously Mika Waltari. Frans Eemil Sillanpää was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1939 – so far the only one for a Finnish author. The second World War prompted a return to more national interests in comparison to a more international line of thought, characterized by Väinö Linna. Literature in modern Finland is in a healthy state, with detective stories enjoying a particular boom of popularity. Ilkka Remes, a Finnish author of thrillers, is very popular. Mika Toimi Waltari ( ) (September 19, 1908 – August 26, 1979) was a Finnish historical novelist, best known for his magnum opus The Egyptian (Sinuhe egyptiläinen in Finnish) . // Waltari was born in Helsinki and lost his father, a Lutheran pastor, at the age of five. ... Frans Eemil Sillanpää (September 16, 1888 – June 3, 1964) was one of the most famous Finnish writers. ... René-François-Armand Prudhomme (1839–1907), a French poet and essayist, was the first person to win the Nobel Prize in Literature, in 1901, in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Väinö Linna ( ) (December 20, 1920 – April 21, 1992) was one of the most influential Finnish authors of the 20th century. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... The thriller is a broad genre of literature, film, and television. ...


Visual arts

See also: List of Finnish architects

Finns have made major contributions to handicrafts and industrial design. Finland's best-known sculptor of the twentieth century was Wäinö Aaltonen, remembered for his monumental busts and sculptures. Finnish architecture is famous around the world. Among the top of the twentieth century Finnish architects to win international recognition are Eliel Saarinen (designer of the widely recognised Helsinki Central railway station and many other public works) and his son Eero Saarinen. Alvar Aalto, who helped bring the functionalist architecture to Finland, is also famous for his work in furniture and glassware. The following is a list of well-known architects from Finland. ... A handicraft shop in Delhi-India, other opction is Apus-Inka. ... Example of industrial design item - hanger chair Industrial design is an applied art whereby the aesthetics and usability of products may be improved for marketability and production. ... Wäinö Aaltonen (3 March 1894-30 May 1966) was a Finnish artist of the 20th century. ... Bust of Richard Bently by Roubiliac A bust is a sculpture depicting a persons chest, shoulders, and head, usually supported by a stand. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... Gottlieb Eliel Saarinen (August 20, 1873, Rantasalmi, Finland – July 1, 1950, Cranbrook, Michigan, United States) was a Finnish architect who became famous for his art nouveau buildings in the early years of the 20th century. ... Swedish name Helsingfors Opened 1862 Passengers per day about 200. ... Saarinens Gateway Arch frames The Old Courthouse, which sits at the heart of the city of Saint Louis, near the rivers edge. ... “Aalto” redirects here. ... Functionalism, in architecture, is the principle that architects should design a building based on the purpose of that building. ... For the UK band, see Furniture (band). ... Glassware includes: Drinkware (for beverages) Vases Pitcher (container)s Art glass Art marbles Laboratory glassware Stained glass is not directly glassware, but is closely related. ...


Music

Main article: Music of Finland

Genres Folk - Pop - Opera - Rock (Suomirock) - Hip hop - Trance Finno-Ugric music Estonia - Finland - Hungary - Khantia-Mansia - Komi Republic - Mari El - Mordovia - Nenetsia - Udmurtia Much of the music of Finland is influenced by Karelian traditional tunes and lyrics, as comprised in the Kalevala. ...

Folk music

Much of the music of Finland is influenced by traditional Karelian melodies and lyrics, as comprised in the Kalevala. Karelian culture is perceived as the purest expression of the Finnic myths and beliefs, less influenced by Germanic influence, in contrast to Finland's position between the East and the West. Finnish folk music has undergone a roots revival in recent decades, and has become a part of popular music. Map showing the parts Karelia is traditionally divided into. ... The Kalevala is an epic poem which the Finn Elias Lönnrot compiled from Finnish and Karelian folklore in the 19th century. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures, social structures and philosophical systems of the East, namely Asia (including China, India, Japan, and surrounding regions). ... Occident redirects here. ... Folk song redirects here. ... A roots revival (folk revival) is a trend which includes young performers popularizing the traditional musical styles of their ancestors. ... For the music genre, see Pop music. ...


Sami music

Main article: Sami music

The people of northern Finland, Sweden and Norway, the Sami, are known primarily for highly spiritual songs called Joik. The same word sometimes refers to lavlu or vuelie songs, though this is technically incorrect. Traditional Sami music revolves around singing. ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... Yoik, Joik or juoiggus is a traditional Sami form of song. ... Genres Folk - Pop - Opera - Rock (Suomirock) - Hip hop - Trance Finno-Ugric music Estonia - Finland - Hungary - Khantia-Mansia - Komi Republic - Mari El - Mordovia - Nenetsia - Udmurtia The music of Finland can be roughly divided in the following three categories. ...


Classical and opera

The Finnish composer Jean Sibelius (1865–1957), a significant figure in the history of classical music.
The Finnish composer Jean Sibelius (1865–1957), a significant figure in the history of classical music.

The first Finnish opera was written by the German composer Fredrik Pacius in 1852. Pacius also wrote Maamme/Vårt land (Our Land), Finland's national anthem. In the 1890s Finnish nationalism based on the Kalevala spread, and Jean Sibelius became famous for his vocal symphony Kullervo. He soon received a grant to study runo singers in Karelia and continued his rise as the first prominent Finnish musician. In 1899 he composed Finlandia, which played its important role in Finland gaining independence. He remains one of Finland's most popular national figures and is a symbol of the nation. Description: Jean Sibelius Size: 262 &times 350 pixels Source: What We Hear in Music, Anne S. Faulkner, Victor Talking Machine Co. ... Description: Jean Sibelius Size: 262 &times 350 pixels Source: What We Hear in Music, Anne S. Faulkner, Victor Talking Machine Co. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... Sibelius redirects here. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... Fredrik Pacius (or Friedrich Pacius) (1809-1891) was German composer and conductor who lived most of his life in Finland. ... Maamme in The Tales of Ensign StÃ¥l Our Land, Maamme (Finnish), or VÃ¥rt land (Swedish), is the title of Finlands de facto national anthem. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Sibelius redirects here. ... Kullervo, Op. ... Finlandia is a symphonic poem by the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius. ...


Today, Finland has a very lively classical music scene. Finnish classical music has only existed for about a hundred years, and many of the important composers are still alive, such as Magnus Lindberg, Kaija Saariaho, Aulis Sallinen and Einojuhani Rautavaara. The composers are accompanied with a large number of great conductors such as Sakari Oramo, Mikko Franck, Esa-Pekka Salonen, Osmo Vänskä, Jukka-Pekka Saraste, Susanna Mälkki and Leif Segerstam. Some of the internationally acclaimed Finnish classical musicians are Karita Mattila, Soile Isokoski, Kari Kriikku, Pekka Kuusisto, Réka Szilvay and Linda Brava. Magnus Lindberg (born June 27, 1958) is a Finnish composer. ... Kaija Saariaho (born October 14, 1952) is a Finnish composer. ... Aulis Sallinen (born April 9, 1935) is a Finnish contemporary classical music composer. ... Einojuhani Rautavaara (born October 9, 1928) is a Finnish composer of classical music, probably the best known Finnish composer of his generation. ... Sakari Oramo (born 1965) is a Finnish conductor. ... Mikko Franck (January 2, 1979- ) is a Finnish conductor. ... Esa-Pekka Salonen ( ) (born June 30, 1958 in Helsinki) is a prominent Finnish orchestral conductor and composer. ... The conductor Osmo Vänskä (* 28. ... Jukka-Pekka Saraste (born April 22, 1956) is a Finnish conductor. ... Susanna Mälkki (born Helsinki, Finland, 13th March 1969) is a Finnish conductor. ... Leif Segerstam (born March 2, 1944 in Vaasa) is a Finnish conductor and composer. ... Karita Mattila Karita Mattila (born September 5, 1960 in Somero, Finland), is a leading opera soprano. ... Soile Isokoski on album cover Soile Isokoski (born February 14, 1957 is a Finnish lyric soprano. ... Kari Kriikku is a Finnish classical clarinetist. ... Pekka Kuusisto (born in 1976 in Espoo, Finland) is a classical violin virtuoso. ... Linda Brava, real name Linda Lampenius (born on February 26, 1970 in Helsinki, Finland) is a Finnish violinist. ...


Popular music

Modern Finnish popular music includes a renowned heavy metal music scene, in common with other Nordic countries, as well as a number of prominent rock bands, jazz musicians, hip hop performers, and dance music acts such as Bomfunk MCs and Darude. Finnish electronic music such as the Sähkö Recordings record label enjoys underground acclaim. Iskelmä (coined directly from the German word Schlager, meaning hit) is a traditional Finnish word for a light popular song. Finnish popular music also includes various kinds of dance music; tango, a style of Argentinean music, is also popular. One of the most productive composers of popular music was Toivo Kärki, and the most famous singer Olavi Virta (1915–1972). Among the lyricists, Sauvo Puhtila (born 1928), Reino Helismaa (died 1965) and Veikko "Vexi" Salmi are the most remarkable authors. The composer and bandleader Jimi Tenor is well known for his brand of retro-funk music. Heavy metal redirects here. ... Nordic music includes a diverse array of popular, folk and classical styles found in a number of Northern European, especially Scandinavian, countries. ... This article is about the type of musical group. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Hip hop is a cultural movement that began amongst urban African American youth in New York and has since spread around the world. ... Dance music is music composed specifically to facilitate or accompany dancing. ... Bomfunk MCs is a Finnish rap/electro act, formed in 1998. ... Ville Virtanen (born July 17, 1975), better known by his stage name Darude is a Trance music producer and DJ from Eura, Hinnerjoki, Finland. ... For other uses, see Electronic music (disambiguation). ... Sähkö Recordings is a record label in Helsinki, Finland. ... Schlager (German Schlager, literally hitter or, more loosely translated, a hit) is a style of popular music that is prevalent in northern Europe, in particular Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Scandinavia, Latvia and Lithuania, but also to a lesser extent in France, Belgium and the Netherlands. ... Dance music is music composed specifically to facilitate or accompany dancing. ... Tango is a style of music that originated among European immigrant populations of Argentina and Uruguay. ... Internationally, Argentina is known mostly for the tango, which developed in Buenos Aires and surrounding areas, as well as Montevideo, Uruguay. ... Olavi Virta (originally to 1926 Oskari Olavi Ilmen) (27 February 1915, Sysmä - 14 July 1972, Tampere) was a Finnish singer. ... Reino Vihtori Repe Helismaa (12 July 1913 - 21 January 1965) was a Finnish singer-songwriter, musician and scriptwriter, mainly known from his humorous, yet homely songs. ... Jimi Tenor (born Lahti, 1965 as Lassi Lehto) is a Finnish musician. ...


Dance music

Notable Finnish dance and electronic music artists include Jori Hulkkonen, Darude, JS16, DJ Proteus and DJ Orkidea. Jori Hulkkonen (born 28 September 1973) is a Finnish DJ and a producer of house music, originally from Kemi, Finland. ... Ville Virtanen (born July 17, 1975), better known by his stage name Darude is a Trance music producer and DJ from Eura, Hinnerjoki, Finland. ... JS16, real name Jaakko Salovaara, is a Finnish musician and record producer. ... DJ Proteus performing at the Konemetsä 2007 DJ Proteus, also known as Harri Andersson, (born 1977), is a Finnish hard dance DJ. // Hard Dance Awards - Best Hard Dance DJ (2005) Hard Dance Awards - Best Hard Dance DJ (2004) DJ Magazine - Number 90 in DJ TOP 100 (2004) Mixmag Number 3... DJ Orkidea, or sometimes just Orkidea, is the artist name for the Finnish Electronic music artist Tapio Hakanen. ...


Rock and heavy metal music

Main article: Finnish rock
Apocalyptica's Perttu Kivilaakso playing metal music live.
Apocalyptica's Perttu Kivilaakso playing metal music live.

Finnish rock-music scene emerged in 1960s with pioneers such as Blues Section and Kirka. In the 1970s Finnish rock musicians started to write their own music instead of translating international hits into Finnish. During the decade some progressive rock groups, such as Tasavallan Presidentti and Wigwam, gained respect abroad but failed to make a commercial breakthrough outside Finland. This was also the fate of the rock and roll group Hurriganes. The Finnish punk scene produced some internationally acknowledged names including Terveet Kädet in 1980s. Hanoi Rocks was a pioneering 1980s-glam rock act that left perhaps a deeper mark in the history of popular music than any other Finnish group, giving inspiration for Guns N' Roses. Finnish rock refers to rock music made in Finland. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x900, 117 KB) Beschreibung: Apocalyptica (Perttu Kivilaakso) bei einem Konzert bei dem Festival Mera Luna in Hildesheim 2003. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x900, 117 KB) Beschreibung: Apocalyptica (Perttu Kivilaakso) bei einem Konzert bei dem Festival Mera Luna in Hildesheim 2003. ... For other uses, see Apocalyptica (disambiguation). ... Apocalyptica, Perttu Kivilaakso, live 2003 Apocalyptica is a Finnish music band of three (formerly four) classically educated cellists. ... Blues Section is considered a seminal and ground-breaking band in Finnish rock music. ... Kirill Kirka Babitzin (September 22, 1950 – January 31, 2007) was one of Finlands most famous popular musicians. ... For the Swedish political music movement, see progg. ... Tasavallan Presidentti was a Finnish progressive rock band. ... Wigwam is a Finnish progressive rock band formed in 1968, after the split of the seminal Blues Section, with whom drummer Ronnie Österberg had played before. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... Hurriganes is a Finnish rock band, which was very popular in Finland. ... Terveet Kädet is a legendary Finnish hardcore punk band, the first in Finland. ... Hanoi Rocks is a Finnish rock band formed in 1979, whose most successful period came in the early 1980s. ... Glam rock (also known as glitter rock), is a rock music style that developed in the UK in the post-hippie early 1970s which was performed by singers and musicians wearing outrageous clothes, makeup, hairstyles, and platform-soled boots. ... Guns N Roses is an American hard rock band, formed in Los Angeles, California in 1985. ...


In 1990s Finnish rock and metal music started to gain international fame with bands such as The 69 Eyes, Amorphis, Children of Bodom, Ensiferum, HIM, Lordi, Negative, Nightwish, The Rasmus, Sentenced, Sonata Arctica, and Stratovarius. In the later 1990s the cello metal group Apocalyptica played Metallica cover versions as cello quartettos and sold half a million records worldwide. Some of the Finland's most domestically popular rock groups are CMX and Eppu Normaali. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Amorphis is a Finnish metal band started by Jan Rechberger, Tomi Koivusaari and Esa Holopainen in 1990. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Ensiferum (Latin ensĭfĕrum (neuter adjective) meaning sword bearing) is a viking / folk metal band from Helsinki, Finland. ... Lordi is a Finnish metal band. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Nightwish is a Finnish metal quintet, formed in 1996 in the town of Kitee, Finland. ... The Rasmus are a Finnish rock band that spawned in 1994 in Helsinki, Finland while the band members were still in high school. ... Sentenced was a heavy metal band formed in 1989, in the town of Muhos, Finland. ... Sonata Arctica is a Finnish power metal band from the town of Kemi, originally assembled in 1996. ... Stratovarius is a Finnish power metal band, formed in 1984, still active today. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Apocalyptica (disambiguation). ... Metallica is a Grammy Award-winning American heavy metal/thrash metal band formed in 1981[1] and has become one of the most commercially successful musical acts of recent decades. ... // In popular music, a cover version, or simply cover, is a new rendition (performance or recording) of a previously recorded song. ... This article is about the stringed musical instrument. ... CMX is a Finnish rock band. ... Martti Syrjä Eppu Normaali is one of the most popular bands in Finland. ...


In the 2000s, other Finnish rock bands started to sell well internationally. The Rasmus became more known in Europe (and other places, like South America) in the 2000s. Their 2003 album Dead Letters sold 1.5 million units worldwide and garnered them eight gold and five platinum album designations. But so far the most successful Finnish band in the United States has been HIM; they were the first band from Finland to ever sell an album that was certified gold by the RIAA. Most recently, the Finnish hard rock/heavy metal music band Lordi won the 2006 Eurovision Song Contest with a record 292 points, giving Finland its first ever victory, and the band Nightwish have sold world wide with their album Dark Passion Play. As of 2008, Finland has, according to some surveys, the most heavy metal bands in the world per-capita.[89] The Rasmus are a Finnish rock band that spawned in 1994 in Helsinki, Finland while the band members were still in high school. ... Dead Letters is the 2003 album by Finnish alternative rock band the Rasmus. ... “Golden record” redirects here. ... Lordi is a Finnish metal band. ... The Eurovision Song Contest 2006 was the fifty-first Eurovision Song Contest, held at the Olympic Indoor Hall in Athens, Greece on the 18 May 2006 (for the semi-final) and 20 May 2006 (for the final). ... Nightwish is a Finnish metal quintet, formed in 1996 in the town of Kitee, Finland. ... Singles from Dark Passion Play Released: May 25, 2007 Released: August 22, 2007 Released: December 5, 2007 Released: February 15, 2008 Released: May 21, 2008 Dark Passion Play is the sixth studio album by Finnish symphonic power metal band Nightwish. ...


The Tuska Open Air Metal Festival, one of the largest open-air heavy metal music festivals in the world, is held annually in Kaisaniemi, Helsinki.[90] Ruisrock and Provinssirock are the most famous rock festivals held in Finland. Dimmu Borgir onstage at Tuska 2005. ... Kaisaniemi (Swedish: Kajsaniemi) is a district in the centre of Helsinki, Finland. ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Mayor Jussi Pajunen Area  - Total 187. ... Ruisrock is a rock festival held annually on the island of Ruissalo in Turku, Finland. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Cinema

Erkki Karu, one of the pioneers of the Finnish cinema, with cinematographer Eino Kari in 1927.
Erkki Karu, one of the pioneers of the Finnish cinema, with cinematographer Eino Kari in 1927.
Main article: Cinema of Finland
See also: List of Finnish films

In film industry, famous directors include Aki Kaurismäki, Timo Koivusalo, Aleksi Mäkelä and Klaus Härö. Hollywood film director/producer Renny Harlin (born Lauri Mauritz Harjola) was born in Finland. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Erkki Karu (born Erland Erkki Fredrik Kumlander[1]) (April 10, 1887 Helsinki – December 8, 1935 Helsinki) was a Finnish film director, screenwriter and producer, and one of the pioneers of the Finnish cinema. ... The Finnish cinema has a long history, with first public screenings starting almost as early as modern motion picture technology was invented (the first screening in the world was in 1895, in Finland in 1896). ... The Finnish cinema has a long history, with first public screenings starting almost as early as modern motion picture technology was invented (the first screening in the world was in 1895, in Finland in 1896). ... Category for films made in Finland. ... Cinema admissions in 1995 The film industry consists of the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking: i. ... Aki Olavi Kaurismäki ( ) (born April 4, 1957 in Orimattila, Finland) is a Finnish script writer and film director. ... Koivusalo directed and wrote the 2005 film Kaksipäisen kotkan varjossa Timo Johannes Koivusalo born (October 31, 1963 in Pori, Finland) is a Finnish actor, director, writer, columnist, composer and musician. ... ... Renny Harlin (born Lauri Mauritz Harjola on March 15, 1959 in Riihimäki, Finland) is a film director and producer mostly known for action movies. ...


Media and communications

Linus Torvalds, a famous Finnish software engineer, best known for initiating the development of the kernel of the Linux operating system.
Linus Torvalds, a famous Finnish software engineer, best known for initiating the development of the kernel of the Linux operating system.
See also: Communications in Finland, List of newspapers in Finland, and List of Finnish television stations

Until economic liberalization in the early 90s, media and communications were highly restricted. Self-censorship was common among allowed newspapers and private television channels were not allowed at all until 1993. Today there are 200 newspapers; 320 popular magazines, 2,100 professional magazines and 67 commercial radio stations, with one nationwide, five national public service radio channels, three digital radio channels. Each year around twelve feature films are made, 12,000 book titles published and 12 million records sold.[91] Download high resolution version (600x920, 94 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Download high resolution version (600x920, 94 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Linus Benedict Torvalds ( ; ; born December 28, 1969 in Helsinki, Finland) is a Finnish software engineer best known for initiating the development of the Linux kernel. ... Software engineering is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software. ... The Linux kernel is a Unix-like operating system kernel. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 2. ... Below is a list of newspapers in Finland with their respective cities of publication: // Morning newspapers Aamulehti (Tampere) Demari (Helsinki) Etelä-Suomen Sanomat (Lahti) Helsingin Sanomat (Helsinki) Hämeen Sanomat (Hämeenlinna) Ilkka (Seinäjoki) Itä-Häme (Heinola) Kaleva (Oulu) Kansan Uutiset (Helsinki) Karjalainen (Joensuu) Kauppalehti (Helsinki) Keskipohjanmaa (Kokkola... Television channels in Finland include the following : YLE - Yleisradio (The Finnish Broadcasting Company) broadcasts the following channels: YLE-TV1 - poblic, general YLE-TV2 - public, general YLE24 - public, digital, news, sports YLE Teema - public, digital, culture YLE FST - public, digital, in swedish MTV3 - Mainostelevisio, channel and company MTV3+ - digital SubTV - digital... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A radio station is an audio (sound) broadcasting service, traditionally broadcast through the air as radio waves (a form of electromagnetic radiation) from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. ... Public broadcasting is a form of public service broadcasting (PSB) intended to serve the diverse needs of the viewing or listening public. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A reel of film, which predates digital cinematography. ... For other uses, see Book (disambiguation). ...


SanomaWSOY publishes the newspaper Helsingin Sanomat (the circulation of 434,000 making it the largest newspaper), the tabloid Ilta-Sanomat, the commerce-oriented Taloussanomat, and the television channel Nelonen. The other major publisher Alma Media publishes over thirty magazines, including newspaper Aamulehti, tabloid Iltalehti and commerce-oriented Kauppalehti. Finns, along with other Nordic people and the Japanese, spend the most time in the world reading newspapers. The politically-controlled National Broadcasting Company YLE has five television channels and 13 radio channels in two national languages. YLE is funded through a mandatory license for television owners and fees for private broadcasters. In the 1990s politicians made a controversial decision to transform to a digital television standard, which has now been completed. The most popular television channel MTV3 and the most popular radio channel Radio Nova are owned by Nordic Broadcasting (Bonnier and Proventus Industrier). International newspapers such as Aftonbladet or Financial Times are available, but according to the sole importer the readership is only around 600,000 copies per year or around 2,000 on average day.[92] SanomaWSOY is the leading media group in the Nordic countries with operations in 20 European countries, based in Helsinki. ... Helsingin Sanomat is the biggest subscription newspaper in Finland and in the Nordic countries. ... This article is about the newspaper size. ... Ilta-Sanomat is a tabloid which is the second largest newspaper in Finland. ... Nelonen or (Fyran in Swedish) is a Finnish commercial TV channel. ... Alma Media is one of the largest media companies in Finland. ... Aamulehti is a Finnish newspaper published in Tampere. ... Iltalehti is a daily tabloid newspaper and the third largest newspaper in Finland. ... Language(s) Finnish, Swedish Languages related to Finnish include Estonian, Karelian, Vepsian, Võro and to a lesser extent, all Finno-Ugric Languages. ... YLE (Yleisradio Oy) is Finlands national broadcasting company, founded in 1926. ... A television licence is an official licence required in some countries for all owners of a television receiver. ... Digital television (DTV) refers to the sending and receiving of moving images and sound by means of discrete (digital) signals, in contrast to the analog signals used by analog TV. Introduced in the late 1990s, this technology appealed to the television broadcasting business and consumer electronics industries as offering new... For the Spanish-language MTV channel in the Americas, see MTV Tr3́s. ... Radio Nova was a major radio industry milestone in Finland, when it launched in 1997. ... Bonnier is a swedish media group owned by the Bonnier-family. ... The first page of the first issue of Aftonbladet Aftonbladet (Swedish for The Evening Sheet) is a Swedish tabloid founded by Lars Johan Hierta in 1830 during the modernisation of Sweden. ... The Financial Times (FT) is a British international business newspaper. ...


Around 79 percent of the population use the Internet.[93] Finland had around 1.52 million broadband Internet connections by the end of June 2007 or around 287 per 1,000 inhabitants.[94] All Finnish schools and public libraries have Internet and a few computers. Most residents have a mobile phone. It's used mostly for contact and value-added services are rare.[95] A WildBlue Satellite Internet dish. ...


Cuisine

Karjalanpiirakka, a traditional Finnish pastry.
Karjalanpiirakka, a traditional Finnish pastry.
Main article: Cuisine of Finland

Traditional Finnish cuisine is a combination of European, Fennoscandian and Western Russian elements; table manners are European. The food is generally simple, fresh and healthy. Fish, meat, berries and ground vegetables are typical ingredients whereas spices are not common due to their historical unavailability. In years past, Finnish food often varied from region to region, most notably between the west and east. In coastal and lakeside villages, fish was a main feature of cooking, whereas in the eastern and also northern regions, vegetables and reindeer were more common. The prototypical breakfast is oatmeal or other continental-style foods such as bread. Lunch is usually a full warm meal, served by a canteen at workplaces. Dinner is eaten at around 17.00 to 18.00 at home. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1508, 131 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Finland Karelian pasties Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1508, 131 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Finland Karelian pasties Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... A karelian pasty Karelian pasties (Karjalanpiirakat in South Karelian dialect of Finnish and Karjalanpiiraat in North Karelian dialect) are traditional pasties from the region of Karelia. ... The cuisine of Finland uses a large amount of wholemeal products (rye, barley, oats) and berries (such as blueberries, lingonberries, cloudberries, and sea buckthorn). ... Cuisine (from French cuisine, cooking; culinary art; kitchen; ultimately from Latin coquere, to cook) is a specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a specific culture. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Meat (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruit. ... For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... Caribou redirects here. ... In the United States and Canada, oatmeal means any crushed oats, rolled oats, or cut oats used in recipes such as oatmeal cookies. ... For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ... Lunch is an abbreviation of luncheon, meaning a midday meal. ... One of a number of cafeterias at Electronic City campus, Infosys Technologies Ltd. ... Look up Dinner in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Modern Finnish cuisine combines country fare and haute cuisine with contemporary continental cooking style. Today, spices are a prominent ingredient in many modern Finnish recipes, having been adopted from the east and west in recent decades. Haute cuisine (literally high cooking in French) or grande cuisine refers to the cooking of the grand restaurants and hotels of the western world. ... Cooking is the act of preparing food. ... Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Recipes This article discusses culinary recipes. ...


Public holidays

See also: Flag days in Finland

All official holidays in Finland are established by acts of Parliament. The official holidays can be divided into Christian and secular holidays, although some of the Christian holidays have replaced holidays of pagan origin. The main Christian holidays are Christmas, Epiphany, Easter, Ascension Day, Pentecost, and All Saints Day. The secular holidays are New Year's Day, May Day, Midsummer Day, and the Independence Day. Christmas is the most extensively celebrated holiday: usually at least 23rd to 26th of December are holidays. All official holidays in Finland are established by acts of Parliament. ... The Finnish flag By law, the Finnish flag must be flown from public buildings on the following days: February 28, day of Kalevala; the occasion is also celebrated as the Day of Finnish culture May 1, Labour Day Second Sunday in May, Mothers Day June 4, birthday of Carl Gustaf... The Eduskunta (in Finnish), or the Riksdag (in Swedish), is the Parliament of Finland. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... The Wise Men (Magi) adoring the infant Jesus. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... Also refers to the process of gaining Enlightenment and several meditation techniques. ... The Descent of the Holy Spirit in a 15th century illuminated manuscript. ... This article is about the Christian holiday. ... This article is about the date January 1 in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the holidays celebrated on May 1. ... Midsummer may refer to the period of time centered upon the summer solstice and the diverse celebrations of it around the world, but more often refers to European celebrations that accompany the summer solstice, or to Western festivals that take place in June and are usually related to Saint John... The flag of Finland Finlands Independence Day (Finnish itsenäisyyspäivä, Swedish självständighetsdag) is a national public holiday held on December 6 to celebrate Finlands declaration of independence from the Russian empire. ...


In addition to this, all Sundays are official holidays, but they are not as important as the special holidays. The names of the Sundays follow the liturgical calendar and they can be categorised as Christian holidays. When the standard working week in Finland was reduced to 40 hours by an act of Parliament, it also meant that all Saturdays became a sort of de facto public holidays, though not official ones. Easter Sunday and Pentecost are Sundays that form part of a main holiday and they are preceded by a kind of special Saturdays. Retail stores are prohibited by law from doing business on Sundays, except during the summer months (May through August) and in the pre-Christmas season (November and December). Business locations that have less than 400 square metres of floor space are allowed Sunday business throughout the year, with the exception of official holidays and certain Sundays, such as Mother's Day and Father's Day. A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... This article is about several worldwide days celebrating motherhood. ... Fathers Day is a secular celebration inaugurated in the early twentieth century to complement Mothers Day in celebrating fatherhood and male parenting, and to honor and commemorate fathers and forefathers. ...


Sports

Ice hockey in Finland.
Ice hockey in Finland.
Main article: Sport in Finland

Various sporting events are popular in Finland. Pesäpallo (reminiscent of baseball) is the national sport of Finland, although the most popular sports in Finland in terms of media coverage are Formula One, ice hockey and football. The Finnish national ice hockey team is considered one of the best in the world. During the past century there has been a rivalry in sporting between Finland and Sweden, mostly in ice hockey and athletics (Finland-Sweden athletics international). Jari Kurri and Teemu Selänne are the two Finnish-born ice hockey players to have scored 500 goals in their NHL careers. Football is also popular in Finland, though the national football team has never qualified for a finals tournament of the World Cup or the European Championships. Jari Litmanen and Sami Hyypiä are the most internationally renowned of the Finnish football players. Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Paavo Johannes Nurmi ( ) (June 13, 1897 Turku – October 2, 1973 Helsinki) was a Finnish runner. ... The 1920 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad, were held in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium. ... Sport is considered a national pastime in Finland and many Finns visit different sporting events regularly. ... Girls playing pesäpallo in Siilinjärvi Pesäpallo (Swedish: Boboll, also referred to as Finnish baseball) is a fast-moving ball sport thats quite often referred to as the national sport of Finland and has some presence in other countries, such as Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, Australia, and Northern... This article is about the sport. ... F1 redirects here. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... Soccer redirects here. ... Please add to this entry the roster of the world cup (most recent) and/or olympic (2006) for the Finnish mens hockey team The Finnish national mens ice hockey team or Leijonat, as it is called in Finland, is one of the most successful ice hockey teams in... Finnkampen (Swedish, literally The Finn Battle), Suomi-Ruotsi-maaottelu (Finnish, literally Finland-Sweden-international) or Ruotsi-ottelu (among Finland-Swedes Sverigekampen), literally The Sweden Battle, is a yearly athletics international competition held between Sweden and Finland. ... Jari Pekka Kurri (born May 18, 1960, in Helsinki, Finland) is a retired Finnish professional ice hockey right winger. ... Teemu Ilmari Selänne (IPA: ) (the Finnish Flash) (born July 3, 1970 in Helsinki), is a professional Finnish ice hockey right winger who is currently an unrestricted free agent in the National Hockey League. ... -1... First international Finland 2 - 5 Sweden (Helsinki, Finland; October 22, 1911) Biggest win Finland 10 - 2 Estonia (Helsinki, Finland; August 11, 1922) Biggest defeat Germany 13 - 0 Finland (Leipzig, Germany; September 1, 1940) The Finland national football team represents Finland in international football competitions and is controlled by the Football... The FIFA World Cup, sometimes called the Football World Cup or the Soccer World Cup, but usually referred to simply as the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the mens national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the... The UEFA European Football Championship is the main football competition of the mens national football teams governed by the UEFA. Held every four years since 1960, in the even-numbered year between World Cup tournaments, it was originally called the European Nations Cup, changing to the name European Football... Jari Olavi Litmanen ( ) (born February 20, 1971 in Lahti) is a Finnish footballer, widely considered the countrys greatest ever. ... Sami Tuomas Hyypiä (born 7 October 1973 in Porvoo) is a Finnish footballer who currently plays for Liverpool F.C. in the English Premier League. ...


Relative to its population, Finland has been a top country in the world in automobile racing, measured by international success. Finland has produced three Formula One World ChampionsKeke Rosberg (Williams, 1982), Mika Häkkinen (McLaren, 1998 and 1999) and Kimi Räikkönen (Ferrari, 2007). Along with Räikkönen, the other Finnish Formula One driver currently active is Heikki Kovalainen (McLaren). Rosberg's son, Nico Rosberg (Williams), is also currently driving, but under his mother's German nationality. Other notable Finnish Grand Prix drivers include Leo Kinnunen, JJ Lehto and Mika Salo. Finland has also produced most of the world's best rally drivers, including the ex-WRC World Champion drivers Marcus Grönholm, Juha Kankkunen, Hannu Mikkola, Tommi Mäkinen, Timo Salonen and Ari Vatanen. The only Finn to have won a road racing World Championship, Jarno Saarinen, was killed in 1973 while racing. Juuso Pykälistö driving a Peugeot 206 World Rally Car at the 2003 Swedish rally Racing cars redirects here. ... F1 redirects here. ... The Formula One World Drivers Championship (WDC) is awarded by the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile (FIA) to the most successful Formula One race car driver over a season, as determined by a points system based on Grand Prix results. ... Keke Rosberg (on the left) with Wolf Racing Crew at Monaco GP 1979 Keijo Erik Keke Rosberg (born December 6, 1948) was a popular Formula One driver in the early 1980s and, despite his birthplace Stockholm, Sweden, was the first regular driver from Finland in the series. ... Not to be confused with Frank Williams Racing Cars, formed by Frank Williams 1967. ... The 1982 Formula One season was the 33th FIA Formula One World Championship season. ... Mika Pauli Häkkinen ( ) (born September 28, 1968 in Helsingin maalaiskunta) is a Finnish racing driver and two-time Formula One champion. ... This article is about the Formula One racing team. ... This article recaps the 1998 Formula One season. ... The 1999 Formula One season was the 50th FIA Formula One World Championship season. ... Kimi-Matias Räikkönen (pronounced ) (born October 17, 1979 in Espoo, Finland) is a race car driver, currently driving for Scuderia Ferrari. ... Scuderia Ferrari is the name for the Gestione Sportiva, the division of the Ferrari automobile company concerned with racing. ... Kimi Räikkönen, the 2007 World Drivers Champion. ... Heikki Kovalainen (born October 19, 1981 in Suomussalmi, Finland) is a racing driver. ... This article is about the Formula One racing team. ... Nico Rosberg (born June 27, 1985 in Wiesbaden, Germany) is a German racing driver for the Williams team. ... Not to be confused with Frank Williams Racing Cars, formed by Frank Williams 1967. ... Leo Juhani Leksa Kinnunen (b. ... Jyrki Järvilehto, (born January 31, 1966), usually known as JJ Lehto, was born in Espoo, Finland. ... Mika Juhani Salo (born November 30, 1966 in Helsinki) is a Finnish racing driver. ... Petter Solberg driving on gravel at the 2006 Cyprus Rally, a World Rally Championship event. ... The World Rally Championship (WRC) is a rallying series organised by the FIA, culminating with a champion driver and manufacturer. ... World Rally Driver Champions List ... Marcus Bosse Grönholm (born February 5, 1968 in Kauniainen) is a Finland Swedish rally driver. ... Juha Kankkunen, born in Laukaa, Finland on April 2, 1959, made his name principally as a rally car driver. ... Hannu Olavi Mikkola (born 24 May 1942 in Joensuu, Finland) is a retired world champion rally driver. ... Tommi Antero Mäkinen (pronounced /tom-mi mæ-ki-nen/ in IPA) is a now retired Finnish rally driver, born in Puuppola, Finland near Jyväskylä in June 1964. ... Timo Salonen (born 1951) is a rally driver from Finland. ... Ari Vatanen (born April 27, 1952) is a Finnish rally driver turned politician and Member of the European Parliament. ... Road racing can be a term involving road running, road bicycle races, or automobile races. ... List of Grand Prix motorcycle racing FIM World Champions, from 1949 to 2006, in order of year and engine displacement. ... Jarno Karl Keimo Saarinen (December 11, 1945 in Turku, Finland - May 20, 1973 in Monza, Italy) was a Grand Prix motorcycle road racer. ...


Among winter sports, Finland has been the most successful country in ski jumping, with former ski jumper Matti Nykänen being arguably the best ever in that sport. Most notably, he won five Olympic medals (four gold) and nine World Championships medals (five gold). Among currently active Finnish ski jumpers, Janne Ahonen has been the most successful. Kalle Palander is a well-known alpine skiing winner, who won the World Championship and Crystal Ball (twice, in Kitzbühel). Tanja Poutiainen has won an Olympic silver medal for alpine skiing, as well as multiple FIS World Cup races. A winter sport is a sport commonly played during winter. ... Ski jumping is a sport in which skiers go down an inrun with a take-off ramp (the jump), attempting to go as far as possible. ... Matti Ensio Nykänen ( ) (born July 17, 1963 in Jyväskylä, Finland) is a Finnish former ski jumper, and was arguably the best in that sport, winning five Olympic medals (four Golds), nine World championships medals (five Golds) and 22 Finnish championships medals (13 Golds). ... Janne Petteri Ahonen ( ) (born May 11, 1977 in Lahti, Finland) is a Finnish ski jumper. ... Kalle Markus Palander (born May 2, 1977 in Tornio) is a Finnish alpine skier, the most successful male Finn ever in the sport. ... Alpine skier carving a turn on piste Alpine skiing (or downhill skiing) is a recreational activity and sport involving sliding down snow-covered hills with long, thin skis attached to each foot. ... Kitzbühel is a medieval city in Tyrol, Austria, situated along the river Kitzbühler Ache. ... Tanja Poutiainen (born 6 April 1980 in Rovaniemi) is a Finnish alpine skier. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... A silver medal is a medal awarded to the second place finisher of contests (typically athletics competitions) such as the Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games, etc. ...


Some of the most outstanding athletes from the past include Hannes Kolehmainen (1890–1966), Paavo Nurmi (1897–1973) and Ville Ritola (1896–1982) who won eighteen gold and seven silver Olympic medals in the 1910s and 1920s. They are also considered to be the first of a generation of great Finnish middle and long-distance runners (and subsequently, other great Finnish sportsmen) often named the "Flying Finns". Another long-distance runner, Lasse Virén (born 1949), won a total of four gold medals during the 1972 and 1976 Summer Olympics. Juho Pietari Hannes Kolehmainen (December 9, 1889 – January 11, 1966) was a Finnish long-distance runner. ... Paavo Johannes Nurmi ( ) (June 13, 1897 Turku – October 2, 1973 Helsinki) was a Finnish runner. ... Vilho Eino Ville Ritola (January 18, 1896 – April 24, 1982) was a Finnish athlete, specialised in the long distance events. ... Gold Medal is an album by American band The Donnas, released in 2004. ... This page indexes the individual year in sports pages. ... This page indexes the individual year in sports pages. ... Middle distance track events are track races longer than sprints up to (and arguably including) 5000 meters. ... For long track speedskating, see Speed skating. ... This is a list of people from Finland, i. ... The Flying Finn was a nickname given to several Finnish runners including Olympic gold medalists, Ville Ritola and Paavo Nurmi. ... Lasse Virén (born July 22, 1949) is a former Finnish athlete, winner of four gold medals at the 1972 Summer Olympics and 1976 Summer Olympics. ... The 1972 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, were celebrated in Munich, in what was then West Germany, from 26 August to 11 September 1972. ... The 1976 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXI Olympiad, were celebrated in 1976 in Montreal, Quebec. ...


Also, in the past, Riku Kiri, Jouko Ahola and Janne Virtanen have been the greatest strength athletes in the country, participating in the World's Strongest Man competition between 1993 and 2000. Riku Kiri (born 1963, Kotka, Finland) is a Finnish sportsman, best known for competing in the Worlds Strongest Man competition. ... Jouko Ahola (born 1 December 1970, Hämeenlinna, Finland) is a bodybuilder and actor. ... The World StrongestMan champion in 2000, also Turkish Strongman Champion in 2002 Istanbul. ... In the 19th century, the term strongman refers to an exhibitor of strength (before strength sports were codified into weightlifting, powerlifting etc. ... The official logo of Worlds Strongest Man The Met-Rx Worlds Strongest Man is the best-recognized annual international event in strength athletics. ...


The 1952 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XV Olympiad, were held in 1952 in Helsinki, Finland. Other notable sporting events held in Finland include the 1983 and 2005 World Championships in Athletics, among others. The 1952 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XV Olympiad, were held in 1952 in Helsinki, Finland. ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Mayor Jussi Pajunen Area  - Total 187. ... The inaugural World Championships in Athletics were run under the auspices of the International Association of Athletics Federations and were held at the Olympic Stadium in Helsinki, Finland between August 7 and August 14. ... Helsinki Olympic Stadium at the opening day of the 2005 World Championships in Athletics. ...


Some of the most popular recreational sports and activities include floorball, Nordic walking, running, cycling and skiing. A floorball match between Sweden (yellow) and Finland (white) Floorball is a gay indoor team sport played using composite or carbon sticks with a plastic vented blade where the aim is to put a light plastic ball into the opponents goal. ... Nordic walkers Nordic walking, also known as ski walking, pole walking or fitness walking, is a form of exercise consisting in walking with poles similar to ski poles. ... This article is about movement. ... Cycling is the use of bicycles, or - less commonly - unicycles, tricycles, quadricycles and other similar wheeled human powered vehicles (HPVs) as a means of transport, a form of recreation or a sport. ... Cross-country skiing (skating style) in Einsiedeln, Switzerland. ...


Finnishness

Below are listed some of the characteristics of Finnishness. The term "Finnishness" is often referred to as the national identity of the Finnish people and its culture. This is a list of people from Finland, i. ... Suuret suomalaiset (Great Finns) was a 2004 television show by YLE (the Finnish Broadcasting Company), which determined the 100 greatest Finns of all time according to the opinions of its viewers. ... Language(s) Finnish, Swedish Languages related to Finnish include Estonian, Karelian, Vepsian, Võro and to a lesser extent, all Finno-Ugric Languages. ... The culture of Finland combines indigenous heritage, as represented by the countrys rare Finno-Ugric national language, Finnish, the sauna, and the traditional idea of self-suffiency with common Nordic and European culture. ...

A triptych by Akseli Gallen-Kallela, depicting the Aino Story of Kalevala on three panes.
A triptych by Akseli Gallen-Kallela, depicting the Aino Story of Kalevala on three panes.
Finnish Maiden a figure of national personification symbolising Finland
Kalevala the national epic of Finland, and Finnish mythology in general
Kantele traditional musical instrument
Mämmi traditional Easter food
Kalakukko traditional Savonian food
Mustamakkara traditional blood sausage from Tampere
Karelian pasties traditional pasties from the region of Karelia
Joulupukki Father Christmas/Santa Claus
Jean Sibelius one of the most popular national figures (composer of the symphonic poem Finlandia)
Sauna a Finnish national institution (see also Finnish sauna)
Sisu will, determination, perseverance, mental fortitude
Perkele swear word (see Finnish profanity)
Puukko traditional Finnish style woodcraft belt-knife
Talkoot community work
Ice swimming swimming in a body of water with a frozen crust of ice
Nordic walking a recreational sport first popularized in Finland
Salmiakki salty liquorice
Sahti traditional beer
Koskenkorva Finnish vodka
Reilu meininki fair play
Flying Finn a nickname given to notable Finnish sportsmen (originated with Olympic medalist Hannes Kolehmainen)

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (912x439, 58 KB) Painting by Akseli Gallen-Kallela, depicting a scene from Kalevala, a Finnish epic poem. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (912x439, 58 KB) Painting by Akseli Gallen-Kallela, depicting a scene from Kalevala, a Finnish epic poem. ... The Raising of the Cross, Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekathedraal, Antwerp A triptych (from the Greek tri- three + ptychÄ“ fold) is a work of art (usually a panel painting) which is divided into three sections, or three carved panels which are hinged together. ... From the Kalevala, 1896 Akseli Gallen-Kallela (April 26, 1865 _ March 7, 1931) was a Finnish painter who is most of all known for his illustrations of the Kalevala, the Finnish national epic (illustration, right). ... Painting by Akseli Gallen-Kallela, depicting the Aino Story of Kalevala on three panes: The first one is about the encounter of Väinämöinen and Aino in the forest, second depicts Väinämöinens proposal. ... The Kalevala is an epic poem which the Finn Elias Lönnrot compiled from Finnish and Karelian folklore in the 19th century. ... The Maiden of Finland (Finnish: Suomi-neito) is the national personification of Finland, much as Marianne in France, Britannia in the United Kingdom, Deutscher Michel in Germany and Uncle Sam for the United States. ... Britannia arm-in-arm with Uncle Sam symbolizes the British-American alliance in World War I. Germania representing Germany, from 1848. ... The Kalevala is an epic poem which the Finn Elias Lönnrot compiled from Finnish and Karelian folklore in the 19th century. ... A national epic is an epic poem or similar work which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular nation; not necessarily a nation-state, but at least an ethnic or linguistic group with aspirations to independence or autonomy. ... Finnish mythology has many features that it shares with other Finnic mythologies, like the Estonian mythology, and also elements similar with non-Finnic neighbours, especially the the Balts and the Scandinavians. ... Koistinen concert kantele with 38 strings A kantele, Finnish (or kannel) in Estonian, is a traditional plucked string instrument. ... A bowl of mämmi Mämmi with cream and sugar Mämmi (pronounced in IPA) is a Finnish traditional Easter dessert, a malt porridge which is baked in an oven. ... Kalakukko Kalakukko is a traditional Savonian food made from fish baked inside a loaf of bread. ... Half eaten mustamakkara meal at Tapolas mustamakkarabaari. ... Tampere ( , IPA: ; Swedish: Tammerfors ) is a city in southern Finland located between two lakes, Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi. ... A karelian pasty Karelian pasties (Karjalanpiirakat in South Karelian dialect of Finnish and Karjalanpiiraat in North Karelian dialect) are traditional pasties from the region of Karelia. ... Map showing the parts Karelia is traditionally divided into. ... Joulupukki is the Finnish name for Santa Claus or Father Christmas. ... Sibelius redirects here. ... Finlandia is a symphonic poem by the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius. ... For the music festival in Finland, see Sauna Open Air Metal Festival. ... For the modern global sauna variants, see sauna. ... For other uses, see Sisu (disambiguation). ... Perkele originally referred to the Finnish thunder god, which was also sometimes referred as Ukko (=The old man). With Christianity the Swedish priests co-opted him for one of the titles of Satan. ... kusi redirects here. ... Look up Puukko in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Talkoot (from Finnish: talkoo, almost always used in plural, talkoot) is a group of people gathering to work together, for instance, to build or repair something. ... Ice swimming is swimming in a body of water with a frozen crust of ice, which requires cutting a hole in the ice. ... Nordic walkers Nordic walking, also known as ski walking, pole walking or fitness walking, is a form of exercise consisting in walking with poles similar to ski poles. ... Two German brands of salmiakki. ... Finlandia Sahti, Finnish sahti label Sahti is a traditional beer from Finland made from a variety of grains, malted and unmalted, including barley, rye, wheat, and oats; sometimes bread made from these grains is fermented instead of malt itself. ... A Koskenkorva bottle (50cl) Koskenkorva Viina (also known simply as Koskenkorva, or Kossu) is the most common clear spirit drink (38%) in Finland, produced by Altia in the Koskenkorva distillery in Ilmajoki. ... The Flying Finn was a nickname given to several Finnish runners including Olympic gold medalists, Ville Ritola and Paavo Nurmi. ... Juho Pietari Hannes Kolehmainen (December 9, 1889 – January 11, 1966) was a Finnish long-distance runner. ...

See also

Main article: List of Finland-related topics
Runeberg's tart is a Finnish pastry available on the poet Johan Ludvig Runeberg's birthday on February 5.
Runeberg's tart is a Finnish pastry available on the poet Johan Ludvig Runeberg's birthday on February 5.
Finland Portal

This is a collection of articles relating to Finland, a country in Northern Europe. ... This is a list of towns in Finland. ... This is a list of people from Finland, i. ... This is a list of Finnish publicly listed corporations: Akado, electronics Ahlstrom, pulp and paper Aldata Solution, software Alma Media, media Amer Sports, sport Aspo, chemicals BaseN, measurement services Benefon, mobile phones Biotie Therapies, biotechnology Cargotec, lifting solutions Chips Abp, potato chips and snacks Citycon, real estate Eccu Finland, market... Television channels in Finland include the following : YLE - Yleisradio (The Finnish Broadcasting Company) broadcasts the following channels: YLE-TV1 - poblic, general YLE-TV2 - public, general YLE24 - public, digital, news, sports YLE Teema - public, digital, culture YLE FST - public, digital, in swedish MTV3 - Mainostelevisio, channel and company MTV3+ - digital SubTV - digital... Below is a list of newspapers in Finland with their respective cities of publication: // Morning newspapers Aamulehti (Tampere) Demari (Helsinki) Etelä-Suomen Sanomat (Lahti) Helsingin Sanomat (Helsinki) Hämeen Sanomat (Hämeenlinna) Ilkka (Seinäjoki) Itä-Häme (Heinola) Kaleva (Oulu) Kansan Uutiset (Helsinki) Karjalainen (Joensuu) Kauppalehti (Helsinki) Keskipohjanmaa (Kokkola... University of Helsinki University of Joensuu University of Jyväskylä University of Kuopio University of Lapland in Rovaniemi University of Oulu University of Tampere University of Turku University of Vaasa in Vaasa Åbo Akademi University in Turku Helsinki University of Technology Lappeenranta University of Technology Tampere University of Technology Helsinki... The following is a list of bands from Finland: Paarma, Hardcore punk The 69 Eyes, gothic rock Amoral, death metal Amorphis, rock/metal/death band [depending on album] Anal Thunder, punk rock Apocalyptica, instrumental/heavy metal Apulanta, alternative rock Babylon Whores, rock/death metal Behexen, black metal Bloodpit, Rock Bomfunk... This is a list of wars fought by independent Finland between 1917 and 1945: The Civil War (1918) Treaty of Tarto (1920) Heimosodat by Finnish volunteers The Estonian Liberation War (1918-1920) The Viena expedition (1918) The Petsamo expedition (1918 and 1920) The Aunus expedition (1919) The Rising of East... The land area that now makes up Finland was settled immediately after the Ice Age, beginning from around 8500 BC. Finland was part of Kingdom of Sweden from the 13th century to 1809, when it was ceded to the Russian Empire becoming the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. ... The Finnish Railway Museum (Finnish: Suomen Rautatiemuseo) is located in Hyvinkää. It was originally founded in 1898 and located in Helsinki. ... Finland’s basic foreign policy goal, from the end of the Continuation War with the U.S.S.R. in 1944 until 1991, was to avoid great-power conflicts and to build mutual confidence with the Soviet Union. ... The Finnish Defence Forces (Finnish Puolustusvoimat; Swedish Försvarsmakten) is a cadre army of 16500, of which 8700 professional soldiers (officers), with a standard readiness strength of 34,700 people in uniform (27,300 army, 3,000 navy, and 4,400 air force). ... In Finland there are over two million licensed firearms and an estimated quarter of a million unlicensed firearms. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 899 KB) Summary Runebergintorttu, Runebergs tart, is a Finnish pastry named after the Finnish national poet Johan Ludvig Runeberg. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 899 KB) Summary Runebergintorttu, Runebergs tart, is a Finnish pastry named after the Finnish national poet Johan Ludvig Runeberg. ... Fazers produced Runebergs tart. ... Basket of western-style pastries, for breakfast Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Pastries For the Pastry Distributed Hash Table, see Pastry (DHT). ... A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... J.L. Runebergs autograph Johan Ludvig Runeberg (February 5, 1804, Jakobstad – May 6, 1877, Porvoo) was a Finland-Swedish poet, and is held to be the national poet of Finland. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Educational oversight Minister of Education Minister of Culture Ministry of Education Antti Kalliomäki Tanja Karpela National education budget € 5. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 2. ... Crime in Finland. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Fire fighting in Finland is regulated by the Ministry of the Interior. ... VR or VR Group (VR-Yhtymä) is a state-owned railway company in Finland, and formerly known as Suomen Valtion Rautatiet (Finnish State Railways) until 1922 and Valtionrautatiet (State Railways) until 1995. ... The cuisine of Finland uses a large amount of wholemeal products (rye, barley, oats) and berries (such as blueberries, lingonberries, cloudberries, and sea buckthorn). ... Genres Folk - Pop - Opera - Rock (Suomirock) - Hip hop - Trance Finno-Ugric music Estonia - Finland - Hungary - Khantia-Mansia - Komi Republic - Mari El - Mordovia - Nenetsia - Udmurtia Much of the music of Finland is influenced by Karelian traditional tunes and lyrics, as comprised in the Kalevala. ... The Finnish FA logo Football in Finland, unlike in most European countries, is not the most popular sport, as it falls behind sports such as ice hockey and motor sports, which enjoy a huge amount of popularity in the country. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland_(bordered). ... The protected areas of Finland include national parks, nature reserves and other areas, with a purpose of conserving areas of all of Finlands ecosystems and biotopes. ... Finland Suomi logo by the Finnish Tourist Board. ...

International rankings

The following list contains international comparisons of national performance. The list has a maximum of three years per survey. For a more complete list, see International rankings of Finland.

// International rankings of the Peoples Republic of China International rankings of Finland International rankings of Japan International rankings of South Korea International rankings of Thailand International rankings of the United States IMD International: World Competitiveness Yearbook 2006 World Economic Forum: Global Competitiveness Report A.T. Kearney/Foreign Policy Magazine... The following are links to international rankings of Finland, including previous years when available. ... A.T. Kearney is an international management consulting firm, dating its origins back to the early days of the management consulting profession. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... Yale redirects here. ... The Heritage Foundation is one of the most prominent conservative think tanks in the United States. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ... The International Institute for Management Development is a business school located in Lausanne, Switzerland. ... Nationmaster is the name for a website created by Rapid Intelligence an Australian Web tech company. ... The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), (in French: Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques; OCDE) is an international organisation of thirty countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a triennial world-wide test of 15-year-old schoolchildrens scholastic performance, the implementation of which is coordinated by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... Save the Children Logo Save the Children is an international non-profit organization dedicated to working for children. ... This entity, also known as EIU is part of The Economist Group. ... World map of the Global Peace Index The Global Peace Index is an attempt to measure the relative position of nations’ and regions’ peacefulness. ... Transparency International (TI) is an international organisation addressing corruption, including, but not limited to, political corruption. ... The United Nations Development Programe (UNDP), the United Nations global development network, is the largest multilateral source of development assistance in the world. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c The current population of Finland. Population Register Center. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
  2. ^ "Republic of Finland", or "Suomen tasavalta" in Finnish and "Republiken Finland" in Swedish, is the long protocol name, which is not defined by the law. Legislation only recognizes the short name.
  3. ^ a b The population of Finland in 2006. Statistics Finland (2006-12-31). Retrieved on 2007-09-04.
  4. ^ Finland: World Audit Democracy Profile. WorldAudit.org. Retrieved on 2007-06-11.
  5. ^ The Rock paintings of Astuvansalmi at Ristiina. UNESCO World Heritage Centre (UNESCO). Retrieved on 2007-01-23.
  6. ^ a b c Growth and Equity in Finland, World Bank
  7. ^ From slash-and-burn fields to post-industrial society - 90 years of change in industrial structure
  8. ^ Hidden help from across the Atlantic, Helsingin Sanomat
  9. ^ a b c d Population development in independent Finland - greying Baby Boomers
  10. ^ Median Age (Years) - GlobalHealthFacts.org
  11. ^ National Archives Service, Finland (in English). Retrieved on 2007-01-22.
  12. ^ Statistics Finland. Retrieved on 2007-01-22.
  13. ^ Trends in sea level variability. Finnish Institute of Marine Research (2004-08-24). Retrieved on 2007-01-22.
  14. ^ Nutritional and genetic adaptation of galliform birds: implications for hand-rearing and restocking. Oulu University Library (2000). Retrieved on 2008-05-23.
  15. ^ BirdLife Finland. BirdLife International (2004) Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. Cambridge, UK. (BirdLife Conservation Series No. 12). Retrieved on 2007-01-22.
  16. ^ Saimaa ringed seal. Virtual Finland (Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland). Retrieved on 2007-03-20.
  17. ^ Aunesluoma, Juhana; Heikkonen, Esko; Ojakoski, Matti (2006). Lukiolaisen yhteiskuntatieto (in Finnish). WSOY. 
  18. ^ a b Population (Foreigners in Finland). Statistics Finland. Retrieved on 2007-06-11.
  19. ^ a b c d Population. Statistics Finland. Retrieved on 2007-05-07.
  20. ^ Mikkola, Anne-Maria; Koskela, Lasse; Haapamäki-Niemi, Heljä; Julin, Anita; Kauppinen, Anneli; Nuolijärvi, Pirkko; Valkonen, Kaija (2004). Äidinkieli ja kirjallisuus – käsikirja, 1st Edition (in Finnish), WSOY, 90 pages. ISBN 951-0-26300-1. 
  21. ^ According to the Finnish Population Registry Center and the Finnish Sami parliament, the Sami population living in Finland was 7,371 in 2003. See Regional division of Sami people in Finland by age in 2003 (in Finnish).
  22. ^ Unofficial names for Finland in Sami languages are: Suopma (Northern Sami), Suomâ (Inari Sami) and Lää´ddjânnam (Skolt Sami). See [1].
  23. ^ Forskningscentralen för de inhemska språken :: Teckenspråk
  24. ^ The Constitution of Finland, 17 § and 121 §. FINLEX Data Bank. Retrieved on 2007-09-04.
  25. ^ Europeans and languages, 2005
  26. ^ (Finnish) Kirkon väestötilastot tarkentuneet – Suomalaisista 82,4 prosenttia kuuluu luterilaiseen kirkkoon. Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland (2007-02-19). Retrieved on 2007-02-19.
  27. ^ Finland in Figures. Statistics Finland. Retrieved on 2007-01-22.
  28. ^ Restoring the Image. By Andrew Walker, Martyn Percy, David Martin. Published in 2001.
  29. ^ International Religious Freedom Report 2004. U.S. Department of State (2004-09-15). Retrieved on 2007-01-22.
  30. ^ Eurobarometer on Social Values, Science and technology 2005 - page 11. Retrieved on 2007-05-05.
  31. ^ Child poverty in perspective: An overview of child weill-being in rich countries (PDF). UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. Retrieved on 2007-02-14.
  32. ^ Health (2004). Statistics Finland. Retrieved on 2007-01-22.
  33. ^ Fat to fit: how Finland did it. Guardian Unlimited (2005-01-15). Retrieved on 2007-01-22.
  34. ^ Health Care in Finland, Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, 2004
  35. ^ Alcohol use in Finland. National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health (Stakes) (2005). Retrieved on 2008-04-18.
  36. ^ YLE Uutiset
  37. ^ a b c Miehet kuntoon! Kansalaiskunnon lasku ja korjaavat toimenpiteet
  38. ^ Local Governance in Industrial Countries - ISBN: 082136328X
  39. ^ Policing corruption, International Perspectives.
  40. ^ The Burden of Crime in the EU. Research Report: A Comparative Analysis of the European Crime and Safety Survey (EU ICS) 2005
  41. ^ a b The History of Corruption in Central Government By Seppo Tiihonen, International Institute of Administrative Sciences
  42. ^ a b c d e "Finland's foreign policy idea" ("Suomen ulkopolitiikan idea"), Risto E. J. Penttilä, 2008
  43. ^ Helsinki again a centre of international espionage
  44. ^ a b c EVA value and attitude survey in international affairs, 2008 (in Finnish)
  45. ^ a b Eurobarometer June 2007: Finland
  46. ^ <Women's voluntary service (in Finnish)
  47. ^ a b Jane's World Armies: Finland
  48. ^ Työvoimakustannukset puuttuvat puolustusmenoista , Statistics Finland (in Finnish): Eurostat ranking is 6th. It's 3rd when conscription is accounted.
  49. ^ Finland in Figures – National Accounts. Statistics Finland. Retrieved on 2007-04-26.
  50. ^ Finland in Figures – Manufacturing. Statistics Finland. Retrieved on 2007-04-26.
  51. ^ a b c d e f g Finland Economy 2004, OECD
  52. ^ a b c d Economic freedom: Finland
  53. ^ Kilpailuvirasto: OECD:n raportti suosittelee kilpailun lisäämistä palvelualoilla
  54. ^ World Competitiveness Yearbook 2007
  55. ^ Global Competitiveness Report. World Economic Forum. Retrieved on 2007-01-22.
  56. ^ Virtual Finland (Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland). Retrieved on 2007-01-22.
  57. ^ The largest companies (turnover). Largestcompanies.com. Retrieved on 2007-04-30.
  58. ^ Onko omistamisella väliä (in Finnish)
  59. ^ Tehdyn työtunnin hinta 23-27 euroa, Statistics Finland
  60. ^ Keskustelua suomalaisen työelämän luonteesta ja sen muuttumisesta
  61. ^ Tilastokeskus - Pienten ja keskisuurten yritysten merkitys työllistäjinä on kasvanut
  62. ^ a b The Nordic Model of Welfare: A Historical Reappraisal, by Niels Finn Christiansen
  63. ^ Statistics Finland: Labour Market
  64. ^ Ikääntymisen taloudelliset vaikutukset ja niihin varautuminen
  65. ^ CIA Factbook: Public Debt
  66. ^ [2] (in Finnish)
  67. ^ Sähkön hinta kuluttajatyypeittäin 1994-, c/kWh
  68. ^ Statistics Finland: Transport and Tourism
  69. ^ Own-account worker households' consumption has grown most in 2001-2006
  70. ^ Summary sheets on education systems in Europe
  71. ^ PISA 2006 Science Competencies for Tomorrow’s World, Volume 1 – Analysis
  72. ^ "What works in education", McKinsey
  73. ^ The Global Competitiveness Report 2006–2007: Country Highlights. World Economic Forum. Retrieved on 2007-01-22.
  74. ^ Tilastokeskus - Artikkelit - Tasa-arvoinen suomineito, osa 1
  75. ^ A country that innovates, Virtual Finland
  76. ^ Statistics Finland - Electricity consumption by sector 2006
  77. ^ Statistics Finland - Total energy consumption increased clearly in 2006
  78. ^ Energy Consumption in 2001 (PDF). Statistics Finland. Retrieved on 2007-01-22.
  79. ^ Päästökaupasta voi tulla miljardilasku teollisuudelle
  80. ^ Transport and communications ministry - Rail
  81. ^ a b c d e f g h The Nordic Model by Torben M. Andersen, Bengt Holmström, Seppo Honkapohja, Sixten Korkman, Hans Tson Söderström, Juhana Vartiainen
  82. ^ Finland economy
  83. ^ Economy Rankings, Doing Business Report 2008, World Bank
  84. ^ McKinsey: Finland's Economy
  85. ^ Karlson, Johansson & Johnsson (2004), p. 184.
  86. ^ Government Finance
  87. ^ Is Japan's bureaucracy still living in the 17th century? | The Japan Times Online
  88. ^ Three quarters would like to raise private health care KELA reimbursements (in Finnish)
  89. ^ The Demography of Metal
  90. ^ Tuska Open Air Metal Festival. Retrieved on 2007-07-25.
  91. ^ The Finnish Media: outlets increase, audiences diversify. Virtual Finland (Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland). Retrieved on 2007-01-22.
  92. ^ Swedish tabloids most popular foreign newspapers in Helsinki, Helsingin Sanomat
  93. ^ Internet used by 79 per cent of the population at the beginning of 2007. Statistics Finland. Retrieved on 2007-12-22.
  94. ^ Market Review 2/2007. Finnish Communications Regulatory Authority (FICORA) (2007-08-31). Retrieved on 2007-09-04.
  95. ^ Information technology has become part of Finns' everyday life, Statistics Finland

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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... SanomaWSOY is the leading media group in the Nordic countries with operations in 20 European countries, based in Helsinki. ... Northern or North Sami (also written Sámi or Saami; formerly Lappish or Lapp) is the most widely spoken of all Sami languages. ... Inari Sami (anarâškielâ) is a Finno-Ugric, Sami language spoken in Finland by some 300-400 people, the majority of which are middle-aged or older and live in the town of Inari. ... Skolt Sami (Sää´mǩiõll) is a Finno-Ugric, Sami language spoken in Finland and nearby parts of Russia. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland is the Lutheran national church of Finland (The Finnish Orthodox Church is also recognized as a state church). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Department of State redirects here. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... UNICEF Logo Org type: Fund Acronyms: UNICEF Head: Ann Veneman Status: Active Established: 1946 Website: http://www. ... UNICEF Logo Org type: Fund Acronyms: UNICEF Head: Ann Veneman Status: Active Established: 1946 Website: http://www. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Guardian Unlimited is a British website owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Further reading

  • Jason Lavery – The History of Finland (The Greenwood Histories of the Modern Nations), Greenwood Press 2006 (ISBN 0-313-32837-4) (ISSN 1096-2905)
  • Deborah Swallow – Culture Shock! Finland: A Guide to Customs and Etiquette (ISBN 1-55868-592-8)
  • Richard D. Lewis – Finland: Cultural Lone Wolf (ISBN 1-931930-18-X)
  • Max JakobsonFinland in the New Europe (ISBN 0-275-96372-1)
  • William R. TrotterA Frozen Hell: The Russo-Finnish Winter War of 1939-1940 (ISBN 1-56512-249-6)
  • Eino Jutikkala, Kauko Pirinen – A History of Finland (ISBN 0-88029-260-1)
  • Chris Mann – Hitler's Arctic War: The German Campaigns in Norway, Finland, and the USSR 1940-1945 (ISBN 0-312-31100-1)
  • Insight Guide: Finland (ISBN 981-4120-39-1)
  • Matti KlingeLet Us Be Finns: Essays on History (ISBN 951-1-11180-9)
  • Lonely Planet: Finland (ISBN 1-74059-791-5)
  • Jaakko Rusama, Ecumenical Growth in Finland. (ISBN 951-693-239-8)
  • Fred Singleton – A Short History of Finland (ISBN 0-521-64701-0)
  • Allen F. Chew – The White Death: The Epic of the Soviet-Finnish Winter War (ISBN 0-87013-167-2)
  • Eloise Engle and Lauri Paananen – The Winter War: The Soviet Attack on Finland 1939-1940 (ISBN 0-8117-2433-6)
  • Jean-Jacques Subrenat – Listen, there's music from the forest; a brief presentation of the Kuhmo Chamber Music Festival (ISBN 952-92-0564-3)

ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Max Jakobson (born in Vyborg, Finland, (now Russia) in 1923) is a former Finnish politican and diplomat. ... William R. Trotter (born 1943) is an American author and historian. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Matti Klinge (Born August 31, 1936 -), Finnish historian, Ph. ... Lonely Planet logo Lonely Planet Publications (usually known as Lonely Planet or LP for short) claims to be the largest independently owned travel guidebook publisher in the world. ... Jean-Jacques Subrenat (1940-) is a French diplomat who has served as the ambassador to the WEU in Brussels (1995-1998), to Estonia (1998-2002), and to Finland (2002-2005). ...

External links

Find more about Finland on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
Textbooks
Quotations
Source texts
Images and media
News stories
Learning resources
  • The Finnish Government – Official governmental site
  • The President of Finland – Official site of the President of the Republic of Finland
  • Parliament of Finland – Official Parliamentary site
  • Virtual Finland – Main portal to Finland (administered by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland)
  • Visit Finland – The official travel and tourism guide by the Finnish Tourist Board
  • Helsinki.fi – Capital of Finland's city portal
  • Today's weather by the Finnish Meteorological Institute
  • Finland travel guide from Wikitravel
  • WikiMapia [3] and Google Maps [4] satellite view of Finland
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Of the emerging democracies in central and eastern Europe, Czechia has one of the most developed industrialized economies. ... Tourism, petroleum transshipment, and offshore finance are the mainstays of the Netherlands Antillean economy, which is closely tied to the outside world. ... The economy of the United Kingdom is the fifth largest in the world in terms of market exchange rates and the sixth largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). ... A Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the Peoples Republic of China is an administrative division of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Finland (04/07) (3574 words)
Finland's basic foreign policy goal from the end of the Continuation War with the U.S.S.R. in 1944 until 1991 was to avoid great-power conflicts and to build mutual confidence with the Soviet Union.
Finland and the U.S.S.R. signed a peace treaty at Paris in February 1947 limiting the size of Finland's defense forces and providing for the cession to the Soviet Union of the Petsamo area on the Arctic coast, the Karelian Isthmus in southeastern Finland, and other territory along the former eastern border.
Finland is well represented in the UN civil service in proportion to its population and belongs to several of its specialized and related agencies.
Finland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4746 words)
It is situated in Northern Europe, bounded by the Baltic Sea with the Gulf of Finland to the south and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west.
Finland joined the European Union in 1995, where she is an advocate of federalism contrary to the other Nordic countries that are predominantly supportive of confederalism.
The climate in Southern Finland is a northern temperate climate.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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