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Encyclopedia > Fingerprint
Forensic science
Physiological sciences
Forensic pathology · Forensic dentistry
Forensic anthropology · Forensic entomology
Social sciences
Forensic psychology · Forensic psychiatry
Other specializations
Fingerprint analysis · Forensic accounting
Ballistics  · Bloodstain pattern analysis
DNA analysis · Forensic toxicology
Forensic footwear evidence
Questioned document examination
Cybertechnology in forensics
Information forensics · Computer forensics
Related disciplines
Forensic engineering
Forensic materials engineering
Forensic polymer engineering
Fire investigation
Vehicular accident reconstruction
People in Forensics
Auguste Ambroise Tardieu
Edmond Locard
Bill Bass
Gil Grissom
Related articles
Crime scene · CSI Effect
Trace evidence · Skid mark
Use of DNA in forensic entomology
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A macro shot of a palm and the base of several fingers; as seen here, debris can gather between the ridges.
A macro shot of a palm and the base of several fingers; as seen here, debris can gather between the ridges.
The fingerprint created by that friction ridge structure.
The fingerprint created by that friction ridge structure.

A fingerprint is an impression of the friction ridges of all or any part of the finger.[1] A friction ridge is a raised portion of the epidermis on the palmar (palm and fingers) or plantar (sole and toes) skin, consisting of one or more connected ridge units of friction ridge skin.[1] These ridges are sometimes known as "dermal ridges" or "dermal papillae". Fingerprint: A fingerprint is an imprint made by the pattern of ridges on the pad of a human finger. ... Download high resolution version (1760x1164, 1116 KB)Public domain. ... Forensics redirects here. ... Forensic pathology is a branch of medicine concerned with determining cause of death, usually for criminal law cases and civil law cases in some jurisdictions. ... Forensic dentistry or forensic odontology, the proper handling, examination and evaluation of dental evidence, which will be then presented in the interest of justice. ... Forensic anthropology is the application of the science of physical anthropology and human osteology (the study of the human skeleton) in a legal setting, most often in criminal cases where the victims remains are more or less skeletonized. ... Forensic entomology is the science and study of insects and other arthropods related to legal investigations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Forensic psychiatry is a subspeciality of psychiatry. ... Forensic Accounting is the specialty practice area of accounting that describes engagements that result from actual or anticipated disputes or litigation. ... For other uses, see Ballistics (disambiguation). ... Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) is one of several specialties in the field of forensic science. ... Forensic genetics refers to the application of genetic science to legal matters. ... Forensic toxicology is the use of toxicology and other disciplines such as analytical chemistry, pharmacology and clinical chemistry to aid medicolegal investigation of death, poisoning, and drug use. ... Forensic footwear evidence can be used in legal proceedings to help prove the identities of persons at the crime scene. ... Questioned document examination (QDE) is known by many names including forensic document examination, document examination, diplomatics, handwriting examination, and sometimes handwriting analysis, although the latter name is not often used as it may be confused with graphology. ... Information Forensics is the science of investigation into systemic processes that produce information. ... The simple definition of computer forensics - Chris L.T. Brown, Computer Evidence Collection and Preservation, 2006 Thus, it is more than the technological, systematic inspection of the computer system and its contents for evidence or supportive evidence of a civil wrong or a criminal act. ... Forensic engineering is the investigation of materials, products, structures or components that fail or do not operate/function as intended, causing personal injury for example. ... Fire investigation, sometimes referred to as origin and cause investigation, is the analysis of fire-related incidents. ... Vehicular accident reconstructions are often conducted by specialized units in law enforcement agencies, to answer questions about automobile accidents, such as who was driving, where were the victims seated, were they using seat belts? Through accident reconstruction, rigorous analysis is done, with expert witnesses that can present results in trial. ... The son of French artist and mapmaker Ambroise Tardieu, Auguste Ambroise Tardieu (1818-1879) became the pre-eminent forensic medical scientist of the mid-19th century. ... Dr. Edmond Locard (1877-1966) was a pioneer in forensic science who became known as the Sherlock Holmes of France. ... Dr. William M. Bass is a U.S. forensic anthropologist, renowned for his research on human osteology and human decomposition. ... Gilbert Gil Grissom, Ph. ... A crime scene is a location where an illegal act took place such as molestation, rape or illegal turnip smoking, and comprises the area from which most of the physical evidence is retrieved by [[forensics|forensic scientists] for example the reknowned criminal investigator and skilled forensic scientist, who is unfortunately... The CSI Effect (sometimes referred to as the CSI syndrome) is a reference to the phenomenon of popular television shows such as the CSI franchise, the Law & Order Franchise and Crossing Jordan raising crime victims and jury members real-world expectations of forensic science, especially crime scene investigation and DNA... Trace evidence is evidence that is found at a crime scene in small but measurable amounts. ... Skid marks on an asphalt road In motoring terms, a skid mark is the residue tire rubber leaves when a car brakes hard. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 4. ... A fingerprint on paper. ... A fingerprint on paper. ... Cross-section of all skin layers Optical coherence tomography tomogram of fingertip, depicting stratum corneum (~500µm thick) with stratum disjunctum on top and stratum lucidum (connection to stratum spinosum) in the middle. ...


Fingerprints may be deposited in natural secretions from the eccrine glands present in friction ridge skin (secretions consisting primarily of water) or they may be made by ink or other contaminants transferred from the peaks of friction skin ridges to a relatively smooth surface such as a fingerprint card.[2] The term fingerprint normally refers to impressions transferred from the pad on the last joint of fingers and thumbs, though fingerprint cards also typically record portions of lower joint areas of the fingers (which are also used to make identifications).

Contents

Fingerprints in other species

Some other animals, including gorillas, koalas, and fishers have their own unique prints. [3] In fact, koala fingerprints are remarkably similar to human fingerprints; even with an electron microscope, it can be quite difficult to distinguish between the two.[4] It is worthy of note that gorillas have fingerprints while chimpanzees don't, even though the latter is closer related to humans. For other uses, see Gorilla (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Phascolarctos cinereus Goldfuss, 1817 The Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus; sometimes also spelled Phascolarctus cinereus) is a thickset arboreal marsupial herbivore endemic to Australia, and the only representative of its family, Phascolarctidae. ... Binomial name (Erxleben, 1777) The fisher is a North American marten, a medium sized mustelid. ...


Fingerprints as used for Identification

Fingerprint identification (sometimes referred to as dactyloscopy[5]) or palmprint identification is the process of comparing questioned and known friction skin ridge impressions (see Minutiae) from fingers or palms to determine if the impressions are from the same finger or palm. The flexibility of friction ridge skin means that no two finger or palm prints are ever exactly alike (never identical in every detail), even two impressions recorded immediately after each other. Fingerprint identification (also referred to as individualization) occurs when an expert (or an expert computer system operating under threshold scoring rules) determines that two friction ridge impressions originated from the same finger or palm (or toe, sole) to the exclusion of all others. Minutiae, in fingerprinting terms, are the points of interest in a fingerprint, such as bifurcations (a ridge splitting into two) and ridge endings. ... An expert system is a software system that attempts to reproduce the performance of one or more human experts, most commonly in a specific problem domain, and is a traditional application and/or subfield of artificial intelligence. ...


A known print is the intentional recording of the friction ridges, usually with black printer's ink rolled across a contrasting white background, typically a white card. Friction ridges can also be recorded digitally using a technique called Live-Scan. A latent print is the chance reproduction of the friction ridges deposited on the surface of an item. Latent prints are often fragmentary and may require chemical methods, powder, or alternative light sources in order to be visualized. This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


When friction ridges come in contact with a surface that is receptive to a print, material on the ridges, such as perspiration, oil, grease, ink, etc. can be transferred to the item. The factors which affect friction ridge impressions are numerous, thereby requiring examiners to undergo extensive and objective study in order to be trained to competency. Pliability of the skin, deposition pressure, slippage, the matrix, the surface, and the development medium are just some of the various factors which can cause a latent print to appear differently from the known recording of the same friction ridges. Indeed, the conditions of friction ridge deposition are unique and never duplicated. This is another reason why extensive and objective study is necessary for examiners to achieve competency.


Fingerprint capture

Livescan devices

Fingerprint image acquisition is considered the most critical step of an automated fingerprint authentication system, as it determines the final fingerprint image quality, which has drastic effects on the overall system performance. There are different types of fingerprint readers on the market, but the basic idea behind each capture approach is to measure in some way the physical difference between ridges and valleys. All the proposed methods can be grouped in two major families: solid-state fingerprint readers and optical fingerprint readers. The procedure for capturing a fingerprint using a sensor consists of rolling or touching with the finger onto a sensing area, which according to the physical principle in use (capacitive, optical, thermal, etc.) captures the difference between valleys and ridges. When a finger touches or rolls onto a surface, the elastic skin deforms. The quantity and direction of the pressure applied by the user, the skin conditions and the projection of an irregular 3D object (the finger) onto a 2D flat plane introduce distortions, noise and inconsistencies in the captured fingerprint image. These problems result in inconsistent, irreproducible and non-uniform contacts[citation needed] and, during each acquisition, their effects on the same fingerprint results are different and uncontrollable. The representation of the same fingerprint changes every time the finger is placed on the sensor platen, increasing the complexity of the fingerprint matching, impairing the system performance, and consequently limiting the widespread use of this biometric technology.


Print types

Latent prints

Although the word latent means hidden or invisible, in modern usage for forensic science the term latent prints means any chance or accidental impression left by friction ridge skin on a surface, regardless of whether it is visible or invisible at the time of deposition. Electronic, chemical and physical processing techniques permit visualization of invisible latent print residue whether they are from natural secretions of the eccrine glands present on friction ridge skin (which produce palmar sweat, sebum, and various kinds of lipids), or whether the impression is in a contaminant such as motor oil, blood, paint, ink, etc. Forensics redirects here. ... SWEAT is an OLN/TSN show hosted by Julie Zwillich that aired in 2003-2004. ... The sebaceous glands are glands found in the skin of mammals. ... Some common lipids. ...


Latent prints may exhibit only a small portion of the surface of the finger and may be smudged, distorted, or both, depending on how they were deposited. For these reasons, latent prints are an “inevitable source of error in making comparisons,” as they generally “contain less clarity, less content, and less undistorted information than a fingerprint taken under controlled conditions, and much, much less detail compared to the actual patterns of ridges and grooves of a finger.” [6]


Patent prints

These are friction ridge impressions of unknown origin which are obvious to the human eye and are caused by a transfer of foreign material on the finger, onto a surface. Because they are already visible they need no enhancement, and are generally photographed instead of being lifted in the same manner as latent prints.[1]


Plastic prints

A plastic print is a friction ridge impression from a finger or palm (or toe/foot) deposited in a material that retains the shape of the ridge detail.[7] Commonly encountered examples are melted candle wax, putty removed from the perimeter of window panes and thick grease deposits on car parts. Such prints are already visible and need no enhancement, but investigators must not overlook the potential that invisible latent prints deposited by accomplices may also be on such surfaces. After photographically recording such prints, attempts should be made to develop other non-plastic impressions deposited at natural finger/palm secretions (eccrine gland secretions) or contaminates.


Classifying fingerprints

Before computerization replaced manual filing systems in large fingerprint operations, manual fingerprint classification systems were used to categorize fingerprints based on general ridge formations (such as the presence or absence of circular patterns in various fingers), thus permitting filing and retrieval of paper records in large collections based on friction ridge patterns independent of name, birth date and other biographic data that persons may misrepresent. The most popular ten-print classification systems include the Roscher system, the Vucetich system, and the Henry Classification System. Of these systems, the Roscher system was developed in Germany and implemented in both Germany and Japan, the Vucetich system was developed in Argentina and implemented throughout South America, and the Henry system was developed in India and implemented in most English-speaking countries.[8]. Henry Classification System was evolved to facilitate orderly storage and faster search of Ten Prints when operations were done manually. ...


In the Henry system of classification, there are three basic fingerprint patterns: Arch, Loop and Whorl.[9] There are also more complex classification systems that further break down patterns to plain arches or tented arches.[8] Loops may be radial or ulnar, depending on the side of the hand the tail points towards. Whorls also have sub-group classifications including plain whorls, accidental whorls, double loop whorls, and central pocket loop whorls.[8] The radius is the bone of the forearm that extends from the outside of your limb to your phlangx (lateral) of the elbow to the thumb side of the wrist. ... The ulna (Elbow Bone) [Figs. ... For other uses, see Hand (disambiguation). ...

Timeline

The first known use of fingerprinting was in 9th century China, where merchants applied their fingerprints to documents authenticating a record of debt.[10] In 14th century Persia government officials would use their fingerprint in much the same way we use signatures today.[citation needed] A list of significant modern dates documenting the use of fingerprints for positive identification are as follows:

  • 1823: Jan Evangelista Purkyně, a professor of anatomy at the University of Breslau, published his thesis discussing 9 fingerprint patterns, but he did not mention the use of fingerprints to identify persons.[citation needed]
  • 1880: Dr Henry Faulds published his first paper on the subject in the scientific journal Nature in 1880.[11] Returning to the UK in 1886, he offered the concept to the Metropolitan Police in London but it was dismissed.[12]
  • 1892: Sir Francis Galton published a detailed statistical model of fingerprint analysis and identification and encouraged its use in forensic science in his book Finger Prints.[13]
  • 1892: Juan Vucetich, an Argentine police officer who had been studying Galton pattern types for a year, made the first criminal fingerprint identification. He successfully proved Francisca Rojas guilty of murder after showing that the bloody fingerprint found at the crime scene was hers, and could only be hers.
  • 1897: The world's first Fingerprint Bureau opened in Calcutta (Kolkata), India after the Council of the Governor General approved a committee report (on 12 June 1897) that fingerprints should be used for classification of criminal records. Working in the Calcutta Anthropometric Bureau (before it became the Fingerprint Bureau) were Azizul Haque and Hem Chandra Bose. Haque and Bose were the Indian fingerprint experts credited with primary development of the fingerprint classification system eventually named after their supervisor, Sir Edward Richard Henry. [14] [15]
  • 1901: The first United Kingdom Fingerprint Bureau was founded in Scotland Yard. The Henry Classification System, devised by Sir Edward Richard Henry with the help of Haque and Bose was accepted in England and Wales.
  • 1902: Dr. Henry P. DeForrest used fingerprinting in the New York Civil Service.
  • 1906 New York City Police Department Deputy Commissioner Joseph A. Faurot introduced fingerprinting of criminals to the United States.

1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Jan Evangelista PurkynÄ› (also written Johannes Evangelists Purkinje,  listen?) (1787 - 1869) was a Czech anatomist, patriot, and physiologist. ... The University of Breslau (Universität Breslau) was a university in Breslau, Germany, which existed from 1702 until the city with the rest of Silesia was occupied by Stalin and given to the Peoples Republic of Poland after the Second World War. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Dr Henry Faulds (1 June 1843 - 1930) was a Scottish scientist who is noted for the development of fingerprinting. ... Nature, Science and PNAS In academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Metropolitan Police redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Juan Vucetich (July 20, 1858 – January 25, 1925) was a Croatian-born Argentinean anthropologist and police official who pioneered the use of fingerprinting. ... Probably the first criminal found guilty through fingerprints. ... A crime scene is a location where an illegal act took place such as molestation, rape or illegal turnip smoking, and comprises the area from which most of the physical evidence is retrieved by [[forensics|forensic scientists] for example the reknowned criminal investigator and skilled forensic scientist, who is unfortunately... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Azizul Haque (also Azizul Hacque and Khan Bahadur Qazi Azizul Huq) was a Calcutta police officer who worked with Edward Henry to develop the Henry Classification System of fingerprints. ... Sir Edward Richard Henry,1st Baronet GCVO KCB CSI (26 July 1850 – 19 February 1931) was the Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis (head of the Metropolitan Police of London) from 1903 to 1918. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... New Scotland Yard, London New Scotland Yard, it blowwsssss often referred to simply as Scotland Yard or The Yard, is the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service, responsible for policing Greater London (although not the City of London itself). ... Henry Classification System was evolved to facilitate orderly storage and faster search of Ten Prints when operations were done manually. ... Sir Edward Richard Henry,1st Baronet GCVO KCB CSI (26 July 1850 – 19 February 1931) was the Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis (head of the Metropolitan Police of London) from 1903 to 1918. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... NYPD redirects here. ...

Validity of fingerprinting as an identification method

A member of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police points to a feature on a fingerprint

The validity of forensic fingerprint evidence has recently been challenged by academics, judges and the media. While fingerprint identification was an improvement over earlier anthropometric systems, the subjective nature of matching, along with the relatively high error rate of matches when compared to DNA, has made this forensic practice controversial.[16] Image File history File linksMetadata Measuring_fingerprints_w_compass_RCMP.jpg Summary Description: Measuring finger prints with a compass Restrictions on use/reproduction: Nil Copyright: National Archives of Canada Credit: Royal Canadian Mounted Police / Library and Archives Canada / PA- Source: DAPDCAP 555044 Date: Not given Licensing File links The following pages link to this... Image File history File linksMetadata Measuring_fingerprints_w_compass_RCMP.jpg Summary Description: Measuring finger prints with a compass Restrictions on use/reproduction: Nil Copyright: National Archives of Canada Credit: Royal Canadian Mounted Police / Library and Archives Canada / PA- Source: DAPDCAP 555044 Date: Not given Licensing File links The following pages link to this... RCMP redirects here. ... Illustration from The Speaking Portrait (Pearsons Magazine, Vol XI, January to June 1901) demonstrating the principles of Bertillons anthropometry. ...


Certain specific criticisms are now being accepted by some leaders of the forensic fingerprint community, providing an incentive to improve training and procedures. Glenn Langenburg who is a Forensic Scientist, Latent Print Examiner for the Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension, is such an individual, having written an article that responds to the most active academic critics. [2]


Criticism

The words "Reliability" and "Validity" have specific meanings to the scientific community. Reliability means successive tests bring the same results. Validity means that the results accurately reflect the external criteria being measured.

Although experts are often more comfortable relying on their instincts, this reliance does not always translate into superior predictive ability. For example, in the popular Analysis, Comparison, Evaluation, and Verification (ACE-V) paradigm for fingerprint identification, the verification stage, in which a second examiner confirms the assessment of the original examiner, may increase the consistency of the assessments. But while the verification stage has implications for the reliability of latent print comparisons, it does not assure their validity.(pp 12) [6]

The few tests of validity of forensic fingerprinting have not been supportive of the method:

Despite the absence of objective standards, scientific validation, and adequate statistical studies, a natural question to ask is how well fingerprint examiners actually perform. Proficiency tests do not validate a procedure per se, but they can provide some insight into error rates. In 1995, the Collaborative Testing Service (CTS) administered a proficiency test that, for the first time, was “designed, assembled, and reviewed” by the International Association for Identification (IAI).The results were disappointing. Four suspect cards with prints of all ten fingers were provided together with seven latents. Of 156 people taking the test, only 68 (44%) correctly classified all seven latents. Overall, the tests contained a total of 48 incorrect identifications. David Grieve, the editor of the Journal of Forensic Identification, describes the reaction of the forensic community to the results of the CTS test as ranging from “shock to disbelief,” and added:

Errors of this magnitude within a discipline singularly admired and respected for its touted absolute certainty as an identification process have produced chilling and mind- numbing realities. Thirty-four participants, an incredible 22% of those involved, substituted presumed but false certainty for truth. By any measure, this represents a profile of practice that is unacceptable and thus demands positive action by the entire community.

What is striking about these comments is that they do not come from a critic of the fingerprint community, but from the editor of one of its premier publications.(pp25)[6]

Defense

Fingerprints collected at a crime scene, or on items of evidence from a crime, can be used in forensic science to identify suspects, victims and other persons who touched a surface. Fingerprint identification emerged as an important system within police agencies in the late 19th century, when it replaced anthropometric measurements as a more reliable method for identifying persons having a prior record, often under an alias name, in a criminal record repository.[5] Forensics redirects here. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The science of fingerprint identification can assert its standing amongst forensic sciences for many reasons, including the following:

  • Has served all governments worldwide during the past 100 years to provide accurate identification of criminals. No two fingerprints have ever been found identical in many billions of human and automated computer comparisons. Fingerprints are the very basis for criminal history foundation at every police agency.[5]
  • Established the first forensic professional organization, the International Association for Identification (IAI), in 1915.[17]
  • Established the first professional certification program for forensic scientists, the IAI's Certified Latent Print Examiner program (in 1977), issuing certification to those meeting stringent criteria and revoking certification for serious errors such as erroneous identifications.[18]
  • Remains the most commonly used forensic evidence worldwide—in most jurisdictions fingerprint examination cases match or outnumber all other forensic examination casework combined.
  • Continues to expand as the premier method for identifying persons, with tens of thousands of persons added to fingerprint repositories daily in America alone—far outdistancing similar databases in growth.
  • Is claimed to outperform DNA and all other human identification systems (fingerprints are said to solve ten times more unknown suspect cases than DNA in most jurisdictions).
  • Fingerprint identification was the first forensic discipline (in 1977) to formally institute a professional certification program for individual experts, including a procedure for decertifying those making errors. Other forensic disciplines later followed suit in establishing certification programs whereby certification could be revoked for error.[18]

Fingerprint identification effects far more positive identifications of persons worldwide daily than any other human identification procedure. Some of the discontent over fingerprint evidence may be due to the desire to push the conclusiveness of fingerprint examinations to the same level of certitude as that of DNA analysis. DNA is probability-based inasmuch as an individual is genetically half from the mother's contribution and half from the father's contribution. These genetic contributions are passed down from generation to generation. While pattern type (arch, loops, and whorls) may be inherited, the details of the friction ridges are not. For example, it cannot be concluded that a person inherited a certain bifurcation from their mother and an ending ridge from their father as the development of these features are completely random. Further, fingerprints as an analogy of uniqueness has been widely scientifically accepted. For example, chemists often use the term "fingerprint region" to describe an area of a chemical that can be used to identify it. The International Association for Identification (IAI) is the largest forensic organisation in the world. ...


Another criticism sometimes leveled at fingerprint practice is that it is a "closed discipline". However, practitioners in the scientific community are generally specialized and may not extend to other areas of science; in this respect, fingerprint scientists are no different from the rest of the scientific community. The fingerprint community asserts that it maintains the need for objectivity and continued research in the area of friction ridge analysis.


A new method of detecting fingerprints

Since the late nineteenth century, fingerprint identification methods have been used by police agencies around the world to identify both suspected criminals as well as the victims of crime. The basis of the traditional fingerprinting technique is simple. The skin on the palmar surface of the hands and feet forms ridges, so-called papillary ridges, in patterns that are unique to each individual and which do not change over time. Even identical twins do not have identical fingerprints. Fingerprints on surfaces may be described as patent or latent. Patent fingerprints are left when a substance (such as paint, oil or blood) is transferred from the finger to a surface and are easily photographed without further processing. Latent fingerprints, in contrast, occur when the natural secretions of the skin are deposited on a surface through fingertip contact, and are usually not readily visible. The best way to render latent fingerprints visible, so that they can be photographed, is complex and depends, for example, on the type of surface involved. It is generally necessary to use a ‘developer’, usually a powder or chemical reagent, to produce a high degree of visual contrast between the ridge patterns and the surface on which the fingerprint was left.


Developing agents depend on the presence of organic deposits for their effectiveness. However, fingerprints are typically formed by the secretions of the eccrine glands of the fingertips, which principally comprise water and inorganic salts, with only a small proportion of organic material such as urea and amino acids and detecting such fingerprints is far from easy. A further complication is the fact that the organic component of any deposited material is readily destroyed by heat, such as occurs when a gun is fired or a bomb is detonated, when the temperature may reach as high as 500°C. In contrast, the non-volatile, inorganic component of eccrine secretion remains intact even when exposed to temperatures as high as 600°C.


Within the Materials Research Centre, University of Swansea, UK [3], University of Swansea, UK, Professor Neil McMurray and Dr Geraint Williams have developed a technique that enables fingerprints to be visualised on metallic and electrically conductive surfaces without the need to develop the prints first. The technique involves the use of an instrument called a scanning Kelvin probe (SKP), which measures the voltage, or electrical potential, at pre-set intervals over the surface of an object on which a fingerprint may have been deposited. These measurements can then be mapped to produce an image of the fingerprint. A higher resolution image can be obtained by increasing the number of points sampled, but at the expense of the time taken for the process. A sampling frequency of 20 points per mm is high enough to visualise a fingerprint in sufficient detail for identification purposes and produces a voltage map in 2–3 hours. So far the technique has been shown to work effectively on a wide range of forensically important metal surfaces including iron, steel and aluminium. While initial experiments were performed on planar, i.e. flat, surfaces, the technique has been further developed to cope with severely non-planar surfaces, such as the warped cylindrical surface of fired cartridge cases. The very latest research from the department has found that physically removing a fingerprint from a metal surface, e.g. by rubbing with a tissue, does not necessarily result in the loss of all fingerprint information. The reason for this is that the differences in potential that are the basis of the visualisation are caused by the interaction of inorganic salts in the fingerprint deposit and the metal surface and begin to occur as soon as the finger comes into contact with the metal, resulting in the formation of metal–ion complexes that cannot easily be removed.

Bullet casing with an applied fingeprint
Bullet casing with an applied fingeprint
Scanning Kelvin Probe scan of the the same casing with the fingerprint clearly detected. The Kelvin probe can easily cope with the 3D curvature of the bullet casing increasing the versatility of the technique.
Scanning Kelvin Probe scan of the the same casing with the fingerprint clearly detected. The Kelvin probe can easily cope with the 3D curvature of the bullet casing increasing the versatility of the technique.

Currently, in crime scene investigations, a decision has to be made at an early stage whether to attempt to retrieve fingerprints through the use of developers or whether to swab surfaces in an attempt to salvage material for DNA fingerprinting. The two processes are mutually incompatible, as fingerprint developers destroy material that could potentially be used for DNA analysis, and swabbing is likely to make fingerprint identification impossible.


The application of the new SKP fingerprinting technique, which is non-contact and does not require the use of developers, has the potential to allow fingerprints to be retrieved while still leaving intact any material that could subsequently be subjected to DNA analysis. The University of Swansea group hope to have a forensically usable prototype in the near future and it is intended that eventually the instrument will be manufactured in sufficiently large numbers that it will be widely used by forensic teams on the frontline.


There has recently been significant worldwide interest in the technique with articles appearing in/on BBC.co.uk[4], Sky News[5][6], S4C news, The Daily Mail, FHM magazine, AOL, Yahoo news, Telegraph.co.uk, The Hindu, Taipei times, Sydney Morning Herald, San Francisco Gate, The Mercury (South Africa), Brisbane Courier Mail and many others. There has also been significant interest from the Home Office and a number of different police forces across the UK.


More information about the technique has been published in a number of scientific journals[7][8].


Errors in identification or processing

Below are cases of errors in fingerprint identification; however, some cases involved misfiling of fingerprints or suspect profiling which slanted interpretation, rather than faults by objective matches from fingerprint search technology.


William West

A story that some regard as apocryphal circulates about events occurring in the early 20th century when a man was spotted in the incoming prisoner line at the U.S. Penitentiary in Leavenworth, Kansas by a guard who recognized him and thought he was already in the prison population. Upon examination, the incoming prisoner claimed to be named Will West, while the existing prisoner was named William West. According to their Bertillon measurements, they were essentially indistinguishable. Only their fingerprints could readily identify them, and the Bertillon Method was discredited. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Leavenworth redirects here. ... Alphonse Bertillon (April 23, 1853—February 13, 1914) was a French law enforcement officer and biometrics researcher, who created anthropometry, an identification system based on physical measurements. ...


There is evidence that men named Will and William West were both imprisoned in the Federal Penitentiary in Leavenworth, Kansas, between 1903 and 1909. However, the details of the case are suspicious, especially since they differ between retells, and the story did not appear in print until 1918. Today, people familiar with the story differ on whether the story was accurate, a case of people (possibly separated twins) who bore a striking resemblance, a case of known twins, or complete fiction. The story of Will West is mentioned on page 167 of Forensic Uses of Digital Imaging by John C. Russ, with mug shots of "the two Will Wests" on page 168.


It should be noted that the West case is not a case of fingerprint error, but an error in the method of anthropometry, which the fingerprint science replaced.


Brandon Mayfield and Madrid bombing

Error in identification: Brandon Mayfield is an Oregon lawyer who was identified as a participant in the Madrid bombing based on a so-called fingerprint match by the FBI. [19] The FBI Latent Print Unit ran the print collected in Madrid and reported a match against one of 20 fingerprint candidates returned in a search response from their IAFIS—Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System. The FBI initially called the match "100 percent positive" and an "absolutely incontrovertible match". The Spanish National Police examiners concluded the prints did not match Mayfield, and after two weeks identified another man who matched. The FBI acknowledged the error, and a judge released Mayfield after two weeks in May 2004.[19] In January of 2006, a U.S. Justice Department report was released which faulted the FBI for sloppy work but exonerated them of more serious allegations. The report found that misidentification was due to misapplication of methodology by the examiners involved: Mayfield is an American-born convert[19] to Islam and his wife is an Egyptian immigrant,[19] not factors that affect fingerprint search technology. Brandon Mayfield (born 1966) is an attorney at law with a practice in Washington County, Oregon and is best known for being erroneously linked to the 11 March, 2004 Madrid attacks. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The scene of one of the Madrid bombings. ... The Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS) is a national fingerprint and criminal history system maintained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). ... Policia Nacional is Spanish for National Police, the name given to several police forces in the world: Policía Nacional (Colombia) Policía Nacional (El Salvador) Policía Nacional (Spain) Category: ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the law and to ensure fair and impartial administration of justice for all Americans. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


On 29 November 2006, the FBI agreed to pay Brandon Mayfield the sum of US$2 million.[19] The judicial settlement allows Mayfield to continue a suit regarding certain other government practices surrounding his arrest and detention. The formal apology stated that the FBI, which erroneously linked him to the 2004 Madrid bombing through a fingerprinting mistake, had taken steps to "ensure that what happened to Mr. Mayfield and the Mayfield family does not happen again." [19] is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


René Ramón Sánchez

Error in "Clerical" processing. René Ramón Sánchez, a legal Dominican Republic immigrant was booked on a DUI charge on July 15, 1995. He had his fingerprints affixed on a card containing the name, Social Security number and other data for Leo Rosario, who was being processed at the same time. Leo Rosario was arrested for selling cocaine to an undercover police officer. In August of 1998, Sanchez was stopped again by police officers, for DUI in Manhattan. René was then identified as Leo Rosario on October 11, 2000, while returning from a visit to relatives in the Dominican Republic. He was arrested at Kennedy International Airport. Even though he did not match the physical description of Rosario, the fingerprints were considered more reliable.[20] DUI is a three letter acronym (or initialism) that may stand for: Driving under the influence (of alcohol and/or drugs) The term Driving While Intoxicated/DWI is also used Democratic Union for Integration — the largest ethnic Albanian party in Macedonia Data Use Identifier Data Use Institute Davis Unified Ignition... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... The promotional Social Security card as distributed by the F.W. Woolworth Company In the United States, a Social Security number (SSN) is a 9-digit number issued to citizens, permanent residents, and temporary (working) residents under section 205(c)(2) of the Social Security Act, codified as . ... For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ... DUI is a three letter acronym (or initialism) that may stand for: Driving under the influence (of alcohol and/or drugs) The term Driving While Intoxicated/DWI is also used Democratic Union for Integration — the largest ethnic Albanian party in Macedonia Data Use Identifier Data Use Institute Davis Unified Ignition... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... John F. Kennedy International Airport (IATA Airport Code: JFK, ICAO Airport Code: KJFK) is the main international airport in New York City, and is one of the largest airports in the world. ...


Shirley McKie

Error in identification. Shirley McKie was a police detective in 1997 when she was accused of leaving her thumb print inside a house in Kilmarnock, Scotland where Marion Ross had been murdered. Although detective constable McKie denied having been inside the house, she was arrested in a dawn raid the following year and charged with perjury. The only evidence was the thumb print allegedly found at the murder scene. Two American experts testified on her behalf at her trial in May 1999 and she was found not guilty. The Scottish Criminal Record Office (SCRO) would not admit any error, but Scottish first minister Jack McConnell later said there had been an "honest mistake". Shirley McKie Shirley McKie is a former Scottish police officer. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... For other uses, see Kilmarnock (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... Perjury is the act of lying or making verifiably false statements on a material matter under oath or affirmation in a court of law or in any of various sworn statements in writing. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... In criminal law, an acquittal is the legal result of a verdict of not guilty, or some similar end of the proceeding that terminates it with prejudice without a verdict of guilty being entered against the accused. ... Until 2001 the Scottish Criminal Record Office (SCRO) directly controlled the local forensic fingerprint provision for the eight Scottish police forces: Central Scotland Police Dumfries & Galloway Constabulary Fife Constabulary Grampian Police Lothian & Borders Police Northern Constabulary Strathclyde Police Tayside Police Set up by the SCRO in 2001, the Scottish Fingerprint... Jack Wilson McConnell (born June 30, 1960 in Irvine, North Ayrshire) is a former First Minister of Scotland, leader of the Scottish Labour Party and current Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) for the Motherwell and Wishaw constituency. ...


On February 7, 2006, McKie was awarded £750,000 in compensation from the Scottish Executive and the SCRO.[9] Controversy continues to surround the McKie case with calls for the resignations of Scottish ministers and for either a public or a judicial inquiry into the matter.[10] is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... GBP redirects here. ... The Executives logo, shown with English and Scottish Gaelic caption The term Scottish Executive is used in two different, but closely-related senses: to denote the executive arm of Scotlands national legislature (i. ... Until 2001 the Scottish Criminal Record Office (SCRO) directly controlled the local forensic fingerprint provision for the eight Scottish police forces: Central Scotland Police Dumfries & Galloway Constabulary Fife Constabulary Grampian Police Lothian & Borders Police Northern Constabulary Strathclyde Police Tayside Police Set up by the SCRO in 2001, the Scottish Fingerprint...


Stephan Cowans

Error in identification. Stephan Cowans (d. 2007-10-25)[21] was convicted of attempted murder in 1997 after he was accused of the shooting of a police officer while fleeing a robbery in Roxbury, Massachusetts. He was implicated in the crime by the testimony of two witnesses, one of whom was the victim. The other evidence was a fingerprint on a glass mug that the assailant drank water from, and experts testified that the fingerprint belonged to him. He was found guilty and sent to prison with a sentence of 35 years. While in prison he earned money cleaning up biohazards until he could afford to have the evidence tested for DNA. The DNA did not match his, but he had already served six years in prison before he was released. Police officers in South Australia German state police officer in Hamburg A police officer (also known as a policeman or police constable, and colloquially as copper, cop or bobby (on the beat)) is a warranted worker of a police force. ... Roxbury is a neighborhood within Boston, Massachusetts USA. It was one of the first towns founded in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630 and became a city in 1846 until it was annexed to Boston on January 5, 1868. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...


Fingerprinting of children

Further information: Biometrics in schools

Various schools have implemented fingerprint locks or registered children's fingerprints. This happened in the United Kingdom (fingerprint lock in the Holland Park School in London,[22] databases, etc.),[23] in Belgium (école Marie-José in Liège[24][25]), in France, in Italy, etc. The NGO Privacy International has alerted that tens of thousands of UK school children were being fingerprinted by schools, often without the knowledge or consent of their parents.[26] In 2002, the supplier Micro Librarian Systems, which use a technology similar to US prisons and German military, estimated that 350 schools through-out Britain were using such systems, to replace library cards.[26] In 2007, it is estimated that 3 500 schools (ten times more) are using such systems.[27] Under the Data Protection Act (DPA), schools in the UK do not have to ask parental consent for such practices. Parents opposed to such practices may only bring individual complaints against schools.[28]. Starting in the early 2000s, thousands of schools throughout the world have begun to establish biometric systems. ... Holland Park School was opened in London, UK, in 1958 and was the first purpose built comprehensive school. ... Geography Country Belgium Community French Community Region Walloon Region Province Liège Arrondissement Liège Coordinates , , Area 69. ... Privacy International (PI) has been instrumental in establishing the modern international privacy movement. ... The Data Protection Act (DPA) is a United Kingdom Act of Parliament. ...


The purpose of taking children's fingerprints is to struggle against school skipping or/and to replace library cards or money for meals by fingerprint locks. In Belgium, this practice gave rise to a question in Parliament on February 6, 2007 by Michel de La Motte (Humanist Democratic Centre) to the Education Minister Marie Arena, who replied that they were legal insofar as the school did not use them for external purposes nor to survey the private life of children.[29] Such practices have also been used in France (Angers, Carqueiranne college in the Var — the latter won the Big Brother Award of 2005, etc.) although the CNIL, official organisation in charge of protection of privacy, has declared them "disproportionate."[30] The Humanist Democratic Centre (French: Centre Démocrate Humaniste or CDH) is a centrist, christian-democrat, Belgian French-speaking political party. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Maison dAdam, House of Adam, the oldest house of Angers. ... Var is a département of southeastern France. ... Big Brother Award (If you want a picture of the future, imagine a boot stamping on a human face— forever. ... The Commission nationale de linformatique et des libertés or CNIL is an independent French administrative authority whose mission is to ensure that data privacy law is applied to the collection, storage, and use of personal data. ...


In March 2007, the British government was considering fingerprinting of children aged 11 to 15 as part of new passport and ID card (the latter having been recently implemented in the UK), also lifting opposition for privacy concerns. All fingerprints taken would be cross-checked against prints from 900,000 unsolved crimes. Shadow Home secretary David Davis called the plan "sinister."[27] For Microsoft Corporation’s “universal login” service, formerly known as Microsoft Passport Network, see Windows Live ID. For other types of travel document, see Travel document. ... German identity document sample An identity document is a piece of documentation designed to prove the identity of the person carrying it. ... David Davis, the name of several people, may refer to: David Davis (Australian politician) (born 1962), Liberal member of the Victorian Legislative Council David Davis (British politician) (born 1948), Conservative MP in British Parliament and Conservative leadership candidate in 2001 and 2005 David Davis (broadcaster) was the stage name of...


Recently, serious concerns about the security implications of using conventional biometric templates in schools have been raised by a number of leading IT security experts, including Kim Cameron, architect of identity and access in the connected systems division at Microsoft, who cites research by Cavoukian and Stoianov [31] to back up his assertion that "it is absolutely premature to begin using 'conventional biometrics' in schools".


Biometric vendors claim benefits to schools such as improved reading skills, decreased wait times in lunch lines and increased revenues [32]. They do not cite independent research to support this. Educationalist Dr Sandra Leaton Gray of Homerton College, Cambridge stated in early 2007 that "I have not been able to find a single piece of published research which suggests that the use of biometrics in schools promotes healthy eating or improves reading skills amongst children... There is absolutely no evidence for such claims".


The Ottawa Police in Canada advised parents who fear that their children may be kidnapped to have their fingerprints taken.[33] This article is about the capital city of Canada. ...


U.S. databases and compression

The FBI manages a fingerprint identification system and database called IAFIS, which currently holds the fingerprints and criminal records of over fifty-one million criminal record subjects, and over 1.5 million civil (non-criminal) fingerprint records. U.S. Visit currently holds a repository of over 50 million persons, primarily in the form of two-finger records (by 2008, U.S. Visit is transforming to a system recording FBI-standard tenprint records). The Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS) is a national fingerprint and criminal history system maintained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). ...


Most American law enforcement agencies use Wavelet Scalar Quantization (WSQ), a wavelet-based system for efficient storage of compressed fingerprint images at 500 pixels per inch (ppi). WSQ was developed by the FBI, the Los Alamos National Lab, and the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST). For fingerprints recorded at 1000 ppi spatial resolution, law enforcement (including the FBI) uses JPEG 2000 instead of WSQ. The Wavelet Scalar Quantization algorithm (WSQ) is a compression algorithm used for gray-scale fingerprint images. ... The wavelet transform is a transformation to basis functions that are localized in scale and in time as well (where the Fourier transform is only localized in frequency, never giving any information about where in space or time the frequency happens). ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... As a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration, the National Institute of Standards (NIST) develops and promotes measurement, standards, and technology to enhance productivity, facilitate trade, and improve the quality of life. ... Resolving power is the ability of a microscope or telescope to measure the angular separation of images that are close together. ... JPEG 2000 is a wavelet-based image compression standard. ...


Locks and other applications

In the 2000s, electronic fingerprint readers have been introduced for security applications such as identification of computer users (log-in authentication). However, early devices have been discovered to be vulnerable to quite simple methods of deception, such as fake fingerprints cast in gels. In 2006, fingerprint sensors gained popularity in the notebook PC market. Built-in sensors in ThinkPads, VAIO laptops, and others also double as motion detectors for document scrolling, like the scroll wheel. This article is about the decade of 2000-2009. ... In optical filters and theatrical lighting a color gel is a transparent or translucent colored panel used to change the color of transmitted light. ... IBM ThinkPad R51 ThinkPad is the brand name for a range of portable laptop and notebook computers originally designed and sold by IBM. Since early 2005 the ThinkPad range has been manufactured and marketed by Lenovo, which purchased the IBM PC division. ... VAIO logo VAIO, an acronym for Video Audio Integrated Operation, is a sub-brand for many of Sonys computer products. ... A Motion Detector is a device connected to a burglar alarm that is used to detect motion. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Another recent use of fingerprints in a day-to-day setting has been the increasing reliance on biometrics in schools where fingerprints and, to a lesser extent, iris scans are used to validate electronic registration, cashless catering, and library access. This practice is particularly widespread in the UK, where more than 3500 schools currently use such technology, though it is also starting to be adopted in some states in the US. Starting in the early 2000s, thousands of schools throughout the world have begun to establish biometric systems. ...


Footprints

Friction ridge skin present on the soles of the feet and toes (plantar surfaces) is as unique as ridge detail on the fingers and palms (palmar surfaces). When recovered at crime scenes or on items of evidence, sole and toe impressions are used in the same manner as finger and palm prints to effect identifications. Footprint (toe and sole friction ridge skin) evidence has been admitted in U.S. courts since 1934 (People v. Les, 267 Michigan 648, 255 NW 407).


Footprints of infants, along with thumb or index finger prints of mothers, are still commonly recorded in hospitals to assist in verifying the identity of infants. Often, the only identifiable ridge detail in such impressions is from the large toe or adjacent to the large toe, due to the difficulty of recording such fine detail. When legible ridge detail is lacking, DNA is normally effective (except in instances of chimaerism) for indirectly identifying infants by confirming maternity and paternity of an infant's parents. Chimaerism is a disorder in which an individual had two or more genetically different cell lines each of which is derived from different zygotes. ...


It is not uncommon for military records of flight personnel to include bare foot inked impressions. Friction ridge skin protected inside flight boots tends to survive the trauma of a plane crash (and accompanying fire) better than fingers. Even though the U.S. Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory (AFDIL) stores refrigerated DNA samples from all current active duty and reserve personnel, almost all casualty identifications are effected using fingerprints from military ID card records (live scan fingerprints are recorded at the time such cards are issued). When friction ridge skin is not available from deceased military personnel, DNA and dental records are used to confirm identity. Forensic dentistry or forensic odontology is the proper handling, examination and evaluation of dental evidence, which will be then presented in the interest of justice. ...


Lifestyle information

The secretions, skin oils and dead cells in the fingerprint contain residues of various chemicals and their metabolites present in the body. These can be detected and used for forensic purposes. For example the fingerprints of tobacco smokers contain traces of cotinine, a nicotine metabolite; they also contain traces of nicotine itself; however that may be ambiguous as its presence may be caused by mere contact of the finger with a tobacco product. By treating the fingerprint with gold nanoparticles with attached cotinine antibodies, and then subsequently with fluorescent agent attached to cotinine antibody antibodies, a fingerprint of a smoker becomes fluorescent; non-smoker's fingerprint stays dark. The same approach is investigated to be used for identifying heavy coffee drinkers, cannabis smokers, and users of various other drugs. [11][12] A metabolite is the product of metabolism. ... The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ... Cotinine is a metabolite of nicotine. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Silicon nanopowder Nanodiamonds, TEM image A nanoparticle (or nanopowder or nanocluster or nanocrystal) is a small particle with at least one dimension less than 100 nm. ... Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ... For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). ... Cannabis smoking is the process of inhaling the smoke created by burning cannabis, mostly either the flowering buds of, or hashish, a preparation of, the cannabis plant. ...


See also

The International Association for Identification (IAI) is the largest forensic organisation in the world. ... Brain fingerprinting is a technique that measures recognition of familiar stimuli by measuring electrical brain wave responses to words, phrases, or pictures that are presented on a computer screen. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Government databases collect personal information for various reasons (mass surveillance, Schengen Information System in the European Union, Social Security, statistics, etc. ... The New York State Police Troop C scandal involved the fabrication of evidence used to convict suspects in New York by the New York State Police. ... Falsified evidence, forged evidence or tainted evidence is used to either convict an innocent person, or to guarantee conviction of a guilty person. ... This article is about fingerprint authentication. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Naegeli syndrome (Naegeli-Franceschetti-Jadassohn syndrome) is a rare autosomal dominant form of ectodermal dysplasia, characterized by reticular skin pigmentation, diminished function of the sweat glands, the absence of teeth and hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles. ... Dermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis (DPR) is a form of a rare sex-linked ectodermal dysplasia congenital disorder that afflicts females. ... 1,8-Diazafluoren-9-one, also known as DFO, is a chemical that is used to find fingerprints on porous surfaces. ... Dermatoglyphics (from ancient Greek derma = skin, glyph = carving) is the scientific study of fingerprints. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Peer Reviewed Glossary of the Scientific Working Group on Friction Ridge Analysis, Study and Technology (SWGFAST)
  2. ^ Olsen, Robert D., Sr. (1972) “The Chemical Composition of Palmar Sweat” Fingerprint and Identification Magazine Vol 53(10)
  3. ^ Template:Cite url = http://www.virtualsciencefair.org/2004/fren4j0/public html/animal fingerprints.htm
  4. ^ Henneberg, Maciej; Lambert, Kosette M., Leigh, Chris M. (1997). "Fingerprint homoplasy: koalas and humans". naturalSCIENCE.com 1. 
  5. ^ a b c Ashbaugh, David R. (1991) "Ridgeology". Journal of Forensic Identification Vol 41 (1) ISSN: 0895-l 73X
  6. ^ a b c Zabell, Sandy "Fingerprint Evidence" Journal of Law and Policy [1]
  7. ^ Johnson, P. Lee (1973) "Life of Latents" Identification News Vol 23(1)
  8. ^ a b c Engert, Gerald J. (1964) "International Corner" Identification News Vol 14(1)
  9. ^ Henry, Edward R., Sir (1900) Classification and Uses of Finger Prints London: George Rutledge & Sons, Ltd.
  10. ^ Reinaud, Joseph (1845). Relation des voyages faits par les Arabes et les Persans dans l’Inde et a la Chine. Paris: Imprimerie Royale; quoted in The Print, page 8 issue 2 vol 16 (March 2000): publication of South California Association of Fingerprint Officers. 
  11. ^ Faulds, Henry, MD (1880)Nature
  12. ^ Reid, Donald L. (2003) "Dr. Henry Faulds - Beith Commemorative Society" Journal of Forensic Identification Vol53(2)
  13. ^ Galton, Francis, MD, Sir (1892) Finger Prints London: MacMillan and Co.
  14. ^ Tewari RK, Ravikumar KV. History and development of forensic science in India. J. Postgrad Med 2000,46:303-308.
  15. ^ J.S. Sodhi & Jasjeed Kaur. The forgotten Indian pioneers of finger print science, Current Science 2005, 88(1):185-191.
  16. ^ Specter, Michael "Do Fingerprints Lie" The New Yorker [http://www.michaelspecter.com/ny/2002/2002_05_27_fingerprint.html
  17. ^ International Association for Identification History, retrieved Aug 2006
  18. ^ a b Bonebrake, George J. (1978) "Report on the Latent Print Certification Program" Identification News Vol28(3)
  19. ^ a b c d e f "U.S. Will Pay $2 Million to Lawyer Wrongly Jailed - New York Times" (article), by Eric Lichtbau, New York Times, 2006-11-30, webpage: NYT-061130-settle: on Brandon Mayfield mistaken arrest.
  20. ^ New York Times; May 31, 2004; Can Prints Lie? Yes, Man Finds To His Dismay. In front of the immigration judge, the tall, muscular man began to weep. No, he had patiently tried to explain, he was not Leo Rosario, a drug dealer and a prime candidate for deportation. He was telling the truth. He was René Ramón Sánchez, an auto-body worker and merengue singer ...
  21. ^ Abel, David (2007-10-26). Man wrongly convicted in Boston police shooting found dead. The Boston Globe.
  22. ^ Empreintes digitales pour les enfants d'une école de Londres (French)
  23. ^ Leave Them Kids Alone (English)
  24. ^ Empreintes digitales pour sécuriser l'école ? (French)
  25. ^ Le lecteur d'empreintes dans les écoles crée la polémique, 7 Sur 7, February 5, 2007 (French)
  26. ^ a b Fingerprinting of UK school kids causes outcry, The Register, July 22, 2002 (English)
  27. ^ a b Child fingerprint plan considered, BBC, March 4, 2007 (English)
  28. ^ Schools can fingerprint children without parental consent, The Register, September 7, 2006 (English)
  29. ^ Prises d'empreintes digitales dans un établissement scolaire, Question d'actualité à la Ministre-Présidente en charge de l'Enseignement obligatoire et de Promotion sociale (French)
  30. ^ Quand la biométrie s'installe dans les cantines au nez et à la barbe de la Cnil, Zdnet, September 9, 2003 (French)
  31. ^ Biometric Encrypton: A Positive-Sum Technology that Achieves Strong Authentication, Security AND Privacy Cavoukian,A and Stoianov,A March 2007
  32. ^ Fingerprint Software Eliminates Privacy Concerns and Establishes Success (FindBiometrics)
  33. ^ Child Print (Ottawa Police Service) (English)/(French)

Joseph Toussaint Reinaud (December 4, 1795 - May 14, 1867) was a French orientalist. ... Brandon Mayfield (born 1966) is an attorney at law with a practice in Washington County, Oregon and is best known for being erroneously linked to the 11 March, 2004 Madrid attacks. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Current logo of The Register. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Current logo of The Register. ... In 1989 Ziff Davis Inc. ...

External links

General

  • FBI Fingerprint Guide
  • FBI Fingerprinting Video Lesson
  • FBI Fingerprint Identification, History, etc.
  • Human Fingerprints at Fingerprinting.com.
  • Fingerprint Processing Guide
  • Latent Print Examination

Books, Articles, & Journals

  • Galton's Finger Prints
  • Henry, Faulds, and Herschel's works on fingerprints
  • Surgeon jailed for removing fingerprints - Sydney Morning Herald (news article)

Biometrics

  • FAQ concerning biometrics and fingerprints, TST Biometrics
  • Biometrics
  • Biometrics Research Lab - Michigan State University

Errors & Concerns

  • How to fake fingerprints
  • Will West as fable
  • New Yorker: Do fingerprints lie?
  • Why Experts Make Errors, Itiel E. Dror, David Charlton, Journal of Forensic Identification
  • The use of fingerprints for identification in schools (Leave Them Kids Alone)

Science & Statistics

  • Fingerprint research and evaluation at the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology
  • Fingerprint pattern distribution statistics
  • Do you have unusual fingerprints?
  • The Science of Fingerprints, available at Project Gutenberg.
  • FINGERPRINT EVIDENCE Sandy L. Zabell, Ph.D "Journal of Law and Policy"
  • All American mom is convicted drug dealer Telegraph.co.uk May 2, 2008

Commercial Sites & Societies Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... The electronic telegraph (the initial lowercase was a marketing device) was Europes first daily web-based newspaper. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • The Fingerprint Society - Society for Fingerprint Examiners.
  • Scientific Working Group on Friction Ridge Analysis, Study and Technology - U.S. national working group on fingerprint examination.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Fingerprint - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3138 words)
Fingerprints are commonly held to be an infallible method of uniquely identifying an individual, but it's more an art than science: most state and federal level crime labs will not report a fingerprint match until two experts independently reach that conclusion.
Fingerprint identification (sometimes referred to as dactyloscopy) is the process of comparing questioned and known friction skin ridge impressions (see Minutiae) from fingers, palms, and toes to determine if the impressions are from the same finger (or palm, toe, etc.).
Fingerprint experts had conceded that the process they use -- matching large, evenly pressured prints taken from suspects at the police station to smaller, unevenly pressured prints from crime scenes -- is ultimately subjective and bedeviled by inconsistent standards.
Biometrics: Fingerprint (865 words)
A fingerprint is made of a series of ridges and furrows on the surface of the finger.
Fingerprint classification is a technique to assign a fingerprint into one of the several pre-specified types already established in the literature which can provide an indexing mechanism.
An input fingerprint is first matched at a coarse level to one of the pre-specified types and then, at a finer level, it is compared to the subset of the database containing that type of fingerprints only.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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