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Encyclopedia > Filling station
Modern filling station, Preem in Karlskrona, Sweden
Modern filling station, Preem in Karlskrona, Sweden
An Ampol station in Australia in the late 1940s.
An Ampol station in Australia in the late 1940s.

A filling station, fueling station, gas station or petrol station is a facility which sells fuel and lubricants for motor vehicles. The most common fuels sold are gasoline (petrol) or diesel fuel. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Preem ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Preem ... Karlskrona is a city in south-eastern Sweden. ... Image File history File links Albert_Namatjira_refuelling_for_a_trip_to_Alice_Springs. ... Image File history File links Albert_Namatjira_refuelling_for_a_trip_to_Alice_Springs. ... Ampol, the Australian Motorists Petrol Company, was incorporated in 1936 and the name was changed to Ampol Petroleum Ltd in 1949. ... Gasoline or petrol is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting mostly of hydrocarbons and enhanced with benzene or iso-octane to increase octane ratings, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... Diesel or diesel fuel is a specific fractional distillate of fuel oil (mostly petroleum) that is used as fuel in a diesel engine invented by German engineer Rudolf Diesel. ...


Some stations carry specialty fuels such as liquified petroleum gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG), hydrogen, biodiesel, ethanol, or kerosene. In recent times filling stations have also begun to sell butane and added shops to their primary business, and convenience stores are now a familiar sight alongside pumps. 45 kg LPG cylinders Spherical Gas Container typically found in Refineries. ... Natural gas is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane but including significant quantities of ethane, butane, propane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium and hydrogen sulfide. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... In some countries, filling stations sell bio-diesel more cheaply than conventional diesel. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Kerosene or paraffin oil (British English, not to be confused with the waxy solid also called paraffin wax or just paraffin) is a flammable hydrocarbon liquid. ... Butane, also called n-butane, is the unbranched alkane with four carbon atoms, CH3CH2CH2CH3. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The term "gas station" is mostly used in the United States and Canada, where petrol is known as "gas" or "gasoline." In some regions of Canada the term "gas bar" is also frequently used. Elsewhere in the English-speaking world the form "petrol station" or "petrol pump" are used. In the United Kingdom the single noun garage is still commonly used, even though the petrol station may have no service/maintenance facilities which would justify this description. Similarly, in Australia, the term service station ("servo") describes any petrol station. In Japanese English, it is called a "gasoline stand". In Indian English, it's called a Petrol Pump. In some regions of America, filling stations usually have a mechanic on duty, but this is uncommon in other parts of the world. Service station is a term with different meanings in different parts of the world: In the United States and Canada, it refers to a filling station that also offers such services as oil change and mechanical repairs to automobiles. ... Wasei-eigo (和製英語 wasei eigo, lit. ... It has been suggested that Regional differences and dialects in Indian English be merged into this article or section. ... Modern filling station, Preem in Karlskrona, Sweden An Ampol station in Australia in the late 1940s. ... Look up Mechanic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

History of filling stations in the United States

The first places that sold gasoline were pharmacies, as a side business.[citation needed] Henry Ford's use of mass-production techniques to manufacture automobiles made it possible for consumers to purchase cars at an affordable price. This increase in car ownership resulted in a greater demand for filling stations. The world's first gas station was built in St. Louis, Missouri in 1905 at 412 S. Theresa Avenue[1]. The second gas station was constructed in 1907 by Standard Oil of California (now Chevron) in Seattle, Washington. Reighard's gas station in Altoona, Pennsylvania claims that it dates from 1909 and is the oldest existing gas station in the United States. Early on, they were known to motorists as "filling stations". Standard Oil began erecting roadside signs of their logo to advertise their gas stations. Pharmacy (from the Greek φάρμακον = drug) is the profession of compounding and dispensing medication. ... Henry Ford (1919) Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Chevron was founded after an 1879 oil discovery in Pico Canyon, near the Santa Susana Mountains north of Los Angeles, California as the Pacific Coast Oil Co. ... Chevron Corporation (NYSE: CVX) is one of the worlds largest global energy companies. ... Altoona is a city in Blair County, Pennsylvania, United States. ...


Types of filling stations in the United States

There are generally two types of filling stations in the US: premium and discount brands.


Premium brands

Filling stations with premium brands sell well-recognized and often international brands of gasoline, including Exxon, Citgo, Chevron, Mobil, Shell, Sinclair, BP, Valero and Texaco. Non-international premium brands include Petrobras, Petro-Canada, ESSO and Pemex. Premium brand stations accept credit cards, often issue their own company cards (a.k.a. fuel cards) and may charge higher prices. These stations have numerous locations and more available pumps. They tend to be more modern and cleaner and tend to have brighter lighting. For ease and convenience, many of them have fully automated pay-at-the-pump facilities. Premium gas stations tend to be highly visible from highway and freeway exits, utilizing tall signs to display their brand logos. Exxon Mobil Corporation or ExxonMobil (NYSE: XOM), headquartered in Irving, Texas, is an oil producer and distributor formed on November 30, 1999, by the merger of Exxon and Mobil. ... Citgo Petroleum Corporation or Citgo, a subsidiary of Petróleos de Venezuela S.A., the Venezuelan state-owned petroleum company, is a United States-incorporated firm refiner and marketer of gasoline, lubricants, petrochemicals and other petroleum products. ... Chevron Corporation (NYSE: CVX) is one of the worlds largest global energy companies. ... Mobil gas station in the Loisaida section of the East Village of New York City Mobil was a major American oil company which merged with Exxon in 1999 to form ExxonMobil. ... The Shell emblem known as the Pecten Shell Oil Company (SOC) is the Houston, Texas based wholly-owned subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell. ... Sinclair Oil is an American petroleum company based in Salt Lake City, Utah. ... This article is about the corporation known as BP. For other uses, see BP (disambiguation). ... Valero Energy Corporation (NYSE: VLO) is a Fortune 500 company based in San Antonio, Texas with approximately 22,000 employees and annual revenue of more than $80 billion. ... Texaco is the name of an American oil company that was merged into Chevron Corporation in 2001. ... Petrobras, short for Petróleo Brasileiro S.A., is a government-owned Brazilian oil company headquartered in Rio de Janeiro. ... Petro-Canada is a Canadian oil and gas firm headquartered in Calgary, Alberta. ... An Esso Station in Stabekk, Norway Esso sign Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Esso is an international trade name for Exxon Mobil Corporation and its related companies. ... A Pemex gas station in Puerto Vallarta Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) is Mexicos state-owned, nationalized petroleum company. ... Credit cards A credit card is a system of payment named after the small plastic card issued to users of the system. ... A fuel card is a payment card for petrol, diesel and other fuels at filling stations. ... A gas pump is a machine at a gas station that is used to put gasoline in vehicles. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For specific systems, such as the Autobahns of Germany, see list of highway systems with full control of access and no cross traffic. ...


Discount brands

Discount brands are often smaller, regional chains or independent stations, offering lower prices on gasoline. Most purchase wholesale gasoline from independent suppliers or from the major petroleum companies. In some cases, discount brands accept cash only; others may accept credit cards. Often the customer must walk inside the store or up to the window to pay, and obtain a receipt later. Discount stations tend to have few locations and, in some cases, use outdated technology (e.g., non-digital readouts on pumps) and are less well kept than premium stations. Additionally, these discount gas stations are often located well away from highway and freeway exits; many are tucked away in obscure commercial and residential neighborhoods. An exception to these trends is the discount brand ARCO (a division of BP), which maintains a combination of modern and outdated stations. An ARCO gas station in Los Angeles ARCO (an acronym for Atlantic Richfield Company) is an American oil company that was formed by the merger of East Coast-based Atlantic Refining and California-based Richfield Petroleum in 1966. ...


Examples of discount gas station chains in the USA are Valero, Rotten Robbie, and USA Gasoline. Lower-priced gas stations are also found at some supermarkets (Albertsons, Kroger, Safeway, Vons, Meijer (Detroit area), Loblaws/independent grocer's/Real Canadian Superstore (Canada) and Giant Eagle), convenience stores (7-Eleven and Cumberland Farms), discount stores (Wal-Mart) and warehouse clubs (Costco, Sam's Club, and BJ's). At some stations (such as Vons, Wal-Mart, Costco, BJ's, or Sam's Club), consumers are required to hold a special membership card in order to receive the discounted price. Some convenience stores, such as 7-Eleven and Circle K, have co-branded their stations with one of the premium brands. Valero Energy Corporation (NYSE: VLO) is a Fortune 500 company based in San Antonio, Texas with approximately 22,000 employees and annual revenue of more than $80 billion. ... Exterior of a typical British supermarket (a Tesco Extra) Exterior of typical North American supermarket (a Safeway) This Flagship Randalls store in Houston, Texas is an example of an upscale supermarket. ... A typical Albertsons store. ... Kroger headquarters in Cincinnati, Ohio. ... Safeway Inc. ... Vons is a Southern California supermarket chain, and is a division of Safeway Inc. ... Giant Eagle, Inc. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 7-Eleven is an international franchisor, licensor, and operator of a chain of convenience stores in eighteen countries including: Canada, United States, Mexico and Puerto Rico in the Americas; Norway, Sweden and Denmark in Europe; mainland China, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan in East Asia; Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia... Cumberland Farms is a chain of convenience stores based in Canton, Massachusetts and operating primarily in the eastern United States. ... A discount store is a retail store offering a wide range of products, many branded, at discounted prices. ... Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. ... A warehouse club is a retail store selling a small amount of merchandise in terms of variety. ... Costco Wholesale Corporation (NASDAQ: COST) is the largest membership warehouse club chain in the world based on sales volume, headquartered in Issaquah, Washington, United States,[1] with its flagship warehouse in nearby Seattle. ... Sams Club is a membership-only warehouse club owned and operated by Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. ... BJs Wholesale Club, Inc. ... 7-Eleven is an international franchisor, licensor, and operator of a chain of convenience stores in eighteen countries including: Canada, United States, Mexico and Puerto Rico in the Americas; Norway, Sweden and Denmark in Europe; mainland China, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan in East Asia; Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia... Circle K South-Terakata East Shop(Osaka Moriguchi Japan) Circle K is a trademark owned by the ConocoPhillips oil company to designate a chain of company operated and franchised convenience stores in the United States. ...


Filling stations outside the United States

Like many gasoline stands in Japan, this Hiroshima Shell station has hoses that pull down from above.
Like many gasoline stands in Japan, this Hiroshima Shell station has hoses that pull down from above.

Some countries have only one brand of petrol station. In Mexico, where the oil industry is state-owned and prices are regulated, the country's main operator of petrol stations is called Pemex. In Malaysia, Shell is the dominant player by number of stations with government owned Petronas coming in second; the operator is also moving overseas with the aim of becoming a multinational brand. Most multinational brands such as ExxonMobil and Shell use their brand worldwide, except Chevron which uses its inherited brand Caltex in Asia Pacific, Australia, and Africa, and its Texaco brand in Europe and Latin America. In Brazil, the main operator is Petrobras but Esso, Ipiranga, Texaco and Shell are also big. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1500x1000, 515 KB) Gas station in Hiroshima, Japan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1500x1000, 515 KB) Gas station in Hiroshima, Japan. ... The Japanese city of Hiroshima ) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the ChÅ«goku region of western HonshÅ«, the largest of Japans islands. ... Royal Dutch Shell PLC is a multinational oil company (oil major) of British and Dutch origins. ... A Pemex gas station in Puerto Vallarta Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) is Mexicos state-owned, nationalized petroleum company. ... Royal Dutch Shell PLC is a multinational oil company (oil major) of British and Dutch origins. ... Petronas, short for Petroliam Nasional Berhad, is a Malaysian owned oil and gas company that was founded on August 17, 1974. ... Chevron Corporation (NYSE: CVX) is one of the worlds largest global energy companies. ... Caltex is a petrol company. ... Texaco is the name of an American oil company that was merged into Chevron Corporation in 2001. ... Petrobras, short for Petróleo Brasileiro S.A., is a government-owned Brazilian oil company headquartered in Rio de Janeiro. ...


Features of gas stations in the United States

Payment methods

A Shell gas station near Lost Hills, California

In small towns and rural areas, gas stations sometimes allow customers to pump gas first and pay afterwards. Due to the higher incidence of crime in large urban areas (especially drive-offs), customers must generally pay before pumping fuel. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1234x792, 401 KB) Summary A Shell Oil (Royal Dutch Shell) gas station near the interchange of California State Route 46 and Interstate 5 near Lost Hills, California. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1234x792, 401 KB) Summary A Shell Oil (Royal Dutch Shell) gas station near the interchange of California State Route 46 and Interstate 5 near Lost Hills, California. ... (Not to be confused with the Lost Hills from The Legend of Zelda. ... A drive-off is gas station jargon referring to the leaving of a vehicle without paying for the gasoline pumped. ...


Modern gas stations have pay-at-the-pump capabilities — in most cases credit, debit, ATM cards and fuel cards are accepted. At some stations, cash is also taken at the pump, although customers must collect their change at a cashier window which is often bullet-proof. Occasionally a station will have a pay-at-the-pump-only period per day, when attendants are not present, often at night, and some stations are pay-at-the-pump-only 24 hours a day. A debit card is a plastic card which provides an alternative payment method to cash when making purchases. ... Outdoor ATMs may be free-standing, like this kiosk, or built into the side of banks or other buildings An automatic teller machine, automated teller machine (ATM) or cash machine is an electronic device that allows a banks customers to make cash withdrawals and check their account balances without... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Full service vs. self service

Map showing the states that do not allow self service gas; New Jersey and Oregon (colored red)
Map showing the states that do not allow self service gas; New Jersey and Oregon (colored red)

Traditionally most United States filling stations have offered a choice between full service — in which an attendant operates the pumps, often checks the vehicle's oil level and tire pressure, and wipes the windshield, then collects payment (and perhaps a small tip) — and self service, in which the customer pumps the gas. Until the 1970s full service was the norm, and self service was rare. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (878x568, 110 KB)Modified from Image:Map of USA highlighting Eastern Seaboard. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (878x568, 110 KB)Modified from Image:Map of USA highlighting Eastern Seaboard. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  Ranked 47th  - Total 8,729 sq mi (22,608 km²)  - Width 70 miles (110 km)  - Length 150 miles (240 km)  - % water 14. ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... Leaving some small change on a restaurant table is a common way of giving a tip to the serving staff. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979. ...


Today, few stations advertise full service, and those that do usually only provide mini service unless a manager is involved. However, full service stations are common in wealthy and upscale areas. The cost of full service is usually assessed as a fixed amount per gallon.


Minimum service vs. full service

A typical Valero gas station in Mountain View, California

All stations in New Jersey and Oregon, however, are mini service; attendants are required to pump gas because customers are barred by statutes in both states from pumping their own gas. Both states prohibited self service in the 1940s due to fears that foolish customers would handle gasoline improperly. Oregon's Department of Environmental Quality has also ordered a ban on self-service gasoline due to inexperienced pumpers being a significant source of groundwater and air pollution. Oregon's state fire marshal has also ordered a ban on self-service gasoline. Today, these states enforce the law because of the rapid increase of drive-offs[citation needed], where people fill up their car and drive away without paying for gas. In 1982, Oregon voters rejected a ballot measure sponsored by the service station owners, which would have legalized self-service gas. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x540, 240 KB)A typical Valero gas station, in Mountain View, California. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x540, 240 KB)A typical Valero gas station, in Mountain View, California. ... Valero Energy Corporation (NYSE: VLO) is a Fortune 500 company based in San Antonio, Texas with approximately 22,000 employees and annual revenue of more than $80 billion. ... Mountain View is a city in Santa Clara County, in the U.S. state of California. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  Ranked 47th  - Total 8,729 sq mi (22,608 km²)  - Width 70 miles (110 km)  - Length 150 miles (240 km)  - % water 14. ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... A drive-off is gas station jargon referring to the leaving of a vehicle without paying for the gasoline pumped. ...


There is a widespread belief that mini-serve is more expensive. However, a comparison between gas prices in Portland, Oregon and its suburb of Vancouver, Washington show prices at mini-serve stations in Oregon are on average 3 to 10 cents cheaper than their self-service counterparts in Washington, suggesting the net effect of adding attendants to the price may be small or non-existent. This comparison may be skewed by the difference in state gasoline taxes between Oregon and Washington. Likewise, New Jersey almost always has cheaper gas than its neighbors New York and Pennsylvania; such a difference could be explained by the presence of six refineries that produce 50,000 barrels per day or more of refined petroleum products, or more likely the state's low gas tax, the third lowest in the country behind Alaska and Georgia, at just 14.50 cents per gallon.[1] Nickname: Location in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country United States State Oregon County Multnomah County Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Mayor Tom Potter Area  - City  145. ... Nickname: Vancouver USA, The Couve Motto: A colorful past, a bright future Location in Washington Coordinates: Country United States State Washington County Clark County Founded 1825 Incorporated 1857 Government  - Mayor Royce Pollard Area  - City  46. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  Ranked 47th  - Total 8,729 sq mi (22,608 km²)  - Width 70 miles (110 km)  - Length 150 miles (240 km)  - % water 14. ... NY redirects here. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ...


The constitutionality of the self-service bans has been challenged. The Oregon statute was challenged in 1989 by ARCO, and the New Jersey statute was challenged in 1950 by a small independent service station, Rein Motors. Both challenges failed. In addition, throughout the rest of the United States, the Americans with Disabilities Act requires that the equivalent of "mini-serve" be provided to any individual displaying a disabled parking placard. An ARCO gas station in Los Angeles ARCO (an acronym for Atlantic Richfield Company) is an American oil company that was formed by the merger of East Coast-based Atlantic Refining and California-based Richfield Petroleum in 1966. ... The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 is the short title of United States Public Law 101-336, signed into law on July 26, 1990 by George H. W. Bush. ...


In both New Jersey and Oregon, it is legal for customers to pump their own diesel (although not every station permits diesel customers to do so; truck stops typically do). The intent of the Oregon Law is that diesel is not as flammable, and therefore poses less of a hazard to Oregon Citizens.[citation needed] Diesel or diesel fuel is a specific fractional distillate of fuel oil (mostly petroleum) that is used as fuel in a diesel engine invented by German engineer Rudolf Diesel. ... A truck stop is a commercial facility that provides fuel, parking and usually food and other services to long-haul trucks. ...


Other goods and services commonly available

Many gas stations also have convenience stores which sell food, beverages, cigarettes, lottery tickets, motor oil, and sometimes auto parts. Prices for these and other items tend to be higher at convenience stores than they would be at a supermarket or discount store. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Two unlit filtered cigarettes. ... Exterior of a typical British supermarket (a Tesco Extra) Exterior of typical North American supermarket (a Safeway) This Flagship Randalls store in Houston, Texas is an example of an upscale supermarket. ...


In many U.S. states, beer, wine, and liquor are sold in gas stations, though this practice varies according to state law. Nevada allows the sale of beer, wine, liquor, and the operation of slot and video poker machines at gas stations. there is a jungle in nevada by the park This article is about the U. S. state of Nevada. ... Slot machines in the Trump Taj Mahal A slot machine is a certain type of gambling machine. ... Video poker is a casino game based on five-card draw poker. ...


Many gas stations also provide squeegees, towels, and toilet facilities for customer use, but a large number of discount gas stations do not provide these amenities. Many gas stations have air compressors with tire gauges and water machines. Some machines are free of charge, while others charge a small fee to use (usually around 50 cents). In many states of the U.S., state law requires that paying customers must be provided with free air compressor service. In most cases, a token provided by the attendant is used in lieu of coins. Squeegee, sponge, and chalk on a desk. ... Compressor has several meanings: A gas compressor is a mechanical device that takes in a gas and increases its pressure by squeezing a volume of it into a smaller volume. ... Look up Gauge in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Some gas stations are equipped with car washes. Car washes are sometimes offered free of charge or at a discounted price with a certain amount of gas purchased. Conversely, some car washes operate gas stations to supplement their businesses.


There are a number of gas stations with a fast food outlet inside, such as McDonald's, Jack in the Box, Pizza Hut, Sbarro, Taco Bell, or Wendy's. These are usually "express" versions with limited seating and limited menus, though some may be regular-sized and have spacious seating. In Canada, it is common to find a small Tim Hortons outlet inside gas stations. McDonalds Corporation (NYSE: MCD) is the worlds largest chain of fast-food restaurants, primarily selling hamburgers, chicken, french fries, milkshakes and soft drinks. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Previous Pizza Hut logo This image is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... There is also a Swiss automobile designer, Franco Sbarro, who makes eponymous automobiles, see Sbarro (automobile) Sbarro is a U.S.-based chain of fast-food restaurants that mainly sells pizza and other Italian dishes. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wendys is an international chain of fast food restaurants founded by Dave Thomas that sells primarily hamburgers, chicken sandwiches, french fries and beverages. ... This article is about the restaurant. ...


Price at the pump

Gasoline prices in North America

Pay-at-the-pump gasoline pump in Indiana, United States during the price spike in the wake of Hurricane Katrina.
Pay-at-the-pump gasoline pump in Indiana, United States during the price spike in the wake of Hurricane Katrina.

The gasoline market in North America is very competitive. Nearly all filling stations in North America advertise their often-changing prices on large signs outside the stations. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2500x1828, 1206 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Filling station ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2500x1828, 1206 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Filling station ... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  Ranked 38th  - Total 36,418 sq mi (94,321 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 270 miles (435 km)  - % water 1. ... Lowest pressure 902 mbar (hPa; 26. ...


In the United States and Canada, federal, state/provincial and local sales taxes are usually included in the price, although Petro Canada has started to provide a complete tax breakdown on purchase receipts. Gas taxes are often intended to fund transportation projects such as the maintenance of existing roads and construction of new ones. Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        A tax is a financial charge or other levy imposed on... Petro-Canada (TSX: PCA, NYSE: PCZ) is a Canadian oil and gas firm. ...


In the United States, the states of California and Hawaii typically have the highest gasoline prices. while the lowest prices can be found in oil producing states like Oklahoma and Texas. In Canada, prices are typically highest in the provinces of British Columbia and Quebec, and the lowest in the oil-producing province of Alberta. The provinces of Prince Edward Island (PEI), Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia have instituted gasoline price regulation. At times, PEI has had the lowest cost of gas in the country but studies have shown that this is due to the provincial sales tax not included in the price. Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,960 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) No Official Language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... Motto: Fortis et liber(Latin) Strong and free Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Official languages English (see below) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong - Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 28 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (split from Northwest Territories) (8th [Province]) Area Ranked... Motto: i lost P.E.I. again mom:well, look under the couch Capital Charlottetown Largest city Charlottetown Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Barbara Oliver Hagerman - Premier Pat Binns (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 4 - Senate seats 4 Confederation July 1, 1873 (7th) Area Ranked 13th... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Capital St. ... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Official languages English, French (the only constitutionally bilingual province in the country) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson - Premier Shawn Graham (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 10 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area...


Price regulation in Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia is intended to protect small rural gas stations from low profit margins due to low volume.


Individual gas stations in the United States do not have much control over gasoline prices. The wholesale price of gasoline is determined according to area by oil companies which supply the gasoline, and their prices are largely determined by the world markets for oil. Individual gas stations are unlikely to sell gasoline at a loss, and the margin—typically between 7 and 11 cents a gallon—that they make from gasoline sales is limited by the fact that the market is highly competitive. A gas station which charges significantly more than the wholesale price will lose customers to other gas stations. Because of this, most gas stations sell higher-margin food products inside their convenience stores. Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... The term margin has many meanings: In telecommunication, margin has the following meanings: In communications systems, the maximum degree of signal distortion that can be tolerated without affecting the restitution, without its being interpreted incorrectly by the decision circuit. ... A convenience store is a small store or shop, generally accessible or local. ...


During holiday weekends, when American road travel is at its peak, gas prices tend to soar and then drop again as the holidays come to a close; this is due to a fluctuation in demand. Boycotts against individual gas stations to protest against perceived high gas prices have largely failed. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Even with oil market fluctuations, prices for gasoline in the United States are among the lowest in the industrialized world; this is principally due to a difference in taxes. While the price of gasoline in Europe is more than twice that in the United States, the price of gas excluding taxes is nearly identical in the two areas. Some Canadians and Mexicans, close to the U.S. border, drive into the United States to purchase cheaper gasoline at gas stations in border communities.


Due the heavy fluctuations of gas price in the United States of America, some gas stations offered their customers the option to buy and store gas for future uses, such as like the service provided by First Fuel Bank.


In order to save money, some consumers in the United States and Canada inform each other about low and high prices through the use of gasoline price websites. Such websites allow users to share prices advertised at filling stations with each other by posting them to a central server. Consumers then may check the prices listed in their geographic area in order to select the station with the lowest price available at the time. There exist a number of websites that provide current gasoline (petrol) price information for different filling stations. ...


Petrol prices in Europe

Old gas pumps from the former Soviet Union
Old gas pumps from the former Soviet Union

In European Union (EU) member states, gas prices are much higher than in North America due to higher fuel excise or taxation, although the base price is also higher than in the U.S. The high fuel prices are unpopular (particularly after inflationary or retail increases), and have led to harsh criticism of taxation policy from some quarters. Occasionally there are national protests, although in the UK a large-scale protest in the summer of 2000, known as 'The Fuel Crisis', caused wide-scale havoc not only across the UK, but also in some other EU countries. The British government eventually backed down by indefinitely postponing a planned increase in fuel duty. This was partially reversed during December 2006 when Gordon Brown (UK Chancellor of the Exchequer) raised the fuel duty by 1.25 pence per litre. It is also planned that he will increase UK fuel duty further in March 2007. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (952x721, 224 KB)Old gas pumps from Soviet Union File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (952x721, 224 KB)Old gas pumps from Soviet Union File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The term UK fuel protest refers to a series of protests held in the United Kingdom over the cost of petrol. ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ...


Petrol prices elsewhere

In other energy-importing countries like Japan, petrol costs are higher than in the United States because of fuel transportation costs or taxes. On the other hand, some of the major oil-producing countries such as the Gulf States, Iran, Iraq, and Venezuela provide subsidized petrol at well below market prices. This practice tends to encourage heavy consumption. Hong Kong has some of the highest pump prices in the world, but most customers are given significant discounts as card members.


Service stations

U.S. service station (1950s)
U.S. service station (1950s)

In the U.S., a filling station that also offers services such as oil changes and mechanical repairs to automobiles is called a service station. Until the 1970s, the vast majority of gas stations were service stations; now only a minority are. This kind of business provided the name for the U.S. comic strip Gasoline Alley, where a number of the characters worked. Download high resolution version (1247x701, 65 KB)Service station Photograph by Bruce Robinson. ... Download high resolution version (1247x701, 65 KB)Service station Photograph by Bruce Robinson. ... Gasoline Alley is a comic strip created by Frank King that was first published on 24 November 1918. ...


In the UK, a 'service station' refers to much larger facilities, usually attached to motorways (see Motorway service area (UK)) or major trunk routes, which provide food outlets, large parking areas, and often other services such as hotels, arcade games, and shops in addition to 24-hour fuel supplies and a higher standard of restrooms (UK: toilets). Fuel is typically more expensive from these outlets due to their premium locations. UK service stations do not usually repair automobiles. A motorway service area (MSA), motorway service station or simply motorway services, is a place where drivers can leave a motorway to refuel, rest, or take refreshments. ...


In New Zealand, a filling station is often referred to as a service station, garage, or petrol station, even though the filling station may not offer mechanical repairs or assistance with dispensing fuel. Various levels of services are available in New Zealand, including full service, for which assistance in dispensing fuel is offered, as well as offers to check tyre pressure or clean vehicle windscreens. This type of service is becoming uncommon in New Zealand. There is also help service or assisted service, for which customers must request assistance before it is given, and self service, for which no assistance is available.


In the U.S., this arrangement occurs on many toll roads and some interstate freeways and is called an oasis, service plaza, or truck stop. In many cases, these centers might have a food court or cafeteria. In the U.S., Flying J and TA TravelCenters of America are two of the most common full-service chains.[citation needed] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Belvidere Oasis A highway oasis is a type of service plaza that is found along interstate highways that are toll roads. ... A truck stop is a commercial facility that provides fuel, parking and usually food and other services to long-haul trucks. ... One of a number of cafeterias at Electronic City campus, Infosys Technologies Ltd. ...


Often, the state government maintains public rest areas directly connected to freeways, but does not rent out space to private businesses. As a result, such areas often provide only minimal services such as restrooms and vending machines. Rest stop redirects here. ...


In turn, private entrepreneurs develop additional facilities like restaurants, gas stations, and motels in clusters on private land adjacent to major interchanges. Because these facilities are not directly connected to the freeway, they usually have huge signs on poles several hundred feet high. This way, travelers will be able to spot them several minutes in advance and exit accordingly. Sometimes, the state will also post small official signs (normally blue) indicating what types of gas stations, restaurants, and/or hotels are available at an upcoming exit; businesses may add their logos to these signs for a fee.


Octane

Main article: Octane rating

In the United States, all motor vehicle gasoline is unleaded and is available in several grades, which are differentiated by octane rating: 87 (Regular), 89 (Mid-Grade), and 93 (Premium) are typical grades[2]. Minimum octane levels are often lower in the Mountain States, where regular unleaded can be rated as low as 85 octane. This does not cite any references or sources. ... Tetra-ethyl lead (also known as TEL, lead tetraethyl and tetraethyllead) is a toxic organometallic chemical compound, with formula (CH3CH2)4Pb, which was once used as a gasoline (petrol) additive. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Fuels in the U.S. are described in terms of their "pump octane", which is the average of their "RON" (Research Octane Number) and "MON" (Motor Octane Number). Labels on gasoline pumps in the U.S. typically describe this as the "(R+M)/2 Method".


Some nations describe fuels according to the traditional RON or MON ratings, so octane ratings cannot always be compared with the equivalent U.S. rating by the "(R+M)/2 method".


In Europe, petrol is unleaded and available in 95 (Eurosuper) and 98 (Super Plus) octanes; in some countries, 91 octane petrol is offered as well. Some stations offer 98 RON with lead substitute. In the UK, leaded 99/100 RON petrol has been reintroduced (legally) on a very limited basis for use by classic car enthusiasts and racers by the independent oil company Bayford Thrust (also the UK licensees of the famous Gulf Oil brand). A special 102-octane fuel (BP Ultimate 102) is available in the UK at a limited number of stations, for racers and car enthusiasts. Gulf Oil was a major global oil company from the 1900s to the 1980s. ...


In Australia, petrol is unleaded, and available in 91, 95, 98 and 100 Octanes (names of various petrols differ from brand to brand), fuel additives for use in leaded cars are available at most petrol stations.


In New Zealand, gasoline is most commonly available in unleaded 91 and 95 octane levels. 98 octane is also available, and branded as Ultimate at BP service stations, and as Synergy 8000 at Mobil service stations. 96 octane was abolished in 2006.


Differences in fuel dispensers

Main article: Gas pump

In Europe, the customer selects one of several color-coded nozzles depending on the type of fuel required. The filler pipe of unleaded fuel is smaller than the one for leaded (substitute) ones. The tank filler opening has a corresponding diameter. This is to prevent filling the tank with the wrong fuel. Leaded fuel damages the catalytic converter. In some European countries, leaded fuel is no longer generally available, or LRP (lead replacement petrol) may be the only such fuel available. A gas pump is a machine at a gas station that is used to put gasoline in vehicles. ... Catalytic converter on a Saab 9-5. ...


In most stations in the USA and Canada, the pump usually has a single nozzle and the customer selects the desired octane grade by pushing a button. Some pumps require the customer to pick up the nozzle first, then lift a lever underneath it. Others are designed so that lifting the nozzle automatically releases a switch. Some older stations still have separate nozzles for different types of fuel. Where diesel fuel is provided, it is usually dispensed from a separate nozzle even if the various grades of gasoline share the same nozzle.


European motorists occasionally pump gasoline into a diesel car by accident. The converse is almost impossible because diesel pumps have a large nozzle (15/16 inches) which does not fit the (13/16 inches) filler, and diesel in a petrol engine — while creating large amounts of smoke — does not normally cause permanent damage if it is drained once the mistake is realised. Even a gallon of petrol added to the tank of a modern diesel car can cause irreversible damage to the injection pump and other components through a lack of lubrication. In some cases the car has to be scrapped because the cost of repairs exceeds its value. The issue is not clear-cut as older diesels using completely mechanical injection can tolerate some gasoline — which has historically been used to "thin" diesel fuel in winter.


Risk of accidental ignition

A "No Smoking" sign at a gas station by order of the state Fire marshal.
A "No Smoking" sign at a gas station by order of the state Fire marshal.

It is prohibited to use open flames and, in some places, mobile phones on the forecourt of a gas station because of the risk of igniting gasoline vapor. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1944x2592, 1616 KB) Summary A picture I took to fulfill an image request for the Fire Marshall page. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1944x2592, 1616 KB) Summary A picture I took to fulfill an image request for the Fire Marshall page. ... No Smoking sign. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Flame generated by the burning of a candle. ... Vapor (US English) or vapour (British English) is the gaseous state of matter. ...


Automobiles can build up static charges by driving on dry pavements. However tire compounds contain enough carbon black to provide an electrical ground and thus are safer. A driver who does not discharge static by contacting a conductive part of the automobile will carry it to the insulated handle of the nozzle and the static potential will eventually be discharged when this purposely grounded arrangement is put into contact with the metallic filler neck of the vehicle. Ordinarily, vapor concentrations in the area of this filling operation are below the lower explosive limit (LEL) of the product being dispensed, so the static discharge causes no problem. The problem with ungrounded gas cans results from a combination of vehicular static charge, the potential between the container and the vehicle, and the loose fit between the grounded nozzle and the gas can. This last condition causes a rich vapor concentration in the ullage (the unfilled volume) of the gas can, and a discharge from the can to the grounded hanging hardware (the nozzle, hose, swivels and break-a-ways) can thus occur at a most inopportune point. Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interactions. ... Carbon black is a material, today usually produced by the incomplete combustion of petroleum products. ... Ground symbols The term ground or earth usually means a common return path in electrical circuits. ... The explosive limit of a gas or a vapour, is the limiting concentration (in air) that is needed for the gas to ignite and explode. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Although urban legends persist that a faulty mobile phone can cause sparks or a build-up of static electricity in the user, this has not been duplicated under any controlled condition. Nevertheless, super-cautious mobile phone manufacturers and gas stations ask users to switch off their phones. One suggested origin of this myth is that the scare was started by gas station companies themselves because with some older model fuel pumps the cell phone signal would interfere with the fuel counter causing it to give a lower reading, and thus users could get some gas for free. One is more likely to get a spark from wearing nylon clothing than from a mobile phone, to say nothing of the sparks that can occur in faulty car wiring or troubled starting and ignition systems. Fortunately, most fueling is done in the open air, and there is not often an explosive concentration of vapors present. An episode of the popular television show MythBusters recently debunked the myth that static electricity from a cellular phone is sufficient to ignite nearby gasoline vapors.[3] An urban legend or urban myth is similar to a modern folklore consisting of stories often thought to be factual by those circulating them. ... MythBusters is a U.S. popular science television program on the Discovery Channel starring special effects experts Adam Savage and Jamie Hyneman, who use their skills and expertise to test the validity of various rumors and urban legends in popular culture. ...


The National Fire Protection Association does most of the research and code writing to address the potential for explosions of gasoline vapor. The customer fueling area, up to 18 inches above the surface, normally does not have explosive concentrations of vapors, but may from time to time. Above this height, where most fuel filler necks are located, there is no expectation of an explosive concentration of gasoline vapor in normal operating conditions. The National Fire Protection Association (established 1896) is an independent, voluntary-membership, nonprofit (tax-exempt) organization. ...


See also

This charger charges the battery until it reaches a specific voltage and then it trickle charges the battery until it is removed. ... For articles on specific fuels used in vehicles, see Biogas, Bioethanol, Biobutanol, Biodiesel, and Straight vegetable oil. ... Butanol (butyl alcohol) is a higher alcohol with a 4 carbon atom structure and a general formula of C4H10O. There are 4 different isomeric structures for butanol (refer to box). ... In some countries, filling stations sell bio-diesel more cheaply than conventional diesel. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A gas pump is a machine at a gas station that is used to put gasoline in vehicles. ... Gasoline or petrol is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting mostly of hydrocarbons and enhanced with benzene or iso-octane to increase octane ratings, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... The Belvidere Oasis A highway oasis is a type of service plaza that is found along interstate highways that are toll roads. ... A hydrogen economy is a hypothetical future economy in which energy, for mobile applications (vehicles, aircraft) and electrical grid load balancing (daily peak demand reserve), is stored as hydrogen (H2). ... A hydrogen station is a storage or filling station for hydrogen, usually located along a road or highway, or at home as part of the distributed generation resources concept. ... Proposed hydrogen highways are chains of hydrogen-equipped filling stations and other infrastructure which allow hydrogen powered cars to travel long distances. ... Sequel, a fuel cell-powered vehicle from General Motors A Hydrogen vehicle is a vehicle, such as an automobile, aircraft, or any other kind of vehicle that uses hydrogen as its primary source of power for locomotion. ... This is a list of automotive fuel brands (petrol or gasoline, diesel, etc. ... Countries producing oil This is a list of states that extract crude oil from oil wells. ... OPEC Logo The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an international cartel[1][2] made up of Iraq, Indonesia, Iran, Kuwait, Libya, Angola, Algeria, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. ... Alternative propulsion is a term used frequently for power train concepts differing to the standard internal combustion engine concept used in gasoline- or diesel-fueled vehicles. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Autogas is the common name for liquified petroleum gas when it is used as a fuel in internal combustion engines in vehicles. ... Petroleum Pricing in Nova Scotia is based on the Petroleum Products Pricing Act which governs the wholesale and minimum and maximum price of gasoline and diesel price that are authorised in Nova Scotia // History In the spring of 2004, both consumers and retailers (the Independent Gasoline Retailers of Nova Scotia... Standard Oil (Esso) was a predominant integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/petroleum/data_publications/petroleum_marketing_monthly/current/pdf/enote.pdf#page=2
  • "Fill ’er up" : an architectural history of America’s gas stations / by Daniel I. Vieyra. Publisher: New York : Macmillan, c1979

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