FACTOID # 12: It's not the government they hate: Washington DC has the highest number of hate crimes per capita in the US.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Filesystem Hierarchy Standard

The Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS) defines the main directories and their contents in Linux and other Unix-like computer operating systems. Linux (IPA pronunciation: ) is a Unix-like computer operating system. ... Diagram of the relationships between several Unix-like systems A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ... It has been suggested that Maintenance OS be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents

Overview

The process of developing a standard filesystem hierarchy began in August 1993 with an effort to restructure the file and directory structure of Linux. The FSSTND (Filesystem Standard), a filesystem hierarchy standard specific to the Linux operating system, was released on February 14, 1994. Subsequent revisions were released on October 9, 1994 and March 28, 1995. See Filing system for this term as it is used in libraries and offices In computing, a file system is a method for storing and organizing computer files and the data they contain to make it easy to find and access them. ... Linux (IPA pronunciation: ) is a Unix-like computer operating system. ... It has been suggested that Maintenance OS be merged into this article or section. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...


In early 1996, the goal of developing a more comprehensive version of FSSTND to address not only Linux, but other Unix-like systems was adopted with the help of members of the BSD development community. As a result, a concerted effort was made to focus on issues that were general to Unix-like systems. In recognition of this widening of scope, the name of the standard was changed to Filesystem Hierarchy Standard, or FHS for short. Diagram of the relationships between several Unix-like systems A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ... BSD redirects here; for other uses see BSD (disambiguation). ...


The FHS is maintained by the Free Standards Group, a non-profit organization consisting of major software and hardware vendors, such as HP, Red Hat, IBM and Dell. Still, the vast majority of the Linux distributions, including those developed by members of the Free Standards Group, do not follow this proposed standard. In particular, paths specifically created by the FHS editors, such as /srv/, do not see widespread usage. Some Unix and Linux systems reject the FHS in favor of a different approach, as in GoboLinux. Mac OS X also uses names such as /Library/, /Applications/, and /Users/ in tandem with an FHS-like system. The Free Standards Group is an industry non-profit consortium that primarily specifies and drives the adoption of the open source standards. ... HP may refer to: Handley Page Aircraft Company Harry Potter, a series of fantasy novels by British writer J. K. Rowling Hello! Project (H!P), a Japanese pop recording project Hewlett-Packard, a computer and computer peripheral company High Point, North Carolina High potency, a term used in biology, pharmacology... Red Hat, Inc. ... IBM redirects here. ... Dell Inc. ... A Linux distribution, often simply distribution or distro, is a member of the Linux family of Unix-like operating systems comprising the Linux kernel, the non-kernel parts of the GNU operating system, and assorted other software. ... GoboLinux is an alternative Linux distribution. ... Mac OS X (IPA: ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ...


Directory structure

In the FHS all files and directories appear under the root directory "/", even if they are stored on different physical devices. Note however that some of these directories may or may not be present on a Unix system depending on whether certain subsystems, such as the X Window System, are installed. In computing, a directory, catalog, or folder, is an entity in a file system which can contain a group of files and/or other directories. ... In computer file systems, the root directory is the first or top-most directory in a hierarchy. ... GNOME 2. ...

Directory Description
/ Primary hierarchy root and root directory of the entire file system hierarchy.
/bin/ Essential command binaries that need to be available in single user mode; for all users (e.g., cat, ls, cp).
/boot/ Boot loader files (e.g., kernels, initrd). Often a separate partition.
/dev/ Essential devices (e.g., /dev/null).
/etc/ Host-specific system-wide configuration files (the name comes from et cetera).
/etc/opt/
Configuration files for /opt/.
/etc/X11/
Configuration files for the X Window System, version 11.
/etc/sgml/
Configuration files for SGML.
/etc/xml/
Configuration files for XML.
/home/ Users' home directories - containing saved files, personal settings etc. Often a separate partition.
/lib/ Libraries essential for the binaries in /bin/ and /sbin/.
/media/ Mount points for removable media such as CD-ROMs (appeared in FHS-2.3).
/mnt/ Temporarily mounted filesystems.
/opt/ Optional application software packages.
/proc/ Virtual filesystem documenting kernel and process status as text files (e.g., uptime, network).
/root/ Home directory for the root user.
/sbin/ Essential system binaries (e.g., init, route, ifup).
/srv/ Site-specific data which is served by the system.
/tmp/ Temporary files (see also /var/tmp).
/usr/ Secondary hierarchy for unix system ressources; contains the majority of (multi-)user utilities and applications.[1]
/usr/bin/
Non-essential command binaries (not needed in single user mode); for all users.
/usr/include/
Standard include files.
/usr/lib/
Libraries for the binaries in /usr/bin/ and /usr/sbin/.
/usr/sbin/
Non-essential system binaries (e.g. daemons for various network-services).
/usr/share/
Architecture-independent (shared) data.
/usr/src/
Source code (e.g. the kernel source code with its header files).
/usr/X11R6/
X Window System, Version 11 Release 6.
/usr/local/
Tertiary hierarchy for local data, specific to this host. Typically has further subfolders, eg. bin/, lib/, share/.[2]
/var/ Variable files, such as logs, spool files, and temporary e-mail files.
/var/lock/
Lock files. Files keeping track of resources currently in use.
/var/log/
Log files. Various logs.
/var/mail/
Users' mail-boxes.
/var/run/
Information about the running system since last boot (e.g. currently logged-in users and running daemons).
/var/spool/
Spool for tasks waiting to be processed (e.g. print queues and unread mail).
/var/spool/mail/
Deprecated location for users' mail-boxes.
/var/tmp/
Temporary files to be preserved between reboots.

In computer file systems, the root directory is the first or top-most directory in a hierarchy. ... An executable or executable file, in computer science, is a file whose contents are meant to be interpreted as a program by a computer. ... Single user mode is a mode in which a multiuser computer operating system boots into a single superuser. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... For other uses, see LS. ls is a command specified by POSIX and the Single UNIX Specification, and is thus implemented in Unix and Unix-like operating systems. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... In computing, booting is a bootstrapping process that starts operating systems when the user turns on a computer system. ... A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer. ... The initial ramdisk, or initrd is a temporary file system used by the Linux kernel during boot. ... A device file or special file is an interface for a device driver that appears in a file system as if it were an ordinary file. ... In Unix-like operating systems, /dev/null or the null device is a special file that discards all data written to it, and provides no data to any process that reads from it. ... In computing, configuration files, or config files, are used to configure the initial settings for some computer programs. ... GNOME 2. ... The Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) is a metalanguage in which one can define markup languages for documents. ... The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ... On Unix systems, a home directory (sometimes called a home folder) is a path on the local file system where a users personal files are stored. ... Illustration of an application which may use libvorbisfile. ... Computer files can be divided into two broad categories: binary and text. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... Mounting, in computer science, is the process of making a file system ready for use by the operating system, typically by reading certain index data structures from storage into memory ahead of time. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... A software package is a bundle of one or several files that either are necessary for the execution of a computer program, or add features for a program already installed on the computer or network of computers. ... See Filing system for this term as it is used in libraries and offices In computing, a file system is a method for storing and organizing computer files and the data they contain to make it easy to find and access them. ... In computer science, the kernel is the fundamental part of an operating system. ... In computing, a process is an instance of a computer program that is being executed. ... On Unix systems, a home directory (sometimes called a home folder) is a path on the local file system where a users personal files are stored. ... On many computer operating systems, superuser, or root, is the term used for the special user account that is controlled by the system administrator. ... For other uses, see Data (disambiguation). ... Multi-user is a term that defines an operating system that allows concurrent access by multiple users of a computer. ... An executable or executable file, in computer science, is a file whose contents are meant to be interpreted as a program by a computer. ... Single user mode is a mode in which a multiuser computer operating system boots into a single superuser. ... In computer programming, particularly in the C and C++ programming languages, a header file or include file is a file, usually in the form of source code, that is automatically included in another source file by the compiler. ... Illustration of an application which may use libvorbisfile. ... Computer files can be divided into two broad categories: binary and text. ... In Unix and other computer multitasking operating systems, a daemon is a computer program that runs in the background, rather than under the direct control of a user; they are usually instantiated as processes. ... Network services are the foundation of a networked computing environment. ... Source code (commonly just source or code) is any series of statements written in some human-readable computer programming language. ... GNOME 2. ... The term Daemon has several meanings: Daemon (computer software) Daemon (His Dark Materials) in the Philip Pullman trilogy of novels His Dark Materials Daemon (mythology) Daemon (Warhammer) Daemon Sadi (SaDiablo) is a character in the Black Jewels Trilogy by Anne Bishop. ... In computer science, spooling refers to putting jobs in a buffer, a special area in memory, or on a disk where a device can access them when it is ready. ... In computer software standards and documentation, deprecation is the gradual phasing-out of a software or programming language feature. ...

See also

The Linux Standard Base, or LSB, is a joint project by several GNU/Linux distributions under the organizational structure of The Free Standards Group to standardize the internal structure of Linux-based operating systems. ... GoboLinux is an alternative Linux distribution. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Should be shareable and read-only, cf. http://www.openaddict.com/documents/Linux-Filesystem-Hierarchy/usr.html.
  2. ^ Historically and strictly according to the standard, /usr/local/ is for data that must be stored on the local host (as opposed to /usr/, which may be mounted across a network. In real world use however, /usr/ is rarely remotely mounted, and /usr/local/ is more often used for installing software/data that is not part of the standard operating system distribution (in such case, /usr/ would only contain software/data that is part of the standard operating system distribution). It is possible that the FHS standard may in the future be changed to reflect this de-facto convention.

External links

  • Fortune Cookies through the /proc Filesystem

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m