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Encyclopedia > File sharing
See Shared resource for the conventional meaning of file sharing

File sharing is the practice of making files available for other users to download over the Internet and smaller networks. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Shortcut: WP:WIN Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia and, as a means to that end, also an online community. ... In computing, a shared resource is a device or piece of information on a computer that is accessed from another computer via a network, as if it were a local resource. ... This article is about computer files and file systems in general terms. ... A computer network is an interconnection of a group of computers. ...


This can be done in any number of ways; in corporate networks it is done using file servers, but on the wider Internet it more usually follows the peer-to-peer (P2P) model, where the files are stored on and served by personal computers of the users. Most people who engage in file sharing on the Internet both provide (upload) files and receive files (download). A peer-to-peer (or P2P) computer network is a network that relies on the computing power and bandwidth of the participants in the network rather than concentrating it in a relatively few servers. ...


P2P file sharing is distinct from file trading in that downloading files from a P2P network does not require uploading, although some networks either provide incentives for uploading such as credits or forcing the sharing of files being currently downloaded.

Contents

The first P2P-generation: Server-client

The first generation of peer-to-peer file sharing networks had a centralized file list. In the centralized peer-to-peer model, a user would send a search to the centralized server of what they were looking for. The server then sends back a list of peers that have the data and facilitates the connection and download.


The first file-sharing programs marked themselves by inquiries to a server, either the data to the download held ready or in appropriate different Peers and so-called Nodes further-obtained, so that one could download there. Two examples were Napster (today using a pay system) and eDonkey2000 in the server version (today likewise with Overnet and KAD - network decentralized). A peer-to-peer (or P2P) computer network is a network that relies on the computing power and bandwidth of the participants in the network rather than concentrating it in a relatively few servers. ... Node(Latin nodus ‘knot’) is critical element of any computer network. ... Napster was a file sharing service that paved the way for decentralized P2P file-sharing programs such as Kazaa, Limewire, iMesh, Morpheus, and BearShare, which are now used for many of the same reasons and can download music, pictures, and other files. ... eDonkey2000 was a peer-to-peer file sharing application developed by MetaMachine, using the Multisource File Transfer Protocol. ... Overnet is a decentralized peer-to-peer computer network, usually used for sharing large files (e. ... Kademlia is a distributed hash table for decentralized peer to peer computer networks designed by Petar Maymounkov and David Mazières. ...


Web-based sharing

Webhosting is also used for file sharing, since it makes it possible to exchange privately. In small communities popular files can be distributed very quickly and efficiently. Web hosters are independent of each other; therefore contents are not distributed further. Other terms for this are one-click hosting and web-based sharing. Web hosting is a service that provides Internet users with online systems for storing information, images, video, or any content accessible via the web. ...


File Sharing On The Social Graph

Recently, Facebook opened up its API to 3rd party developers that has allowed for a new type of file-sharing service to emerge. Box.net and FreeDrive.com [1] are two examples of companies that have specific Facebook Applications that allow file sharing to be easily accomplished between friends.


Server-client-protocols

  • Audiogalaxy - Service ended in the middle of 2002.
  • Direct Connect
  • Napster - Closed in its original form in July 2001, since changed to a fee-based service.
  • Scour Exchange - The second exchange network after Napster. No longer exists.
  • Soulseek - Still popular today despite being relatively old, with more than 120,000 users online at any time.
  • TinyP2P - 15 lines Python - SOURCE code
  • WinMX - The original Frontcode servers were switched off in September 2005, but alternate servers can be used by installing MXPie Patch. MXPie Patch and WinMX can be downloaded at MXPie.info. A support forum is also available for WinMX questions.

Audiogalaxy Satellite 0. ... Direct connect is a peer-to-peer file-sharing protocol. ... Napster was a file sharing service that paved the way for decentralized P2P file-sharing programs such as Kazaa, Limewire, iMesh, Morpheus, and BearShare, which are now used for many of the same reasons and can download music, pictures, and other files. ... Scour Inc. ... Soulseek is a file-sharing (also called Peer to Peer or P2P) application and network used mostly to exchange music, although users are able to share a variety of files. ... Python is a high-level programming language first released by Guido van Rossum in 1991. ... WinMX is a freeware peer-to-peer file sharing program authored by Frontcode Technologies that runs on Microsoft Windows operating systems, created in 2001. ... 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Deaths in September September 28 : Constance Baker Motley September 25 : M. Scott Peck September 25 : Don Adams September 20 : Simon Wiesenthal September 14 : Robert Wise September 10 : Hermann Bondi September 8 : Donald Horne September 7 : Moussa Arafat...

The second P2P-Generation: Decentralization

After Napster encountered legal troubles, Justin Frankel of Nullsoft set out to create a network without a central index server, and Gnutella was the result. Unfortunately, the Gnutella model of all nodes being equal quickly died from bottlenecks as the network grew from incoming Napster refugees. FastTrack solved this problem by having some nodes be 'more equal than others'. Justin Frankel is an American computer programmer best known for his work on the Winamp media player application and for inventing the Gnutella peer-to-peer system. ... FastTrack is a peer-to-peer protocol, used by the Kazaa (and variants, Grokster and iMesh) file sharing programs. ...


By electing some higher-capacity nodes to be indexing nodes, with lower capacity nodes branching off from them, FastTrack allowed for a network that could scale to a much larger size. Gnutella quickly adopted this model, and most current peer-to-peer networks implement this design, as it allows for large and efficient networks without central servers.


Also included in the second generation are distributed hash tables (DHTs), which help solve the scalability problem by electing various nodes to index certain hashes (which are used to identify files), allowing for fast and efficient searching for any instances of a file on the network. This is not without drawbacks; perhaps most significantly, DHTs do not directly support keyword searching (as opposed to exact-match searching). Distributed hash tables (DHTs) are a class of decentralized distributed systems that provide a lookup service similar to a hash table: (name, value) pairs are stored in the DHT, and any participating node can efficiently retrieve the value associated with a given name. ...


The best examples are Gnutella, Kazaa or eMule with Kademlia, whereby Kazaa has still a central server for logging in. eDonkey2000/Overnet, Gnutella, FastTrack and Ares Galaxy have summed up approx. 10.3 million users (as of April 2006, according to slyck.com). This number does not necessarily correspond to the actual number of persons who use these networks; it must be assumed that some use multiple clients for different networks. Gnutella (pronounced: with a silent g, or alternatively ) is a file sharing network. ... Kazaa Media Desktop (once capitalized as KaZaA, but now usually left as Kazaa) is a peer-to-peer file sharing application using the FastTrack protocol. ... eMule is a peer-to-peer file sharing application for Microsoft Windows. ... Kademlia is a distributed hash table for decentralized peer to peer computer networks designed by Petar Maymounkov and David Mazières. ... eDonkey2000 was a peer-to-peer file sharing application developed by MetaMachine, using the Multisource File Transfer Protocol. ... Overnet is a decentralized peer-to-peer computer network, usually used for sharing large files (e. ... FastTrack is a peer-to-peer protocol, used by the Kazaa (and variants, Grokster and iMesh) file sharing programs. ... Ares Galaxy is a peer-to-peer file sharing program. ...


Multi-Network-Clients

See Multi-network applications

Further networks or clients A peer-to-peer (or P2P) computer network is a network that relies on the computing power and bandwidth of the participants in the network rather than concentrating it in a relatively few servers. ...

See other networks

A peer-to-peer (or P2P) computer network is a network that relies on the computing power and bandwidth of the participants in the network rather than concentrating it in a relatively few servers. ...

The third P2P-Generation: indirect and encrypted

Main article: Anonymous P2P

The third generation of peer-to-peer networks are those that have anonymity features built in. Examples of anonymous networks are ANts P2P, RShare, Freenet, I2P, GNUnet and Entropy. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... An anonymous P2P computer network is a particular type of peer-to-peer network in which the users and their nodes are pseudonymous by default. ... Anonymous redirects here. ... ANts P2P is an anonymous peer-to-peer open source file sharing software written in Java. ... RShare 0. ... For other uses, see Freenet (disambiguation) Freenet is a decentralized censorship-resistant peer-to-peer distributed data store aiming to provide electronic freedom of speech through strong anonymity. ... I2P (originally short for Invisible Internet Project,[1] though it is not commonly referred to by this name anymore) is a free and open source project building an anonymous network (or, more accurately, a pseudonymous overlay network). ... GNUnet is a framework for decentralized, peer-to-peer networking. ... Entropy 0. ...


A degree of anonymity is realized by routing traffic through other users' clients, which have the function of network nodes. This makes it harder for someone to identify who is downloading or who is offering files. Most of these programs also have strong encryption to resist traffic sniffing. Node(Latin nodus ‘knot’) is critical element of any computer network. ...


Friend-to-friend networks only allow already-known users (also known as "friends") to connect to the user's computer, then each node can forward requests and files anonymously between its own "friends" nodes. It has been suggested that Friend-to-friend with third party storage be merged into this article or section. ... Node(Latin nodus ‘knot’) is critical element of any computer network. ...


Third-generation networks have not reached mass usage for file sharing because most current implementations incur too much overhead in their anonymity features, making them slow or hard to use. However, in countries where very fast fiber-to-the-home Internet access is commonplace, such as Japan, a number of anonymous file-sharing clients have already reached high popularity. Fiber to the Home (FTTH) is a technology that allows Telephone, Cable TV and High Speed Internet to be accessed via one fiber cable. ...


An example might be: Petra gives a file to Oliver, then Oliver gives the file to Anna. Petra and Anna thus never become acquainted and thus are protected. Virtual IP addresses are also often used, further obfuscating the user's network location. Additionally all transfers are encrypted, so that even the network administrators cannot see what was sent to whom. Example software includes WASTE, JetiANts, Tor and I2P. These clients differ greatly in their goals and implementation. WASTE is designed only for small groups and may therefore be considered Darknet; ANts and I2P are public Peer-to-Peer systems, with anonymization provided exclusively by routing reach. Tor (The Onion Router) is a free software implementation of second-generation onion routing – a system enabling its users to communicate anonymously on the Internet. ... A Darknet is a private virtual network where users connect only to people they trust. ...


Ants network

Mute network ANts P2P is an anonymous peer-to-peer open source file sharing software written in Java. ... This article refers collectively to all true hornets. ...

I2P network Look up mute in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the NYSE stock ticker symbol KDE, see 4Kids Entertainment. ...

  • I2P
  • I2Phex - Gnutella over I2P
  • Azureus - has I2P plugin

Retroshare-Network (F2F Instant Messenger) I2P (originally short for Invisible Internet Project,[1] though it is not commonly referred to by this name anymore) is a free and open source project building an anonymous network (or, more accurately, a pseudonymous overlay network). ... I2P (originally short for Invisible Internet Project,[1] though it is not commonly referred to by this name anymore) is a free and open source project building an anonymous network (or, more accurately, a pseudonymous overlay network). ... Azureus is a Java-based BitTorrent client, with support for I2P and Tor anonymous communication protocols. ...

  • Retroshare Instant Messenger - Retroshare Chat Messenger for privacy of filesharing

other networks or clients

For other uses, see Freenet (disambiguation) Freenet is a decentralized censorship-resistant peer-to-peer distributed data store aiming to provide electronic freedom of speech through strong anonymity. ... GNUnet is a framework for decentralized, peer-to-peer networking. ... Nodezilla is an P2P network written in C++ and Java. ... The Owner Free Filing System (OFF System) is a peer-to-peer distributed file system though which all shared files are represented by randomized data blocks. ... Power Folder is an Open Source program that synchronizes files and folders over the internet or a LAN. For this program to work, it must be installed on all computers the files will be transferred between. ... ProxyShare is an encrypted anonymous Peer To Peer (P2P) network designed for achieving very high download speeds. ... RShare 0. ... Share is the name for a closed-source P2P application being developed in Japan by an anonymous author. ... Tor (The Onion Router) is a free software implementation of second-generation onion routing – a system enabling its users to communicate anonymously on the Internet. ... Winny (also known as WinNY) is a Japanese peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing program that claims to be loosely inspired by the design principles behind the Freenet network and that also claimed to keep user identities untraceable. ... Zultrax is a shareware multi-network peer-to-peer application. ...

The fourth P2P-Generation: Streams over P2P

Apart from the traditional file sharing there are services that send streams instead of files over a P2P network. Thus one can hear radio and watch television without any server involved -- the streaming media is distributed over a P2P network. It is important that instead of a treelike network structure, a swarming technology known from BitTorrent is used. Best examples are Peercast, Cybersky and demo TV. This article is about the protocol. ... PeerCast is an open source streaming media multicast tool. ...


General

Tree structure Broadcatching is the downloading of content that has been made available over the Internet using RSS syndication for listening/watching on mobile devices and personal computers. ... A podcast is a digital media file, or a series of such files, that is distributed over the Internet using syndication feeds for playback on portable media players and personal computers. ...

Swarm structure such as Bittorrent PeerCast is an open source streaming media multicast tool. ... CoolStreaming is a P2PTV (peer-to-peer television) technology that enables users to share television content with each other over the Internet. ... This article is about the protocol. ...

TVUnetworks is an Internet-based P2PTV company based in China. ... For other uses, see Joost (disambiguation). ... PPLive is a peer-to-peer streaming video network created in Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Peoples Republic of China. ... Icecast is a free streaming media project maintained by the Xiph. ... PeerCast is an open source streaming media multicast tool. ... PPStream is a Chinese peer-to-peer streaming video network software. ... MediaBlog is a software that distributes almost all kinds of streams on P2P network based on VLC player. ... Azureus, Inc. ... Vuze (formerly code-named Zudeo[1]) is both a BitTorrent client and content service by Azureus, Inc. ...

Economic impact

Given the apparently massive levels of file sharing it would be expected that incomes from copyrighted material would be plummeting. In fact, there is little evidence that this is occurring, and media distribution companies as an industry are making approximately the same levels of profits as before file sharing became popular.[citation needed]


Some researchers believe that massive copying has been occurring ever since the invention of tape cassettes and the increased economic impact of simpler access to copying provided by computer networks does not seem to have been large.[citation needed] For the meaning of cassette in genetics, see cassette (genetics). ...


Legal and copyright issues

File sharing grew in popularity with the proliferation of high-speed Internet connections, and the relatively small file size and high-quality MP3 audio format. Although file sharing is a legal technology with legal uses, many users use it to download and upload copyrighted materials without permission, which can be copyright infringement if done without authorization for improper purposes. Despite the existence of various international treaties, there are still sufficient variations between countries to cause significant difficulties in the protection of intellectual property. This has led to attacks against file sharing in general from many copyright owners and litigation by industry bodies against private individual sharers. The legal issues surrounding file sharing have been the subject of debate and conferences, especially among lawyers in the entertainment industries. [2] The challenges facing copyright holders in the face of file-sharing systems are quite novel historically and have highlighted many new challenges in both theory and practice: Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... This article looks at file sharing and the law, including controversies, copyright issues, legislative regimes, and notable cases. ... The Cathach of St. ... It has been suggested that Protocol (treaty) be merged into this article or section. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ...

  • Ambiguities in the interpretation of copyright law
  • The new challenges posed by international communications and varying legislations
  • Mass litigation and the development of processes for evidence and discovery
  • Rapidly developing new technologies and uses
  • Low barriers to entry by would-be sharers and the development of a mass usage of the technologies
  • File-sharing approaches developed in response to litigation against sharers, which obfuscate or hide the fact that sharing is happening, or the identities of those involved. For example: encryption and darknets.

Further challenges have arisen because of the need to balance self-protection against fair use. A perceived overbalance towards protection (in the form of media that cannot be backed up, cannot be played on multiple systems by the owner, or contains rootkits[1] or irksome security systems inserted by manufacturers) has led to a backlash against protection systems in some quarters. For example, the first crack of AACS was inspired by a perceived unfair restriction on owner usage.[2] In law, discovery is the pre-trial phase in a lawsuit in which each party through the law of civil procedure can request documents and other evidence from other parties or can compel the production of evidence by using a subpoena or through other discovery devices, such as requests for... Encrypt redirects here. ... A Darknet is a private virtual network where users connect only to people they trust. ... For fair use in trademark law, see Fair use (US trademark law). ... A rootkit is a general description of a set of programs which work to subvert control of an operating system from its legitimate operators. ... The Advanced Access Content System (AACS) is a standard for content distribution and digital rights management, intended to restrict access to and copying of the next generation of optical discs and DVDs. ...


Attacks on peer-to-peer networks

Many peer-to-peer networks are under constant attack by people with a variety of motives.


Examples include:

  • Poisoning attacks (e.g. providing files whose contents are different from the description, aka "spoofing")
  • Polluting attacks (e.g. inserting "bad" chunks/packets into an otherwise valid file on the network)
  • Defection attacks (users or software that make use of the network without contributing resources to it)
  • Insertion of viruses to carried data (e.g. downloaded or carried files may be infected with viruses or other malware)
  • Malware in the peer-to-peer network software itself (e.g. distributed software may contain spyware)
  • Denial of service attacks (attacks that may make the network run very slowly or break completely)
  • Filtering (network operators may attempt to prevent peer-to-peer network data from being carried)
  • Identity attacks (e.g. tracking down the users of the network and harassing or legally attacking them)
  • Spamming (e.g. sending unsolicited information across the network--not necessarily as a denial of service attack)

Malware is software designed to infiltrate or damage a computer system without the owners informed consent. ... DoS redirects here. ... A KMail folder full of spam emails collected over a few days. ...

Risks

Some file-sharing software comes bundled with malware such as spyware, viruses, adware, or otherwise privacy-invasive software. Sometimes this unwanted software remains installed on the system even if the original file-sharing software is removed, and can be very difficult to eliminate. In many cases such malware can interfere with the correct operation of web browsers, anti-virus software, anti-spyware and software firewalls; can cause degraded performance on affected systems; and in some cases may secretly compromise a user's privacy or security. Malware is typically bundled with proprietary software, and not those in open source. In most cases it is possible to remove adware and spyware by running spyware removal programs. Such programs can often remove malware without influencing the functionality of the file-sharing software. Malware is software designed to infiltrate or damage a computer system without the owners informed consent. ... A large number of toolbars, some added by spyware, overwhelm an Internet Explorer session. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... This article is about advertising-supported software. ... Privacy-invasive software is a category of software that ignores users’ right to be let alone and that is distributed with a specific intent, often of a commercial nature. ... An example of a Web browser (Mozilla Firefox) A web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, videos, music and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. ... Anti-virus software consists of computer programs that attempt to identify, thwart and eliminate computer viruses and other malicious software (malware). ... This article is about the network security device. ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ...


Some are also concerned about the use of file-sharing systems to distribute adult pornography to children, child pornography to anyone, inflammatory literature, and illegal or "unpopular" material. Novice users may find it difficult to obtain information about which networks, if any, are "safe" for them to use. With experience, users can reduce their exposure to offensive material by structuring their searches carefully. (For example, a search limited to audio file types avoids exposure to video and image files.) Morris, Alan (2003-08-22). Testimony of Mr. Alan Morris about Pornography, Technology and Process: Problems and Solutions on Peer-to-Peer Networks. United States Senate, Committee on the Judiciary, Washington, DC. Retrieved on 2006-11-20., but in fact file-sharing networks tend to be very effective at revealing unexpected content which happens to be similarly named. Porn redirects here. ... Child pornography refers to pornographic material depicting children. ... An audio file format is a file format for storing audio data on a computer system. ... Digital video is a type of video recording system that works by using a digital, rather than analog, of the video signal. ... See also Category:Graphics file formats Here is a summary of the most common graphics file formats: Some file formats, e. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

Internet Portal

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... In computing, a shared resource is a device or other resource on a computer that is accessed from another computer via a network, as if it were a local resource. ... Ethics of file sharing is a subfield of ethics specifically relating to the ethical implications of file sharing over computer networks and the Internet. ... This article presents a timeline of events in the history of file sharing. ... The table below compares general information for notable one-click hosting services used for file sharing. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... // Privacy in file sharing networks File sharing peer to peer (P2P) systems like Gnutella, KaZaA, and eDonkey/eMule, took the Internet by a storm in recent years, with estimated user population of millions. ... Comparison of BitTorrent software Comparison of eDonkey software Comparison of Gnutella software Comparison of G2 software Anonymous peer-to-peer Categories: | ... A compulsory license is a license to use a patent, copyright, or other exclusive right that a government forces the holder to grant to others. ... The Open Music Model is an economic and technological framework for the recording industry proposed in 2003, which suggests that the only viable system for distributing music online is through a DRM-free peer-to-peer file sharing system. ... FairShare is an idea for a voluntary investment-based patronage system to replace patents and copyright while still insuring that artists are fairly compensated. ... A large number of toolbars, some added by spyware, overwhelm an Internet Explorer session. ... While the music industry sues numerous people in the United States and in Europe over illegally providing songs for public download, Canada seems to have made it legal to not only download publically available copied songs, but also to place them in a shared folder and make them publically available... This article is about the protocol. ... MP3 Newswire is one of the earliest news sites focused on digital media technology. ... Warez refers primarily to copyrighted works traded in violation of copyright law. ...

References

  1. ^ See 2005 Sony BMG CD copy protection scandal.
  2. ^ By "Muslix64", written on doom9's forum. See original post and the ensuing AACS encryption key controversy.

The 2005 Sony BMG CD copy protection scandal was a public scandal dealing with Sony BMG Music Entertainments surreptitious distribution of rootkit software on audio compact discs. ... This page may meet Wikipedia’s criteria for speedy deletion. ... The AACS encryption key controversy arose in April 2007 when the Motion Picture Association of America and the Advanced Access Content System Licensing Administrator, LLC (AACS LA) began issuing Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) violation notices [1] to websites publishing a 16-byte number, represented in hexadecimal as 09 F9...

Further reading

Shuman Ghosemajumder is the co-founder and former CEO of Anadas Consulting, a Canadian software development firm. ... The MIT Sloan School of Management is one of the five schools of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. It is one of the worlds leading business schools, conducting research and teaching in finance, entrepreneurship, marketing, strategic management, economics, organizational behavior, operations management, supply chain... Harvard Business School, officially named the Harvard Business School: George F. Baker Foundation, and also known as HBS, is one of the graduate schools of Harvard University. ...

External links

  • File storage web applications at the Open Directory Project
  • ZebDisk ZebDisk is a free software, and you can store, and share your files on the internet with it using Google’s Picasa service.

  Results from FactBites:
 
File sharing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2661 words)
File sharing is the practice of making files available for other users to download over the Internet and smaller networks.
Usually file sharing follows the peer-to-peer (P2P) model, where the files are stored on and served by personal computers of the users.
File sharing first came into the public eye with the popularisation of MP3 files in the mid- to late 1990s.
file sharing - a definition from Whatis.com (492 words)
File sharing is the public or private sharing of computer data or space in a network with various levels of access privilege.
File sharing allows a number of people to use the same file or file by some combination of being able to read or view it, write to or modify it, copy it, or print it.
More usually, however, file sharing implies a system in which users write to as well as read files or in which users are allotted some amount of space for personal files on a common server, giving access to other users as they see fit.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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