FACTOID # 22: South Dakota has the highest employment ratio in America, but the lowest median earnings of full-time male employees.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > File manager

A file manager or file browser is a computer program that provides a user interface to work with file systems. They are very useful for speeding up interaction with files. The most common operations on files are create, open, edit, view, print, play, rename, move, copy, delete, attributes, properties, search/find, and permissions. A typical Windows 3. ... GUI can refer to the following: GUI is short for graphical user interface, a term used to describe a type of interface in computing. ... For the Windows 3. ... A computer program is a collection of instructions that describe a task, or set of tasks, to be carried out by a computer. ... The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ... For library and office filing systems, see Library classification. ... A file viewer is a piece of computer software that displays the data stored in a computer file in a human-friendly form. ... A computer printer, or more commonly a printer, produces a hard copy (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper transparencies. ... Streaming media is multimedia that is continuously received by, and normally displayed to, the end-user while it is being delivered by the provider. ... File copying is creation of a new file which has the same content as an existing file. ... File deletion is a way of removing a file from a computers file system. ...


Typically files are displayed in a hierarchy. File managers may contain features inspired by web browsers, including forward and back navigational buttons. A hierarchy (in Greek: , derived from — hieros, sacred, and — arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is a subordinate to a single other element. ... An example of a Web browser (Mozilla Firefox) A web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, videos, music and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. ...


Some browsers may also provide network connectivity, e.g. via FTP, NFS, SMB or WebDAV, either by allowing the user to browse for servers and connect to them and then accessing the file system from the server the same way it accesses local file systems, or by providing its own full client implementations for file server protocols. Computer networks may be classified according to the network layer at which they operate according to some basic reference models that are considered to be standards in the industry such as the seven layer OSI reference model and the four layer Internet Protocol Suite model. ... This article is about the File Transfer Protocol standardised by the IETF. For other file transfer protocols, see File transfer protocol (disambiguation). ... Network File System (NFS) is a network file system protocol originally developed by Sun Microsystems in 1984, allowing a user on a client computer to access files over a network as easily as if the network devices were attached to its local disks. ... Server Message Block (SMB) is an application-level network protocol mainly applied to shared access to files, printers, serial ports, and miscellaneous communications between nodes on a network. ... WebDAV was a working group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). ...


Some file managers also provide the ability to extend operations using user written scripts. This is a typical feature of Orthodox file managers (see below).

Contents

Orthodox file managers

Orthodox file managers or "Commander-like" file managers have three windows (two panels and one command line window).


They are one of the older families of file managers. They develop and further extend the interface introduced by John Socha's famous Norton Commander for DOS. That concept is more than twenty years old as Norton Commander version 1.0 was released in 1986. Despite their age they are actively developed and dozens of implementations exist for DOS, Unix and Microsoft Windows. A public standard (version 1.2 dated June 1997) is available from Nikolai Bezroukov's website.[1] John Socha-Leialoha is software developer most recognized for creating Norton Commander, a very popular file managing tool for DOS. John grew up in the woods of Wisconsin, earned a PhD degree in Electrical Engineering from University of Wisconsin, and his PhD in Applied Physics from Cornell University. ... Norton Commander (commonly shortened to NC) is an Orthodox File Manager (OFM) program, written by John Socha and released by Peter Norton Computing (later acquired by the Symantec corporation). ... This article is about the family of closely related operating systems for the IBM PC compatible platform. ... This article is about the family of closely related operating systems for the IBM PC compatible platform. ...


The following features define the class of Orthodox file managers:

  • They present the user with a two-Panel directory view consisting of one active and one passive panel. The latter always serves as a target for file operations. Panels are shrinkable and if shrunk they expose the terminal window hidden behind them. Normally only the last line of the terminal window (the command line) is visible.
  • They provide close integration with an underlying OS shell via command line and associated terminal window that permits viewing the results of executing the shell command entered on the command line (e.g., via Ctrl-O shortcut in Norton Commander).
  • They provide the user with extensive keyboard shortcuts.
  • The file manager can be used without or with minimal use of the mouse.
  • Users can create their own file associations and scripts that are invoked for certain file types and organize these scripts into a hierarchical tree (e.g., as a user script library or user menu)[citation needed].
  • Users can extend the functionality of the manager via so called User menu or Start menu and extensions menu. Norton Commander introduced the concept of user-defined file associations that is now used in all modern file managers[citation needed].

Other common features include: An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

  • Information on the "active" and "passive" panels may be used for constructing commands on the command line. Examples include current file, path to left panel, path to right panel, etc.
  • They provide a built-in viewer for (at least) the most basic file types.
  • They have a built-in editor. In many cases, the editor can extract certain elements of the panels into the text being edited.
  • Many support virtual file systems (VFS) such as viewing compressed archives, or via a FTP connection.
  • They often have the word commander in the name.

An orthodox file manager typically has three windows. Two of the windows are called panels and are symmetrically positioned at the top of the screen. The third is the command line which is essentially a minimized command (shell) window that can be expanded to full screen. Only one of the panels is active at a given time. The active panel contains the "file cursor". Panels are resizable. Each panel can be hidden. Files in the active panel serve as the source of file operations performed by the manager. For example, files can be copied or moved to the passive panel. This gives the user the ability to use only the keyboard with the convenience of the mouse interface. The active panel shows information about the current working directory and the files that it contains. The passive (inactive) panel shows the content of the same or other directory (the default target for file operations). Users may customize the display of columns that show relevant file information. The active panel and passive panel can be switched (often by pressing the tab key). Other user interface elements include: A virtual file system (VFS) or virtual filesystem switch is an abstraction layer on top of a more concrete file system. ... For computer operating systems that support a hierarchial file system, the working directory is the directory path that a user or program has designated to be the directory for files referenced by name only, or by a relative path (as contrasted with using both a files name and a... This article is about the use of the term Tab in computing. ...

  1. path: shows the source/destination location of the directory in use
  2. information about directory size, disk usage and disk name (usually at the bottom of the panels)
  3. panel with information about file name, extension, date and time of creation, last modification, permissions (attributes) and other
  4. info panel with number of files in directory, sum of size of selected files..
  5. tabbed interface (usually GUI file managers)
  6. function keys: F1–F10 have all the same functions under all orthodox file managers: Example F5 always copies file(s) from active to inactive panel, while F6 moves the file.

The introduction of tabbed panels in some file managers (for example Total Commander) made it possible to manipulate more than one active and passive directory at the time. Total Commander is a shareware Orthodox File Manager (OFM) for Windows. ...


Orthodox file managers [2]) are among the most portable file managers. Examples are available on almost any platform both with command-line interface and GUI interface. This is the only type of command line managers that have a published standard of the interface (and actively supported by developers). This makes possible to do the same work on different platforms without much relearning of the interface.


Sometimes they are called dual-pane managers, a term that is typically used for applications such as the Windows File Explorer (see below). It is technically incorrect since they have three windows including a command line window below (or hidden behind) two symmetric panels. Command line windows play a very prominent role in the functionality of this type of file manager. Furthermore, most of these applications allow using just one pane with the second one hidden. Focusing on 'dual panes' may be misleading -- it is the combination of all of these features which is important.


In summary, a chief distinguishing feature is the presence of the command line window and direct access to shell via this window - not the presence of two symmetric panes which is relatively superficial[citation needed].


Examples:

  • Norton Commander
  • RIT DOS Navigator
  • Necromancer DOS Navigator
  • TotalCommander
  • FreeCommander
  • 7-ZIP file manager

7-Zip is an open source file archiver designed originally for the Microsoft Windows operating system, and later made available to other systems. ...

File-List file manager

Less well-known, but older are the so-called file-list file managers.


Examples include flist which was in use since 1981 on the Conversational Monitor System.[3][4] This is a variant of fulist which originated before late 1978 according to comments by its author Theo Alkema[5] The Conversational Monitor System (CMS) is a relatively simple interactive computing single-user operating system which was for many years IBMs principal time-sharing product. ...


The flist program provided a list of files in the user's minidisk., allowed sorting by any of the file attributes. The file attributes could be passed to scripts or function-key definitions, making it simple to use flist as part of CMS EXEC, EXEC 2 or xedit scripts. CMS EXEC, or EXEC, is an interpreted, command procedure control, computer programming language used by the CMS EXEC Processor supplied with the IBM Virtual Machine/Conversational Monitor System (VM/CMS) operating system. ... EXEC 2 is an interpreted, command procedure control, computer programming language used by the EXEC 2 Processor supplied with the IBM Virtual Machine/Conversational Monitor System (VM/CMS) operating system. ... A visual editor for VM/CMS using block mode IBM 3270 terminals. ...


This program ran only on IBM VM/SP CMS, but was the inspiration for other programs, for example filelist[6][7][8] (a script run via the Xedit editor), as well as applications running on other operating systems. These include an application also called flist running on OpenVMS[9] and fulist (from the name of the corresponding internal IBM program[10]) on Unix.[11] A visual editor for VM/CMS using block mode IBM 3270 terminals. ... OpenVMS[1] (Open Virtual Memory System or just VMS) is the name of a high-end computer server operating system that runs on the VAX[2] and Alpha[3] family of computers developed by Digital Equipment Corporation of Maynard, Massachusetts (DIGITAL was then purchased by Compaq, and is now owned...


Directory editors

While this category is known as file managers, an older term is directory editor, which dates back at least to 1978. There was a directory editor written for EXEC 8 at the University of Maryland, available to other users at that time. The term was used by other developers, e.g., the dired program written by Jay Lepreau in 1980[12], which ran on BSD, which was in turn inspired by an older program with the same name running on TOPS-20. Dired inspired other programs, e.g., dired the editor script (for emacs and similar editors) as well as ded[13] EXEC 8 (sometimes referred to as EXEC VIII) was UNIVACs operating system developed for the UNIVAC 1108 in 1964. ... BSD redirects here; for other uses see BSD (disambiguation). ... The TOPS-20 operating system by DEC was the second proprietary OS for the PDP-10. ... Dired is the name of an advanced directory editor for the Emacs text editor, which runs on any platform Emacs will. ... This article is about the text editor. ...


Navigational file manager

A navigational file manager is a newer type of file managers which became prominent due to the popularity of Microsoft Windows. It uses a "navigational" metaphor to represent filesystem locations and also often called "Explorer" type of file managers the Windows Explorer is a classic representative of the type. Since the advent of GUI it became the dominant type of file managers for desktop computers, being used, for example, in all Microsoft Windows products. Windows Explorer running on Windows Vista Windows Explorer running on Windows XP Windows Explorer is an application that is part of modern versions of the Microsoft Windows operating system that provides a graphical user interface for accessing the file systems. ... “Windows” redirects here. ...


Typically it has two panes, one with the current directory and one with the filesystem tree. For Mac OS X, the Finder is an example of a navigational file manager. The Finder is the default application program used on the Mac OS and Mac OS X operating systems that is responsible for the overall user-management of files, disks, network volumes and the launching of other applications. ...


Concepts

  • The window displays the location currently being viewed.
  • The location being viewed (the current directory) can be changed by the user, by opening folders, pressing a back button, typing a location, or using additional pane with the navigation tree representing part or all the filesystem.
  • Icons represent files, applications, and directories.

The interface in a navigational file manager often resembles a web browser, complete with back, forward buttons that work with history, and maybe even reload buttons. Sometimes there is also an address bar where URL for file or directory can be typed. An example of a graphical user interface in Windows XP, with the My Music window displayed In computing, a window is a visual area, usually rectangular in shape, containing some kind of user interface, displaying the output of and allowing input for one of a number of simultaneously running computer... An example of a Web browser (Mozilla Firefox) A web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, videos, music and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. ...


Moving from one location to another need not open a new window. At the same time several instances of manager can be opened and they can communicate with each other via drag and drop and clipboard so it is possible to view several directories simultaneously and perform cut-and paste operations between instances.


Most navigational managers have two panes with the second pane with the tree view of the filesystem. The latter serves as the most common instrument for filesystem navigation. That means that unlike orthodox managers two panes are asymmetrical: the first (usually left) provides the tree view of filesystem and the second (usually right) file view of the current directory.


When a directory of the tree is selected it becomes current and the content of the second (right) pane changes to the files in the current directory.


File operations are based on drag-and-drop as well as editor metaphor: you can select and copy files or directories into the clipboard and then paste them in a completely different place in the filesystem or even in a difference instance of file manager.


Spatial file manager

The Nautilus file manager has a spatial mode. Each of these windows displays an open folder.
The Nautilus file manager has a spatial mode. Each of these windows displays an open folder.
The Macintosh Finder is considered to be one of the first spatial file managers.

Spatial file managers are file managers that uses a spatial metaphor to represent files and folders as if they are real physical objects. A spatial file manager imitates the way people interact with the physical objects. It might have advantages in shorter learning curve, but deprives users of the ability to perform complex operations. Image File history File links Nautilus file manager in spatial mode. ... Image File history File links Nautilus file manager in spatial mode. ... Nautilus is the official file manager for the GNOME desktop. ... Screenshot of the Macintosh Finder in Mac OS 9. ... Screenshot of the Macintosh Finder in Mac OS 9. ... The Finder is the default application program used on the Mac OS and Mac OS X operating systems that is responsible for the overall user-management of files, disks, network volumes and the launching of other applications. ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... A computer file is a collection of information that is stored in a computer system and can be identified by its full path name. ... In computing, a directory, catalog, or folder, is an entity in a file system which can contain a group of files and/or other directories. ...


It is unclear to what extent using a metaphor for physical objects helps working with the tremendous number of files and folders in modern filesystems. Some ideas behind the concept of a spatial file manager are:

  1. A single window represents each opened folder.
  2. Each window is unambiguously and irrevocably tied to a particular folder.
  3. Stability: files, folders, and windows go where the user moves them, stay where the user puts them ("preserve their spatial state"), and retain all their other "physical" characteristics (such as size, shape, color and location).
  4. The same item can only be viewed in one window at a time.

As in navigational managers, when a folder is opened, the icon representing the folder changes—perhaps from an image showing a closed drawer to an opened one, perhaps the folder's icon turns into a silhouette filled with a pattern—and a new window is opened. An example of a graphical user interface in Windows XP, with the My Music window displayed In computing, a window is a visual area, usually rectangular in shape, containing some kind of user interface, displaying the output of and allowing input for one of a number of simultaneously running computer... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Examples of file managers that to some extent use a spatial metaphor include:


The spatial metaphor can seem awkward to those accustomed to browser-style file managers. Spatial managers use many windows, leading to clutter. Apple Inc. ... The Finder is the default application program used on the Mac OS and Mac OS X operating systems that is responsible for the overall user-management of files, disks, network volumes and the launching of other applications. ... Mac OS X (IPA: ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the family of home computers. ... AmigaOS is the default native operating system of the Amiga personal computer. ... This article is about the mythical creature. ... Nautilus is the official file manager for the GNOME desktop. ... BeOS is an operating system for personal computers which began development by Be Inc. ... Windows Explorer running on Windows Vista Windows Explorer running on Windows XP Windows Explorer is an application that is part of modern versions of the Microsoft Windows operating system that provides a graphical user interface for accessing the file systems. ... Windows 95 is a consumer-oriented graphical user interface-based operating system. ... Digital Research, Inc. ...


Web file managers

Other than these desktop applications there are web based file managers also. These are often used by webmasters to manage/edit the files in their web server. Webmaster or Webmistress is a commonly used term that refers to the person or persons responsible for a specific website. ...

  • phpfm

See also

The term computer file management refers to the manipulation of documents and data in files on a computer. ... The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of file managers. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Desktop_environment. ... In computing, spatial navigation is the ability to navigate between focusable elements (such as hyperlinks and form controls) within a structured document or user interface (such as HTML) according to the spatial location. ... Batch Renaming is the process of renaming multiple computer files and folders in an automated fashion, to save time and reduce the amount of work involved. ...

References

  1. ^ OFM standards.
  2. ^ Home of the OFM standard.
  3. ^ Discussion of VM/CMS FLIST showing screenshot.
  4. ^ Textual description of VM/CMS FLIST.
  5. ^ email by Theo Alkema.
  6. ^ Comment on original author of fulist.
  7. ^ Description of FILELIST.
  8. ^ User comparing FLIST to FILELIST.
  9. ^ FLIST - file manager for VAX/VMS.
  10. ^ User comparing FULIST and FLIST.
  11. ^ FULIST for Unix.
  12. ^ Abstract for dired 3.05.
  13. ^ DED - Directory Editor.

External links

  • DMOZ Category for Orthodox file managers (Windows)
  • Home of the OFM standard
  • The History of Development of Norton Commander (Softpanorama)
  • About the finder
  • Comparison of Linux file managers
  • The spatial way
  • dired - directory editor
  • CMS Manual describing flist

  Results from FactBites:
 
File Manager Support (1577 words)
The File Manager also allows you to view all of the files within your directories and subdirectories by sorting them in different orders.
File Manager does not display hidden files (i.e., files whose names begin with a period (.), such as ".htaccess").
Sometimes, it is desirable to see the listing of files sorted by the time (date) of their creation or by the size of the files, from largest to smallest.
Spatial file manager - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1028 words)
Nautilus is a file manager with a spatial mode.
In computing, a spatial file manager is a file manager that uses a spatial metaphor to represent files and folders as if they are real physical objects.
A common alternative to the spatial file manager is the navigational file manager or "browser-style" file manager.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m