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Encyclopedia > Figure of speech

A figure of speech, sometimes termed a rhetoric, or locution, is a word or phrase that departs from straightforward, literal language. Figures of speech are often used and crafted for emphasis, freshness of expression, or clarity. However, clarity may also suffer from their use. Note that all theories of meaning necessarily have a concept of "literal language" (see literal and figurative language). Under theories that do not, figure of speech is not an entirely coherent concept. Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... In linguistics, meaning is the content carried by the words or signs exchanged by people when communicating through language. ... More traditional systems for analyzing language divide linguistic expressions into two classes: literal and figurative. ... Coherence is from Latin cohaerere = stick together, to be connected with). ... For other uses, see Concept (disambiguation). ...


As an example of the figurative use of a word, consider the sentence, I am going to crown you. It may mean:

  • I am going to place a literal crown on your head.
  • I am going to symbolically exalt you to the place of kingship.
  • I am going to put a second checker piece on top of your checker piece to signify that it has become a king (as in the game of checkers).
  • I am going to punch you in the head with my clenched fist.

Scholars of classical Western rhetoric have divided figures of speech into two main categories: schemes and tropes. Schemes (from the Greek schēma, form or shape) are figures of speech in which there is a deviation from the ordinary or expected pattern of words. For example, the phrase, "John, my best friend" uses the scheme known as apposition. Tropes (from the Greek tropein, to turn) involve changing or modifying the general meaning of a term. An example of a trope is the use of irony, which is the use of words in a way that conveys a meaning opposite to its usual meaning ("For Brutus is an honorable man; / So, are they all, honorable men"). starting position on a 10×10 draughts board Draughts, also known as checkers, is a group of mental sport board games between two players which involve diagonal moves of uniform pieces and mandatory captures by jumping over the enemys pieces. ... Apposition is a figure of speech, in which two elements are placed side by side, with the second element serving to define or modify the first (ex: My wife, a nurse by training. ...


During the Renaissance, a time when scholars in every discipline had a passion for classifying all things, writers expended a great deal of energy in devising all manner of classes and sub-classes of figures of speech. Henry Peacham, for example, in his The Garden of Eloquence (1577) enumerated 184 different figures of speech: This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Henry Peacham is the name shared by two English Renaissance writers who were father and son. ...


"For the sake of simplicity, this article divides the figures between schemes and tropes, but does not attempt further sub-classification (e.g., "Figures of Disorder"). Within each category, words are listed alphabetically. Each figure links to a page that provides greater detail and relevant examples, but a short definition is placed here for convenience. Some of those listed may be considered rhetorical devices, which are similar in many ways." In linguistics, trope is a rhetorical figure of speech that consists of a play on words, i. ... In rhetoric, a rhetorical device or resource of language is a technique that an author or speaker uses to evoke an emotional response in his audience (his reader(s) or listener(s)). These emotional responses are central to the meaning of the work or speech, and should also get the...

Contents

Schemes

  • accumulation: Summarization of previous arguments in a forceful manner
  • adnominatio: Repetition of a word with a change in letter or sound
  • alliteration: A series of words that begin with the same letter or sound alike
  • anacoluthon: A change in the syntax within a sentence
  • anadiplosis: Repetition of a word at the end of a clause at the beginning of another
  • anaphora: The repetition of the same word or group of words at the beginning of successive clauses
  • anastrophe: Inversion of the usual word order
  • anticlimax: the arrangement of words in order of decreasing importance
  • antimetabole: Repetition of words in successive clauses, in reverse order
  • antistrophe: The repetition of the same word or phrase at the end of successive clauses
  • antithesis: The juxtaposition of opposing or contrasting ideas
  • aphorismus: statement that calls into question the definition of a word
  • aposiopesis: Breaking off or pausing speech for dramatic or emotional effect
  • apostrophe: Directing the attention away from the audience and to a personified abstraction
  • apposition: The placing of two elements side by side, in which the second defines the first
  • assonance: The repetition of vowel sounds, most commonly within a short passage of verse
  • asteismus: Facetious or mocking answer that plays on a word
  • asyndeton: Omission of conjunctions between related clauses
  • cacophony: The juxtaposition of words producing a harsh sound
  • classification (literature & grammar): linking a proper noun and a common noun with an article
  • chiasmus: Reversal of grammatical structures in successive clauses
  • climax: The arrangement of words in order of increasing importance
  • consonance: The repetition of consonant sounds, most commonly within a short passage of verse
  • diorimazeau
  • dystmesis: A synonym for tmesis
  • ellipsis: Omission of words
  • enallage: The substitution of forms that are grammatically different, but have the same meaning
  • enjambment: A breaking of a syntactic unit (a phrase, clause, or sentence) by the end of a line or between two verses.
  • enthymeme: Informal method of presenting a syllogism
  • epanalepsis: Repetition of the initial word or words of a clause or sentence at the end of the clause or sentence.
  • epistrophe: The counterpart of anaphora
  • euphony: The opposite of cacophony - i.e. pleasant sounding
  • hendiadys: Use of two nouns to express an idea when the normal structure would be a noun and a modifier
  • hendiatris: Use of three nouns to express one idea
  • homographs: Words that are identical in spelling but different in origin and meaning
  • homonyms: Words that are identical with each other in pronunciation and spelling, but differing in origin and meaning.
  • homophones:Words that are identical with each other in pronunciation but differing in origin and meaning.
  • hypallage: Changing the order of words so that they are associated with words normally associated with others
  • hyperbaton: Schemes featuring unusual or inverted word order.
  • hyperbole: An exaggeration of a statement.
  • hysteron proteron: The inversion of the usual temporal or causal order between two elements.
  • isocolon: Use of parallel structures of the same length in successive clauses
  • internal rhyme : Using two or more rhyming words in the same sentence
  • kenning: A metonymic compound where the terms together form a sort of synecdoche
  • non sequitur: a statement that bears no relationship to the context preceding
  • merism: Referring to a whole by enumerating some of its parts
  • onomatopoeia: A word imitating a real sound (e.g. tick-tock or boom)
  • paradiastole: Repetition of the disjunctive pair "neither" and "nor"
  • parallelism: The use of similar structures in two or more clauses
  • paraprosdokian: Unexpected ending or truncation of a clause
  • parenthesis: Insertion of a clause or sentence in a place where it interrupts the natural flow of the sentence
  • paroemion: A resolute alliteration in which every word in a sentence or phrase begins with the same letter
  • parrhesia: Speaking openly or boldly, or apologizing for doing so (declaring to do so)
  • perissologia: The fault of wordiness
  • pleonasm: The use of superfluous or redundant words
  • polyptoton: Repetition of words derived from the same root
  • polysyndeton: Repetition of conjunctions
  • pun: When a word or phrase is used in two different senses
  • sibilance: Repetition of letter 's', it is a form of alliteration
  • superlative: Saying something the best of something i.e. the ugliest,the most precious
  • spoonerism: Interchanging of (usually initial) letters of words with amusing effect
  • symploce: Simultaneous use of anaphora and epistrophe
  • synchysis: Interlocked word order
  • synesis: An agreement of words according to the sense, and not the grammatical form
  • synizesis: The pronunciation of two juxtaposed vowels or diphthongs as a single sound
  • synonymia: The use of two or more synonyms in the same clause or sentence
  • tautology: Redundancy due to superfluous qualification; saying the same thing twice
  • tmesis: Division of the elements of a compound word

Alliteration is the repetition of a leading consonant sound in a phrase. ... An anacoluthon is a rhetorical device that can be loosely defined as a change of syntax within a sentence. ... Anadiplosis is a rhetorical figure of speech that means to double back and repeat a word or phrase that appears at the end of sentence or clause at the beginning of the next sentence or clause. ... This article is about the rhetorical term. ... Anastrophe is a figure of speech involving an inversion of the natural order of words; for example, saying echoed the hills to mean the hills echoed. In English, with its settled word order, departure from the expected word order emphasizes the displaced word or phrase: beautiful is emphasized in the... In rhetoric, antimetabole is the repetition of words in successive clauses, but in reverse grammatical order (ex: I know what I like, and like what I know). It is similar to chiasmus although chiasmus does not use repetition of the same words or phrases. ... Look up Antithesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Aphorismus is a figure of speech that calls into question the meaning of a word (How can you call yourself a man?). It often appears in the form of a rhetorical question and is meant to imply a distinction between the present subject and the general notion or ideal of... Aposiopesis (from Classical Greek, ἀποσιώπησις, becoming silent) is the term for the rhetorical device by which the speaker or writer deliberately stops short and leaves something unexpressed, but yet obvious, to be supplied by the imagination, giving the impression that she is unwilling or unable to continue. ... For the apostrophe as a punctuation mark, see apostrophe. ... Apposition is a figure of speech, in which two elements are placed side by side, with the second element serving to define or modify the first (ex: My wife, a nurse by training. ... Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds in non-rhyming words, for example Do you like blue?. Here the oo sound is repeated within the sentence. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... The band Cacophony Cacophony - Sounding badly, antonym to harmony. ... Classification is a figure of speech linking a proper noun to a common noun using the or other articles. ... Chiasmus (latinized form of Greek χιασμός, from χίασμα (chiasm), crossing) is a figure of speech based on inverted parallelism. ... In rhetoric, climax is a figure of speech, in which words, phrases, or clauses are arranged in order of increasing importance. ... Consonance is a stylistic device, often used in poetry characterized by the repetition of two or more consonants using different vowels, for example, the i and a followed by the tter sound in pitter patter. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An ellipsis is a rhetorical figure of speech, the omission of a word or words required by strict grammatical rules but not by sense. ... Enallage (from the Greek ‘εναλλαγή, enallage, meaning interchange) is a term used to mean the substitution of one grammatical form for another (possibly incorrect) one. ... Enjambement is the breaking of a linguistic unit (phrase, clause or sentence) by the end of a line or between two verses. ... An enthymeme is a syllogism (a three-part deductive argument) with an unstated assumption which must be true for the premises to lead to the conclusion. ... The epanalepsis is a figure of speech which consists in the repetition of the beginning word of a clause or sentence in the end. ... This figure of speech is the counterpart of anaphora, because the repetition of the same word or words comes at the end of successive phrases, clauses or sentences. ... Euphony describes flowing and aesthetically pleasing speech. ... The band Cacophony Cacophony - Sounding badly, antonym to harmony. ... Hendiadys (Greek for one through two) is a figure of speech used for emphasis. ... Hendiatris (Greek for one through three) is a figure of speech used for emphasis, in which three words are used to express one idea. ... The term homograph can mean: One of two or more words that are spelt the same way but have different meanings. ... Homonyms (in Greek homoios = identical and onoma = name) are words which have the same form (orthographic/phonetic) but unrelated meaning. ... Homonyms (in Greek homoios = identical and onoma = name) are words which have the same form (orthographic/phonetic) but unrelated meaning. ... Hypallage is a literary device that is the reversal of the syntactic relation of two words (as in her beautys face). ... Hyperbaton is a figure of speech that uses deliberate and dramatic departure from standard syntax (word order) for emphasis or poetic effect. ... Not to be confused with Hyperbola. ... The hysteron proteron (latter before) is a rhetorical device in which the first key word of the idea refers to something that happens temporally later than the second key word. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... In poetry, internal rhyme, or middle rhyme, is rhyme which occurs within a single line of verse. ... In literature, a kenning is a poetic phrase, a figure of speech, substituted for the usual name of a person or thing. ... In rhetoric and cognitive linguistics, metonymy (in Greek μετά (meta) = after/later and όνομα (onoma) = name) (pronounced //) is the use of a single characteristic to identify a more complex entity. ... Synecdoche is a figure of speech in which: a term denoting a part of something is used to refer to the whole thing, or a term denoting a thing (a whole) is used to refer to part of it, or a term denoting a specific class of thing (a species... This article is about the logical fallacy. ... In rhetoric, a merism is a figure of speech by which a single thing is referred to by a conventional phrase that enumerates several of its parts, or which lists several synonyms for the same thing. ... For the supervillain, see Onomatopoeia (comics). ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Parallelism means to give two or more parts of the sentences a similar form so as to give the whole a definite pattern. ... A paraprosdokian is a figure of speech in which the latter part of a sentence or phrase is surprising or unexpected in a way that causes the reader or listener to reframe the first part. ... In rhetoric, a parenthesis (plural: parentheses; from the Greek word παρενθεσις, which comes in turn from words meaning alongside of and to place) is An explanatory or qualifying word, clause, or sentence inserted into a passage with which it has not necessarily any grammatical connexion, and from which it is usually... Parrhesia, loosely defined, can mean free speech, or to speak everything. ... Periphrasis is a figure of speech where the meaning of a word or phrase is expressed by many or several words. ... // Pleonasm is the use of more words (or even word-parts) than necessary to express an idea clearly. ... Polyptoton is a stylistic scheme, in which words derived from the same root are repeated (e. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... For other uses, see Pun (disambiguation). ... The presence of strongly emphasized s, sh, ch, z, j sounds in speech called sibilants. ... Alliteration is the repetition of a leading consonant sound in a phrase. ... For the noun case, see superlative case. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Interlocked word order, in the form A-B-A-B; a favourite with Latin poets. ... Synesis is a grammatical term, also known as constructio ad sensum In Latin, a construction in which a word takes the gender or number, not of the word with which it should regularly agree, but of some other word implied in that word. ... Synizesis (Greek: Συνιζησις, a sitting together) is a poetic figure of speech in which two consecutive vowel sounds are pronounced as a single phoneme so that certain words adhere to a particular poetic meter. ... In rhetoric, Synonymia (Greek: syn, alike + onoma, name) is the use of several synonyms together to amplify or explain a given subject or term. ... In rhetoric, a tautology is an unnecessary (and usually unintentional) repetition of meaning, often utilising words from different languages. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Tropes

Main article: Trope (linguistics)
  • allegory: An extended metaphor in which a story is told to illustrate an important attribute of the subject
  • allusion: An indirect reference to another work of literature or art
  • anacoenosis: Posing a question to an audience, often with the implication that it shares a common interest with the speaker
  • antanaclasis: A form of pun in which a word is repeated in two different senses
  • anthimeria: The substitution of one part of speech for another, often turning a noun into a verb
  • anthropomorphism: Ascribing human characteristics to something that is not human, such as an animal or a god (see zoomorphism)
  • antiphrasis: A word or words used contradictory to their usual meaning, often with irony
  • antonomasia: The substitution of a phrase for a proper name or vice versa
  • aphorism: A tersely phrased statement of a truth or opinion, an adage
  • apophasis: Invoking an idea by denying its invocation
  • aporia: Deliberating with oneself, often with the use of rhetorical questions
  • apostrophe: Addressing a thing, an abstraction or a person not present
  • archaism: Use of an obsolete, archaic, word(a word used in olden language, e.g. Shakespeare's language)
  • auxesis: A form of hyperbole, in which a more important sounding word is used in place of a more descriptive term
  • catachresis: A mixed metaphor (sometimes used by design and sometimes a rhetorical fault)
  • circumlocution: "Talking around" a topic by substituting or adding words, as in euphemism or periphrasis
  • commiseration: Evoking pity in the audience.
  • correctio: Linguistic device used for correcting one's mistakes, a form of which is epanorthosis.
  • denominatio: Another word for metonymy
  • double negative: grammar construction that can be used as an expression and it is the repetition of negative words
  • dysphemism: Substitution of a harsher, more offensive, or more disagreeable term for another. Opposite of euphemism.
  • epanorthosis: Immediate and emphatic self-correction, often following a slip of the tongue.
  • enumeratio: A form of amplification in which a subject is divided, detailing parts, causes, effects, or consequences to make a point more forcibly.
  • erotema: Synonym for rhetorical question
  • euphemism: Substitution of a less offensive or more agreeable term for another
  • hermeneia: Repetition for the purpose of interpreting what has already been said
  • hyperbole: Use of exaggerated terms for emphasis
  • hypophora: Answering one's own rhetorical question at length
  • hysteron proteron: Reversal of anticipated order of events
  • innuendo: Having a hidden meaning in a sentence that makes sense whether it is detected or not
  • invocation: An apostrophe to a god or muse
  • irony: Use of word in a way that conveys a meaning opposite to its usual meaning
  • litotes: Emphasizing the magnitude of a statement by denying its opposite
  • malapropism: Using a word through confusion with a word that sounds similar
  • meiosis: Use of understatement, usually to diminish the importance of something
  • metalepsis: Referring to something through reference to another thing to which it is remotely related
  • metaphor: An implied comparison of two unlike things
  • metonymy: Substitution of a word to suggest what is really meant
  • neologism: The use of a word or term that has recently been created, or has been in use for a short time. Opposite of archaism.
  • onomatopoeia: Words that sound like their meaning
  • oxymoron: Using two terms together, that normally contradict each other
  • parable: An extended metaphor told as an anecdote to illustrate or teach a moral lesson
  • paradox: Use of apparently contradictory ideas to point out some underlying truth
  • paradiastole: Extenuating a vice in order to flatter or soothe
  • parallel irony: An ironic juxtaposition of sentences or situations (informal)
  • paralipsis: Drawing attention to something while pretending to pass it over
  • paronomasia: A form of pun, in which words similar in sound but with different meanings are used
  • pathetic fallacy: Using a word that refers to a human action on something non-human
  • periphrasis: Using several words instead of few
  • personification/prosopopoeia/anthropomorphism: Attributing or applying human qualities to inanimate objects, animals, or natural phenomena
  • praeteritio: Another word for paralipsis
  • procatalepsis: Refuting anticipated objections as part of the main argument
  • prolepsis: Another word for procatalepsis
  • proslepsis: An extreme form of paralipsis in which the speaker provides great detail while feigning to pass over a topic
  • proverb:A succinct or pithy expression of what is commonly observed and believed to be true.
  • rhetorical question: Asking a question as a way of asserting something. Or asking a question not for the sake of getting an answer but for asserting something (or as for in a poem for creating a poetic effect).
  • simile: An explicit comparison between two things
  • superlative: Saying something the best of something i.e. the ugliest, the most precious etc
  • syllepsis: A form of pun, in which a single word is used to modify two other words, with which it normally would have differing meanings
  • syncatabasis ("condescension, accommodation"): adaptation of style to the level of the audience
  • synecdoche: A form of metonymy, in which a part stands for the whole
  • synesthesia: The description of one kind of sense impression by using words that normally describe another.
  • transferred epithet: The placing of an adjective with what appears to be the incorrect noun
  • truism: a self-evident statement
  • tricolon diminuens: A combination of three elements, each decreasing in size
  • tricolon crescens: A combination of three elements, each increasing in size
  • zeugma: a figure of speech related to syllepsis, but different in that the word used as a modifier is not compatible with one of the two words it modifies
  • zoomorphism: applying animal characteristics to humans or gods

In linguistics, trope is a rhetorical figure of speech that consists of a play on words, i. ... Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... Categories: | ... Anacoenosis is a figure of speech in which the speaker poses a question to an audience, often with the implication that they share a common interest with the speaker. ... Antanaclasis is a stylistic trope, in which a single word is repeated, but with a different meaning each time. ... For other uses, see Pun (disambiguation). ... Anthimeria (Greek: one part for another) is the use of a word of one class as if it were a member of another, typically the use of a noun as a verb. ... 7th millennium BC anthropomorphized rocks, with slits for eyes, found in modern-day Israel. ... Zoomorphic decoration from the Book of Kells Zoomorphism, from Greek ζωον zōon, meaning animal, and μορφη, morphē, meaning shape or form, refers to the representation of animal forms in ornaments, or to the representation of gods in the form, or with attributes, of non-human animals, and also to the transformation... An antiphrasis is a figure of speech that is a word used in an abnormal sense esp. ... Antonomasia is a rhetoric device: the substitution of any epithet or phrase for a proper name; the opposite substitution of a proper name for some generic term is also sometimes called antonomasia. ... An aphorism (literally distinction or definition, from Greek αφοριζειν to define) expresses a general truth in a pithy sentence. ... Apophasis (Late Latin, from Greek apophanai, to say no [1]) refers, in general, to mentioning by not mentioning. Apophasis covers a wide variety of figures of speech. ... Aporia (Greek: : impasse; lack of resources; puzzlement; embarassment ) denotes, in philosophy, a philosophical puzzle or state of puzzlement, and, in rhetoric, a rhetorically useful expression of doubt. ... An apostrophe is a rhetorical device consisting of speech directed in an abstract direction (as O Death, where is thy sting?), to a person not present, or to a thing (as Thou still unravishd bride of quietness in Ode on a Grecian Urn). It is usually introduced by the... In language, an archaism is the deliberate use of an older form that has fallen out of current use. ... Auxesis is a form of hyperbole, in which something is referred to by a term disproportionate to its importance for the very purpose of amplifying that things importance or gravity. ... Not to be confused with Hyperbola. ... Catachresis (from Greek ), which literally means the incorrect or improper use of a word -- such as using the word decimate (e. ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... Periphrasis is a figure of speech where the meaning of a word or phrase is expressed by many or several words. ... Euphemism is the substitution of an agreeable or inoffensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener; or in the case of doublespeak, to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ... Periphrasis, like its Latin counterpart circumlocution, is a figure of speech where the meaning of a word or phrase is indirectly expressed through several or many words. ... Correctio is the amending of a statement just made by further detailing the meaning. ... An epanorthosis is a figure of speech that signifies emphatic word replacement. ... In rhetoric and cognitive linguistics, metonymy (in Greek meta = after/later and onoma = name) is the use of a single characteristic to identify a more complex entity. ... In rhetoric, metonymy is the substitution of one word for another word with which it is associated. ... A double negative occurs when two forms of negation are used in the same sentence. ... In language, both dysphemism (from the Greek “dys” δυς = non and “pheme” φήμη = speech) and cacophemism (in Greek “cacos” κακός = bad) refer to the usage of an intentionally harsh word or expression instead of a polite one; they are rough opposites of euphemism. ... Euphemism is the substitution of an agreeable or inoffensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener; or in the case of doublespeak, to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ... An epanorthosis is a figure of speech that signifies emphatic word replacement. ... album of Steve Vai. ... Enumeratio is the figure of amplification in which a subject is divided, detailing parts, causes, effects, or consequences to make a point more forcibly. ... A question that the audience answers mentally rather than out loud. ... A rhetorical question is a figure of speech in the form of a question posed for rhetorical effect rather than to receive an answer. ... Euphemism is the substitution of an agreeable or inoffensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener; or in the case of doublespeak, to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ... Not to be confused with Hyperbola. ... Hypophora, also referred to as anthypophora or antipophora, is a figure of speech where the speaker poses a question and then answers the question. ... A rhetorical question is a figure of speech in the form of a question posed for rhetorical effect rather than to receive an answer. ... The hysteron proteron (latter before) is a rhetorical device in which the first key word of the idea refers to something that happens temporally later than the second key word. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An invocation (from the Latin verb invocare to call on, invoke) is: A supplication. ... Ironic redirects here. ... In rhetoric, litotes is a figure of speech in which a speaker, rather than making a certain claim, denies its opposite; for example, rather than call a person attractive, one might say shes not too bad to look at. Litotes can be used to weaken a statement — Its... This article or section seems to contain too many examples (or examples of poor quality) for an encyclopedia entry. ... Meiosis is a figure of speech which intentionally understates something or implies that it is less in significance, size, than it really is. ... Metalepsis is a figure of speech in which one thing is referenced by something else which is only remotely associated with it. ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... In rhetoric, metonymy is the substitution of one word for another word with which it is associated. ... A neologism is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (or coined), often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ... In language, an archaism is the deliberate use of an older form that has fallen out of current use. ... For the supervillain, see Onomatopoeia (comics). ... Look up oxymoron in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // For a comparison of parable with other kinds of stories, see Myth, legend, fairy tale, and fable. ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... Look up paradox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Ironic redirects here. ... A paralipsis or paraleipsis (from the Greek: leave aside) is a rhetorical figure or figure of speech in which one emphasises something by pretending not to mention it (also known as preterition). ... A pun (also known as paronomasia) is a deliberate confusion of similar-sounding words or phrases for comic or serious effect. ... For other uses, see Pun (disambiguation). ... The pathetic fallacy or anthropomorphic fallacy is the description of inanimate natural objects in a manner that endows them with human feelings, thoughts and sensations. ... Periphrasis, like its Latin counterpart circumlocution, is a figure of speech where the meaning of a word or phrase is indirectly expressed through several or many words. ... Phillipp Veits Germania (1877), a personification of Germany. ... A paralipsis or paraleipsis (from the Greek: leave aside) is a rhetorical figure or figure of speech in which one emphasises something by pretending not to mention it (also known as preterition). ... A paralipsis or paraleipsis (from the Greek: leave aside) is a rhetorical figure or figure of speech in which one emphasises something by pretending not to mention it (also known as preterition). ... A procatalepsis is a rhetorical figure or strategy in which the writer raises an objection and then immediately answers it; by doing so, the rhetor seeks to strengthen his argument by dealing with possible objections before his audience can raise counter-arguments. ... Prolepsis (from the Greek prolambanein, to anticipate) can be: A figure of speech in which a future event is referred to in anticipation. ... A procatalepsis is a rhetorical figure or strategy in which the writer raises an objection and then immediately answers it; by doing so, the rhetor seeks to strengthen his argument by dealing with possible objections before his audience can raise counter-arguments. ... Proslepsis (from Greek, meaning something taken in addition) in rhetoric is the pretence of passing over a subject while at the same time describing it fully. ... A paralipsis or paraleipsis (from the Greek: leave aside) is a rhetorical figure or figure of speech in which one emphasises something by pretending not to mention it (also known as preterition). ... Look up proverb in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A rhetorical question is a figure of speech in the form of a question posed for rhetorical effect rather than to receive an answer. ... A simile is a comparison of two unlike things, typically marked by use of like, as, than, or resembles. Common examples are Curley was flopping like a fish on a line(extract of Mice and Men) etc. ... For the noun case, see superlative case. ... Syllepsis is a figure of speech in which one word simultaneously modifies two or more other words such that the modification must be understood differently with respect to each modified word. ... For other uses, see Pun (disambiguation). ... Synecdoche is a figure of speech in which: a term denoting a part of something is used to refer to the whole thing, or a term denoting a thing (a whole) is used to refer to part of it, or a term denoting a specific class of thing (a species... In rhetoric, metonymy is the substitution of one word for another word with which it is associated. ... For other uses, see Synesthesia (disambiguation). ... A transferred epithet or hypallage is the transfer of epithet from one noun to another. ... A truism is a claim that is so obvious or self-evident as to be hardly worth mentioning, except as a reminder or as a rhetorical or literary device. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary using the Transwiki process. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary using the Transwiki process. ... Zeugma (from the Greek word ζεύγμα, meaning yoke) is a figure of speech describing the joining of two or more parts of a sentence with a common verb or noun. ... Syllepsis is a figure of speech in which one word simultaneously modifies two or more other words such that the modification must be understood differently with respect to each modified word. ... Zoomorphic decoration from the Book of Kells Zoomorphism, from Greek ζωον zōon, meaning animal, and μορφη, morphē, meaning shape or form, refers to the representation of animal forms in ornaments, or to the representation of gods in the form, or with attributes, of non-human animals, and also to the transformation...

References

  • Aristotle, The Art of Rhetoric, (Translated by J. H. Freese), Loeb Classical Library.
  • Baldwin, Charles Sears, Ancient Rhetoric and Poetic: Interpreted from Representative Works, Peter Smith, Gloucester, 1959 (reprint).
  • Rhetorica ad Herennium, (Translated by Henry Caplan) Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press, 1954.
  • Corbett, Edward P.J., Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student Oxford University Press, New York, 1971.
  • Kennedy, George, Art of Persuasion in Greece. Princeton Univ Press, 1969 (4th printing).
  • Lanham, Richard A., A Handlist of Rhetorical Terms, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1991.
  • Mackin, John H. Classical Rhetoric for Modern Discourse, Free Press, New York, 1969.
  • Quintilian. Institutio oratoria, (In five volumes, trans. Donald A. Russell) Loeb Classical Library, 2002.

For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Richard A. Lanham is probably most widely known for his textbooks on revising prose to improve the style and clarify the thought. ... Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (c. ...

External links


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