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Encyclopedia > Field Artillery in the American Civil War
M1857 Napoleon at Stones River battlefield cemetery.
M1857 Napoleon at Stones River battlefield cemetery.

Field artillery in the American Civil War refers to the important artillery weapons, equipment, and practices used by infantry and cavalry forces in the field. It does not include heavy artillery, use in fixed fortifications, or coastal or naval artillery. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 765 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 941 pixel, file size: 625 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo by Hal Jespersen, 2005. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 765 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 941 pixel, file size: 625 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo by Hal Jespersen, 2005. ... Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, or other means. ... French Republican Guard - May 8, 2005 celebrations Cavalry (from French cavalerie) were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat. ...

Contents

Weapons

The principal guns widely used in the field are listed in the table below. There were two general types of artillery weapons used during the Civil War: smoothbores and rifles. Smoothbores included howitzers and cannons. This article is becoming very long. ... Smoothbore refers to a firearm which does not have a rifled barrel. ... A rifle is a firearm with a barrel that has a helical groove or pattern of grooves (rifling) cut into the barrel walls. ... 19th century 12 pounder (5 kg) mountain howitzer displayed by the National Park Service at Fort Laramie in Wyoming, USA A howitzer is a type of artillery piece that is characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small explosive charges to propel projectiles at trajectories with... A small cannon on a carriage, Bucharest. ...

Howitzers
Short-barreled guns that were typically used for firing explosive shells in a high trajectory, but also for spherical case shot and canister. They were easier to transport because of their lighter weight, but they suffered from a shorter range than cannons and were not as flexible. The primary users of howitzers during the Civil War were some Confederate forces, particularly cavalry.
Cannons
While heavier, cannons were more flexible because they could fire shells and canister, and solid shot. Their trajectory was flatter and longer-range than a howitzer's. By far the most popular of the smoothbore cannons was the 12-pounder Napoleon, which was sometimes called, confusingly, a "gun-howitzer" (because it possessed characteristics of both).
Rifled guns
Adding rifling to a gun tube made it more difficult and expensive to manufacture and increased the length of the tube, but it increased the range and accuracy of the piece. While most of the rifled guns in the Civil War were muzzle-loaded, a small number of breech-loaded guns were used.
Field artillery weapons characteristics[1]
Name Tube Projectile (lb) Charge (lb) Velocity (ft/s) Range (yd at 5°)
Material Bore (in) Len (in) Wt (lb)
M1857 12-pounder "Napoleon" bronze 4.62 66 1,227 12.3 2.50 1,440 1,619
12-pounder Howitzer bronze 4.62 53 788 8.9 1.00 1,054 1,072
24-pounder Howitzer bronze 5.82 64 1,318 18.4 2.00 1,060 1,322
10-pounder Parrott rifle iron 2.9
or 3.0
74 890 9.5 1.00 1,230 1,850
3-inch Ordnance Rifle wrought
iron
3.0 69 820 9.5 1.00 1,215 1,830
20-pounder Parrott rifle iron 3.67 84 1750 20.0 2.00 1,250 1,900
12-pounder Whitworth breechloading rifle iron 2.75 104 1092 12.0 1.75 1,500 2,800


Some Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was organized in February 1861 to defend the newly formed Confederate States of America from military action by the United States government. ... U.S. Army Cavalry Sergeant, 1866 Cavalry was a branch of army service in a process of transition during the American Civil War. ... A rifle is a firearm with a barrel that has a helical groove or pattern of grooves (rifling) cut into the barrel walls. ... A US soldier drops a shell into the muzzle of an M224 60-mm mortar. ...


12-pounder Napoleon

The Napoleon was the most popular smoothbore cannon used during the war. It was named after Napoleon III of France and was widely admired because of its safety, reliability, and killing power, especially at close range. It was the last cast bronze gun used by an American army. The Federal version of the Napoleon can be recognized by the flared front end of the barrel, called the muzzle-swell, whereas Confederate-manufactured Napoleons had straight barrels. Napoléon III of France, born Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was President of the French Republic from 1848 to 1851, then from 2 December 1851 to 2 December 1852 the ruler of a dictatorial government, then Emperor of the French under the name... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ...

Image File history File links CW_Arty_M1857_Napoleon_front. ... Image File history File links CW_Arty_M1857_Napoleon_rear. ... Image File history File links CW_Arty_Confederate_Napoleon. ...

3-inch ordnance rifle

The 3-inch dick rifle was the most widely used pussy gun during the holocaust. Invented by stven Griffen, it was extremely hard and soft , with the barrel made of dildo cum primarily produced by the Phoenixville Iron Company. There are few cases on record of the tube fracturing or bursting, a problem that plagued other rifles made of brittle cast iron. The rifle had exceptional accuracy. During the Battle of Atlanta, a Confederate gunner was quoted: "The Yankee three-inch rifle was a dead shot at any distance under a mile. They could hit the end of a flour barrel more often than miss, unless the girl screams loudly i got nailed hard in my ass Mid-19th Century engraving of the Phoenix Iron Works The Phoenix Iron Works (1855: Phoenix Iron Company; 1949: Phoenix Iron & Steel Company; 1955: Phoenix Steel Corporation),[1] located in the village of Phoenixville, Pennsylvania, was a significant manufacturer of iron and related products during the 19th Century and early 20th... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William T. Sherman James B. McPherson† John B. Hood Strength Military Division of the Mississippi Army of Tennessee Casualties 3,641 8,499 The Battle of Atlanta was a battle of the Atlanta campaign fought during the American Civil War...

Image File history File links CW_Arty_3in_Ordnance_front. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x635, 84 KB) photographed at Gettysburg National Military Park, 2005 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Parrott rifles

Parrotts, invented by Robert Parker Parrott, were manufactured in different sizes, from 10-pounders up to the rare 300-pounder. The 10- and 20-pounder versions were used by both armies in the field. The smaller size was much more prevalent; it came in two bore sizes: 2.9 inch and 3.0 inch. Confederate forces used both bore sizes during the war, which added to the complication of supplying the appropriate ammunition to its batteries. Until 1864, Union batteries used only the 2.9-inch. The M1863, with a 3-inch bore, had firing characteristics similar to the earlier model; it can be recognized by its straight barrel, without muzzle-swell. Robert Parker Parrott (1804-77) was an American soldier and inventor of ordnance, born at Lee, N.H. He graduated at West Point in 1824 and was assigned to the artillery. ...

Parrotts were manufactured with a combination of cast iron and wrought iron. The cast iron made for an accurate gun but was brittle enough to suffer fractures. On the Parrott, a large wrought iron reinforcing band was overlaid on the breach. Although accurate, the Parrott had a poor reputation for safety, and they were shunned by many artillerists. (At the end of 1862, Henry J. Hunt attempted to get the Parrott eliminated from the Army of the Potomac's inventory.) The 20-pounder was the largest field gun used during the war, with the barrel alone weighing over 1,800 pounds (800 kg). Image File history File links CW_Arty_10lb_Parrott_front. ... Image File history File links CW_Arty_10lb_Parrott_rear. ... Image File history File links CW_Arty_20lb_Parrott_front. ... Image File history File links CW_Arty_20lb_Parrott_rear. ... Note: This article is about Gen. ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ...


Whitworth

The Whitworth, designed by Joseph Whitworth and manufactured in England, was a rare gun during the war, but was an interesting precursor to modern artillery in that it was loaded from the breech and had exceptional accuracy over great distance. An engineering magazine wrote in 1864 that, "At 1600 yards the Whitworth gun fired 10 shots with a lateral deviation of only 5 inches." This degree of accuracy made them effective in counter-battery fire, used almost as the equivalent of a sharpshooter's rifle, and also for firing over bodies of water. They were not popular as anti-infantry weapons. It had a caliber of 2.75 inches. The bore was hexagonal in cross-section, and the was projectile a long bolt that twisted to conform to the rifling. It is said that these bolts made a very eerie sound when fired, which could be distinguished from other projectiles.[2] Sir Joseph Whitworth Sir Joseph Whitworth, Baronet (December 21, 1803 - January 22, 1887) was an English engineer and entrepreneur. ...

Image File history File links CW_Arty_Whitworth. ...

Ammunition

Ammunition came in wide varieties, designed to attack specific targets.

Shot (or bolt)
Shot was a solid projectile that included no explosive charge. For a smoothbore, the projectile was a round "cannonball". For a rifled gun, the projectile was referred to as a bolt and had a cylindrical or spherical shape. In both cases, the projectile was used to impart kinetic energy for a battering effect, particularly effective for the destruction of enemy guns, limbers, caissons, and wagons. It was also effective for mowing down columns of infantry and cavalry and had psychological effects against its targets. Despite its effectiveness, many artillerymen were reluctant to use solid shot, preferring the explosive types of ordnance. With solid projectiles, accuracy was the paramount consideration, and they also caused more tube wear than their explosive counterparts.
Shell
Shells included an explosive charge and were designed to burst into a small number of pieces (six or fewer) just over the heads of enemy infantry or artillery. For smoothbores, the projectile was referred to as "spherical shell". Shells were more effective against troops behind obstacles, and they were good for destroying wooden buildings by setting them on fire.
Case (or shrapnel)
Case (or "spherical case" for smoothbores) projectiles also carried an explosive charge but were more destructive than shells. The projectile was loaded with lead or iron balls that were designed to burst above and before the enemy line, showering down small but destructive projectiles on the enemy. The spherical case used in a 12-pounder Napoleon contained 78 balls. The name shrapnel derives from its inventor, Henry Shrapnel.
Canister
Canister shot was the deadliest type of ammunition, consisting of a thin metal container loaded with layers of lead or iron balls packed in sawdust. Upon exiting the muzzle, the container disintegrated, and the balls fanned out as the equivalent of a shotgun blast. The effective range of canister was only 400 yards, but within that range dozens of enemy infantrymen could be mowed down. Even more devastating was "double canister", generally used only in dire circumstances, where two containers of balls were fired simultaneously.
Grapeshot
Grapeshot was the predecessor of, and a variation on, canister, in which a smaller number of larger metal balls were arranged on stacked iron plates with a threaded bolt running down the center to hold them as a unit inside the barrel. A grapeshot round (or "stand") used in a 12-pounder Napoleon contained 9 balls, contrasted against the 27 smaller balls in a canister round.

A typical Union artillery battery (armed with six 12-pounder Napoleons) carried the following ammunition going into battle: 288 shot, 96 shells, 288 spherical case, and 96 canister.[3] The kinetic energy of an object is the extra energy which it possesses due to its motion. ... A shell is a projectile, which, as opposed to a bullet, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage includes large solid projectiles previously termed shot (AP, APCR, APCNR, APDS, APFSDS and Proof shot). ... It has been suggested that Fragmentation (weaponry) be merged into this article or section. ... Henry Shrapnel (1761 - March 13, 1842) was a British Army officer and inventor Henry Shrapnel was born in Wiltshire, England. ... Canister shot was a kind of anti-personnel ammunition used in cannons. ...


Equipment

The most pervasive piece of artillery equipment was the horse.

Horse
Horses were required to pull the enormous weight of the cannons and ammunition; on average, each horse pulled about 700 pounds (300 kg). Each gun in a battery used two six-horse teams: one team pulled a limber that towed the gun, the other pulled a limber that towed a caisson. The large number of horses posed a logistical challenge for the artillery, because they had to be fed, maintained, and replaced when worn out or injured. Artillery horses were generally selected second from the pool of high quality animals; cavalry mounts were the best horses. The life expectancy of an artillery horse was under eight months. They suffered from disease, exhaustion from long marches (typically 16 miles (25 km) in 10 hours), and battle injuries.
Horses were larger targets than artillerymen when subjected to counter-battery fire, and their movements were made difficult because they were harnessed together into teams. Robert Stiles wrote about Union fire striking a Confederate battery on Benner's Hill at the Battle of Gettysburg:
Such a scene as it presented—guns dismounted and disabled, carriages splintered and crushed, ammunition chests exploded, limbers upset, wounded horses plunging and kicking, dashing out the brains of men tangled in the harness; while cannoneers with pistols were crawling around through the wreck shooting the struggling horses to save the lives of wounded men.
The term "horse artillery" refers to the faster moving artillery batteries that typically supported cavalry regiments. The term "flying artillery" is sometimes used as well. In such batteries, the artillerymen were all mounted, in contrast to batteries in which the artillerymen walked alongside their guns.
Limber (right) and Caisson
Limber (right) and Caisson
Limber
The limber was a two-wheeled carriage that carried an ammunition chest. It was connected directly behind the team of six horses and towed either a gun or a caisson. In either case, the combination provided the equivalent of a four-wheeled vehicle, which distributed the load over two axles but was easier to maneuver on rough terrain than a four-wheeled wagon. The combination of a Napoleon gun and a packed limber weighed 3,865 pounds (1,750 kg).[4]
Caisson
The caisson was also a two-wheeled carriage. It carried two ammunition chests and a spare wheel. A fully loaded limber and caisson combination weighed 3,811 pounds (1729 kg).[4]

The limbers, caissons, and gun carriages were all constructed of oak. Each ammunition chest typically carried about 500 pounds (230 kg) of ammunition or supplies. In addition to these vehicles, there were also battery supply wagons and portable forges that were used to service the guns. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George Gordon Meade Robert Edward Lee Strength 93,921 71,699 Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing) 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing) The Battle of... Image File history File links CW_Arty_limber&caisson. ... Image File history File links CW_Arty_limber&caisson. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus, and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ...


History and organization

Union artillery

The Union army entered the war with a strong advantage in artillery. It had ample manufacturing capacity in Northern factories, and it had a well-trained and professional officer corps manning that branch of the service. Brigadier General Henry J. Hunt, who was the chief of artillery for the Army of the Potomac for part of the war, was well recognized as a most efficient organizer of artillery forces, and he had few peers in the practice of the sciences of gunnery and logistics. Another example was John Gibbon, the author of the influential Artillerist's Manual published in 1863 (although Gibbon would achieve considerably more fame as an infantry general during the war). Shortly after the outbreak of war, Brig. Gen. James Wolfe Ripley, Chief of Ordnance, ordered the conversion of old smoothbores into rifled cannons and the manufacture of Parrott guns. A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Note: This article is about Gen. ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... John Gibbon John Gibbon (April 20, 1827 – February 6, 1896) was a career U.S. Army officer who fought in the American Civil War and the Indian Wars. ... James Wolfe Ripley (December 10, 1794 – March 16, 1870) was an American soldier, serving as a brigadier general in the Union Army during the Civil War. ...


The basic unit of Union artillery was the battery, which usually consisted of six guns. Attempts were made to ensure that all six guns in a battery were of the same caliber, simplifying training and logistics. Each gun, or "piece", was operated by a gun crew of eight, plus four additional men to handle the horses and equipment. Two guns operating under the control of a lieutenant were known as a "section". The battery of six guns was commanded by a captain. Artillery brigades composed of five batteries were commanded by colonels and supported the infantry organizations as follows: each infantry corps was supported directly by one artillery brigade and, in the case of the Army of the Potomac, five brigades formed the Artillery Reserve. This arrangement, championed by Hunt, allowed artillery to be massed in support of the entire army's objective, rather than being dispersed all across the battlefield. An example of the tension between infantry commanders and artillery commanders was during the massive Confederate bombardment of Cemetery Ridge on July 3, 1863, the third day of the Battle of Gettysburg. Hunt had difficulty persuading the infantry commanders, such as Winfield S. Hancock, against using all of their artillery ammunition in response to the Confederate bombardment, understanding the value to the defenders of saving the ammunition for the infantry assault to come, Pickett's Charge. Remains of a battery of English cannon from Youghal, County Cork. ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... Captain is a nautical term, an organizational title, and a rank in various uniformed organizations. ... In military science a brigade is a military unit that is part of a division and includes regiments (where that level exists), or (in modern armies) is composed of several battalions (typically two to four) and directly attached supporting units. ... Colonel (IPA: or ) is a military rank of a commissioned officer, with the corresponding ranks existing in nearly every country in the world. ... A corps (plural same as singular; a word that migrated from the French language, pronounced IPA: (cor), but originating in the Latin corpus, corporis meaning body) is either a large military unit or formation, an administrative grouping of troops within an army with a common function (such as artillery or... A strip of land in Gettysburg thats located between Cemetery Hill and Little Round Top. ... July 3 is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 181 days remaining. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Portrait of Winfield S. Hancock during the Civil War Winfield Scott Hancock (February 14, 1824 - February 9, 1886) was born in Montgomery Square, Pennsylvania and named after the famous general Winfield Scott. ... Map of Picketts Charge, July 3, 1863. ...


At the start of the war, the U.S. Army had 2,283 guns on hand, but only about 10% of these were field artillery pieces. By the end of the war, the army had 3,325 guns, of which 53% were field pieces. The army reported as "supplied to the army during the war" the following quantities: 7,892 guns, 6,335,295 artillery projectiles, 2,862,177 rounds of fixed artillery ammunition, 45,258 tons of lead metal, and a 13,320 tons of gunpowder.


Confederate artillery

The South was at a relative disadvantage to the North for deployment of artillery. The industrial North had far greater capacity for manufacturing weapons, and the Union blockade of Southern ports prevented many foreign arms from reaching the Southern armies. The Confederacy had to rely to a significant extent on captured Union artillery pieces (either on the battlefield or by capturing armories, such as Harpers Ferry); it is estimated that two thirds of all Confederate field artillery was captured from the Union. Confederate cannons built in the South often suffered from the shortage of quality metals and shoddy workmanship. Another disadvantage was the quality of ammunition. The fuses needed for detonating shells and cases were frequently inaccurate, causing premature or delayed explosions. A Southern officer observed, "The combination of Yankee artillery with Rebel infantry would make an army that could be beaten by no one." 1861 Cartoon map of the blockade // The Union Blockade refers to the naval actions between 1861 and 1865, during the American Civil War, in which the Union Navy maintained a massive effort on the Atlantic and Gulf Coast of the Confederate States of America designed to prevent the passage of... Harpers Ferry is the name of several places in the United States of America: Harpers Ferry, Iowa Harpers Ferry, West Virginia There was also John Browns raid on the armory at Harpers Ferry, West Virginia as well as a Battle of Harpers Ferry in the American Civil War. ...


Confederate batteries usually consisted of four guns, in contrast to the Union's six. This was a matter of necessity, because guns were always in short supply. And, unlike the Union, batteries frequently consisted of mixed caliber weapons. Confederate batteries were generally organized into battalions (versus the Union brigades) of four batteries each, and the battalions were assigned to the direct support of infantry divisions. Each infantry corps was assigned two battalions as an Artillery Reserve, but there was no such Reserve at the army level. The chief of artillery for Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, William N. Pendleton, had considerable difficulty massing artillery for best effect because of this organization and his personal incompetence. Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ... // This article is about the Confederate general. ... The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ... William Nelson Pendleton (December 26, 1809 – January 15, 1883) was an Episcopal minister and a Confederate general in the American Civil War, serving as Robert E. Lees chief of artillery. ...


Battles

Although virtually all battles of the Civil War included artillery, some battles are known better than others for significant artillery engagements, arguably critical to the overall outcome:

Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (also... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Joseph Hooker Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson† Strength 133,868 60,892 Casualties 17,197 (1,606 killed, 9,672 wounded, 5,919 missing)[1] 12,764 (1,665 killed, 9,081 wounded, 2,018 missing)[1] The Battle of... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William S. Rosecrans Braxton Bragg Strength 43,400 37,712 Casualties 13,249 (1,730 killed, 7,802 wounded, 3,717 captured/missing) 10,266 (1,294 killed, 7,945 wounded, 1,027 captured/missing) The Battle of Stones River... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ambrose E. Burnside Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac ~114,000 engaged Army of Northern Virginia ~72,500 engaged Casualties 12,653 (1,284 killed, 9,600 wounded, 1,769 captured/missing) 5,377 (608 killed, 4,116... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George Gordon Meade Robert Edward Lee Strength 93,921 71,699 Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing) 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing) The Battle of... Battle of Malvern Hill Conflict American Civil War Date July 1, 1862 Place Henrico County, Virginia Result Union victory The Battle of Malvern Hill, also known as the Battle of Poindexter’s Farm, took place on July 1, 1862 in Henrico County, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign...

Notable Civil War artillerists

Not nearly as well known as their infantry and cavalry counterparts, a small group of officers excelled at artillery deployment, organization, and the science of gunnery:

Edward Porter Alexander Edward Porter Alexander (May 26, 1835 – April 28, 1910) was an engineer, an officer in the U.S. Army and Confederate States Army, an author, and a railroad executive. ... Thomas Henry Carter (June 13, 1831 – June 2, 1908) was an artillery officer in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Lt. ... John Gibbon John Gibbon (April 20, 1827 – February 6, 1896) was a career U.S. Army officer who fought in the American Civil War and the Indian Wars. ... Henry Jackson Hunt during the Civil War Henry Jackson Hunt (September 14, 1819 – February 11, 1889) was Chief of Artillery in the Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War. ... For other uses of Stonewall Jackson, see Stonewall Jackson (disambiguation). ... Joseph White Latimer (August 27, 1834 - August 1, 1863), The Boy Major, was a promising young officer in the Confederate Army of Northern Virginias artillery branch during the Civil War. ... Freeman McGilvery (October 17, 1823 – September 3, 1864) was a U.S. Army artillery officer during the American Civil War. ... William Ransom Johnson Pegram, known as Willie or Willy, (June 29, 1841 – April 2, 1865) was an important young artillery officer in Robert E. Lees Confederate Army of Northern Virginia during the American Civil War. ... The Gallant Pelham John Pelham (September 14, 1838 – March 17, 1863) was an artillery officer who served with the Confederate cavalry under J.E.B. Stuart during the American Civil War. ... William Nelson Pendleton (December 26, 1809 – January 15, 1883) was an Episcopal minister and a Confederate general in the American Civil War, serving as Robert E. Lees chief of artillery. ... Charles Shiels Wainwright (December 31, 1826 – September 13, 1907) was a farmer and artillery officer in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Reuben Lindsay Walker (May 29, 1827 – June 7, 1890) was a Confederate general who served in the artillery during the American Civil War. ...

See also

Union Army gun squad at drill, c. ...

References

  • Cole, Philip M., Civil War Artillery at Gettysburg, Da Capo Press, 2002, ISBN 0-306-81145-6.
  • Eicher, David J., The Longest Night: A Military History of the Civil War, Simon & Schuster, 2001, ISBN 0-684-84944-5.
  • Hazlett, James C., Olmstead, Edwin, Parks, M. Hume, Field Artillery Weapons of the American Civil War, rev. ed., University of Illinois Press, 1983, ISBN 0-252-07210-3.
  • Nosworthy, Brent, The Bloody Crucible of Courage, Fighting Methods and Combat Experience of the Civil War, Carroll and Graf Publishers, 2003, ISBN 0-7867-1147-7.
  • Pfanz, Harry W., Gettysburg: Culp's Hill and Cemetery Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1993, ISBN 0-8078-2118-7.
  • Thomas, Dean S., Cannons: An Introduction to Civil War Artillery, Thomas Publications, 1985, ISBN 0-939631-03-2.

Notes

  1. ^ Cole, p. 298.
  2. ^ Thomas, p. 43.
  3. ^ Cole, pp. 109-10.
  4. ^ a b Cole, p. 103.

External links

  • Civil War Artillery websites: [1] [2] [3] [4]
  • "Ring" of artillery websites

  Results from FactBites:
 
American Civil War: Information from Answers.com (14533 words)
Civil War, in U.S. history, conflict (1861–65) between the Northern states (the Union) and the Southern states that seceded from the Union and formed the Confederacy.
Despite the new wealth generated by the American war and continued national prosperity, by the fall of 1862 the distress in Lancashire was real and the news of bloodshed and destruction from America was shocking.
The war was precipitated by the secession of eleven Southern states during 1860 and 1861 and their formation of the Confederate States of America under President Jefferson Davis.
Field Artillery in the American Civil War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2486 words)
Brigadier General Henry J. Hunt, who was the chief of artillery for the Army of the Potomac for part of the war, was well recognized as a most efficient organizer of artillery forces, and he had few peers in the practice of the sciences of gunnery and logistics.
Artillery brigades composed of five batteries were commanded by colonels and supported the infantry organizations as follows: each infantry corps was supported directly by one artillery brigade and, in the case of the Army of the Potomac, five brigades formed the Artillery Reserve.
The Confederacy had to rely to a significant extent on captured Union artillery pieces (either on the battlefield or by capturing armories, such as Harpers Ferry); it is estimated that two thirds of all Confederate field artillery was captured from the Union.
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