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Encyclopedia > Fidei defensor

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Fidei defensor is the Latin original of the English and French titles. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


Defender of the Faith

Fidei defensor or Defender of the Faith has been one of the subsidiary titles of the English (and later British, Canadian and New Zealand) Monarchs since it was granted on October 17, 1521 by Pope Leo X to Tudor King Henry VIII of England (some other major Catholic Kingdoms have obtained similar pious titles, such as Apostolic King). October 17 is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (Florence, 11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521, Rome), Pope from 1513 to his death, is known primarily for his failure to stem the Protestant Reformation, which began during his reign when Martin Luther (1483–1546) first accused the Roman Catholic Church of... For the play, see Henry VIII (play). ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq... Hereditary title borne by the King of Hungary. ...


The title was then in recognition of Henry's book Assertio Septem Sacramentorum (Defence of the Seven Sacraments), written with the uncredited assistance of St. Thomas More, which defended the sacramental nature of marriage and the supremacy of the Pope. This was also known as the "Henrician Affirmation" and was seen as an important opposition to the early stages of the Protestant Reformation, especially the ideas of Martin Luther. Portrait of Sir Thomas More by Hans Holbein the Younger Sir Thomas More (7 February 1478–6 July 1535), posthumously known also as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, writer, and politician. ... Matrimony redirects here. ... The current Pope is Benedict XVI (born Joseph Alois Ratzinger), who was elected at the age of 78 on 19 April 2005. ... The Protestant Reformation, also referred to as the Protestant Revolution or Protestant Revolt, was a movement in the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ...


When the Tudor king broke with Rome and established himself as head of the Church of England, from the papal point of view the worst attack on the faith (or rather, and more to the point, on the Roman Catholic Church) since Luther, the title was revoked by Pope Paul III. The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Pope Paul III (February 29, 1468 – November 10, 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope from 1534 to 1549. ...


However, the English parliament conferred the title "defender of faith" (omitting "the") in 1544 on King Edward VI and his successors, now the defenders of the Anglican faith, of which they (except the Catholic 'renegade' Mary Tudor) still are the Supreme Governors (formally above the Archbishop of Canterbury as Primate), and mainly against Catholicism, so the inverse of the original papal grant. Although the two Cromwells (16 December 1653 - 30 January 1659), while republican heads of state styled Lord Protector, were clearly profiled as more Protestant than the Monarchy, they did not adopt the style Defender of the Faith, which thus had a hiatus until the Stuart Restoration. List of Parliaments of England is a list of the sittings of the Parliament of England, from the reign of Edward IV to 1707 with some earlier named parliaments. ... Events April 11 - Battle of Ceresole - French forces under the Comte dEnghien defeat Imperial forces under the Marques Del Vasto near Turin. ... Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) became King of England and Ireland on 28 January 1547, at just nine years of age. ... Mary Tudor and Charles Brandon This article is about Mary Tudor, queen consort of France. ... The Sovereign of the United Kingdom is Supreme Governor of the Church of England. ... Catholic Patriarchal (non cardinal) coat of arms Primate (from the Latin Primus, first) is a title or rank bestowed on some bishops in certain Christian churches. ... Lord Protector is a particular British English title for Heads of State, with two meanings (and full styles) at different periods of history. ... The English Restoration or simply Restoration was an episode in the history of Great Britain beginning in 1660 when the monarchy was restored under King Charles II after the English Civil War. ...


The Latin version of the title, Fidei Defensor, abbreviated to FD, is still seen on all current British coins. It was first placed on coins in 1714 in the reign of King George I. This article concerns British coinage, the coinage of the United Kingdom. ... Battle of Gangut, by Maurice Baquoi, 1724-27. ... George I King of Great Britain and Ireland George I (George Ludwig von Guelph-dEste) (28 May 1660–11 June 1727) was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) from 23 January 1698, and King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 1 August 1714, until his death. ...


Most other Commonwealth Realms which share the same sovereign as Head of State omit the title "defender of the faith" from their country's full official title given to the Monarch, while maintaining the initial By the Grace of God, e.g. Australia from 19 October 1973. The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the 16 sovereign states of the Commonwealth of Nations that separately recognise Queen Elizabeth II as their monarch. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... By the Grace of God, as well as the various equivalent phrases in other languages thus rendered in English, is not a title in its own right, but a common introductory part of the full styles of many Monarchs, preceding the actual princely styles in chief of the specific realm...


However it is still in use as part of His/Her Majesty's full style in a few Commonwealth Realms:

  • The United Kingdom, the home realm, from 29 May 1953: "by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith." and two former dominions:
  • Canada, from 29 May 1953: "By the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom, Canada and Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith"; also, in French: Par la Grâce de Dieu, Reine du Royaume-Uni, du Canada et de ses autres Royaumes et Territoires, Chef du Commonwealth, Défenseur de la Foi
  • New Zealand, from 6 February 1974: "By the Grace of God, Queen of New Zealand and Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith."

Canada chose to include the title not because the Sovereign is regarded as the protector of the state religion (Canada has none), but as a defender of the faith in general. In a speech to the House of Commons in 1953, Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent stated on this topic: A dominion, often Dominion, is the territory or the authority of a dominus (a lord or master). ... By the Grace of God, as well as the various equivalent phrases in other languages thus rendered in English, is not a title in its own right, but a common introductory part of the full styles of many Monarchs, preceding the actual princely styles in chief of the specific realm... The Queen uses a personal standard when acting as Head of the Commonwealth. ... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ... See also: 1952 in Canada, 1954 in Canada and the Timeline of Canadian history. ... Stephen Harper is the current Prime Minister of Canada. ... Louis Stephen St. ...

"... The rather more delicate question arose about the retention of the words defender of the faith. In England there is an established church. In our countries [the other monarchies of the Commonwealth] there are no established churches, but in our countries there are people who have faith in the direction of human affairs by an all-wise Providence; and we felt that it was a good thing that the civil authorities would proclaim that their organisation is such that it is a defence of the continued beliefs in a supreme power that orders the affairs of mere men, and that there could be no reasonable objection from anyone who believed in the Supreme Being in having the sovereign, the head of the civil authority, described as a believer in and a defender of the faith in a supreme ruler."

Other Commonwealth countries dropped the title before choosing a separate head of state, e.g. Pakistan (its very national identity being Muslim), from 29 May 1953 (while still a dominion) to 23 March 1956 when it became a republic: "Queen of the United Kingdom and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth", or South Africa from 29 May 1953. Other countries kept it until the adoption of a separate head of state, e.g. Ireland.


Prince Charles, the Prince of Wales, has considered changing the interpretation of the formula. He commented in 1994 that, "I personally would rather see it (his future role) as Defender of Faith, not the Faith"; formalizing that would however require the alteration of the Coronation Act from 1688 and full approval of all the commonwealth nations Parliaments as of the 1931 Statute of Westminster preamble.[1]. While the absence of articles in Latin allows such alternative translation, questions may be asked whether this still reflects the Sovereign's role as Head of the Established Church of England, or on the other hand takes position against the unbelievers who are equally entitled to freedom of conscience. The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George Mountbatten-Windsor; born Windsor, 14 November 1948), is the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... The Prince of Wales Feathers. This Heraldic badge of the Heir Apparent is derived from the ostrich feathers borne by Edward, the Black Prince. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Défenseur de la Foi

This French literal equivalent has been used as:

  1. the official version in French in HM's realm of Canada (mainly the francophone province of Quebec), see above;
  2. a subsidiary title, self-awarded, of Henri I, the slave-descended King of (actually only the north of) Haiti (28 March 1811 - 8 October 1820), as part of his long, for such a poor country pompous style , which is translated from the (grammatically abominable) French as: By the grace of God and the constitutional law of the state, King of Haiti, Sovereign of Tortuga, Gonâve and other adjacent Islands, Destroyer of Tyranny, Regenerator and Benefactor of the Haitian Nation, Creator of her Moral, Political and Martial Institutions, First Crowned Monarch of the New World, Defender of the Faith, founder of the Royal and Military Order of Saint-Henry.

Portrait as King Henry I. Henri Christophe (October 6, 1767 – October 8, 1820) was a career officer and general in the Haïtian Army. ...

See also

Dieu et mon droit (French for God and my [birth] right) has generally been used as the motto of the British monarch since it was adopted by Henry V (1413-22). ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The precise style of British Sovereigns has varied over the years. ... Protector, sometimes spelled protecter, is used as a title or part of various historical titles of heads of state and others in authority. ...

Sources and references

(incomplete)

  • WorldStatesmen- here Haiti

  Results from FactBites:
 
Fidei defensor information - Search.com (622 words)
Fidei defensor is the Latin original of the English and French titles.
Fidei defensor or Defender of the Faith has been one of the subsidiary titles of the English (and later British) Monarchs since it was granted on October 17, 1521 by Pope Leo X to Tudor King Henry VIII of England (some other major Catholic Kingdoms have obtained similar pious titles, such as Apostolic King).
The Latin version of the title, Fidei Defensor, abbreviated to FD, is still seen on all current British coins.
Fidei defensor - definition of Fidei defensor - Labor Law Talk Dictionary (248 words)
Fidei defensor (Defender of the Faith) was a title granted on October 17, 1521 by Pope Leo X to King Henry VIII of England on the basis of Henry's book Assertio Septem Sacramentorum, written with the uncredited assistance of Thomas More, which defended the sacramental nature of marriage and the supremacy of the Pope.
Most Commonwealth Realms where the British Monarch is head of state omit the title "defender of the faith" from their country's official title given to the Queen.
Recently, The Prince of Wales has said that he would like to recast the title as Defender of Faith (Fiderum defensor), to avoid the appearance of favouring one religion above another.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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