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Encyclopedia > Fibroblast growth factor

Fibroblast growth factors, or FGFs, are a family of growth factors involved in wound healing and embryonic development. The FGFs are heparin-binding proteins and interactions with cell-surface associated heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been shown to be essential for FGF signal transduction. Growth factor is a protein that acts as a signaling molecule between cells (like cytokines and hormones) that attaches to specific receptors on the surface of a target cell and promotes differentiation and maturation of these cells. ... Wound healing, or wound repair, is the bodys natural process of regenerating dermal and epidermal tissue. ... Heparin, a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan is widely used as an injectable anticoagulant and has the highest negative charge density of any known biological molecule. ... Heparan Sulfate (HS) is a linear polysaccharide found in all animal tissues. ... Proteoglycans represent a special class of glycoprotein that are heavily glycosylated. ... Overview of signal transduction pathways In biology, signal transduction refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another, most often involving ordered sequences of biochemical reactions inside the cell, that are carried out by enzymes and linked through second messengers resulting in...

Contents

Families

In humans, 20 members of the FGF family have been identified all of which are structurally related signaling molecules:[1] Cell signaling is part of a complex system of communication that governs basic cellular activities and coordinates cell actions. ...

  • Members FGF1 through FGF10 all bind fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs). FGF1 is also known as "Acidic", and FGF2 is also known as basic fibroblast growth factor.
  • Members FGF11, FGF12, FGF13, and FGF14, also known as FGF homologous factors 1-4 (FHF1-FHF4), have been shown to have distinct functional differences compared to the FGFs. Although these factors possess remarkably similar sequence homology, they do not bind FGFRs and are involved in intracellular processes unrelated to the FGFs.[2]
  • Members FGF16 through FGF23 are newer and not as well characterized. FGF15 is the mouse ortholog of human FGF19.

So far, four distinct membrane FGFR have been identified in vertebrates and all of them belong to the tyrosine kinase superfamily (FGFR1 to FGFR4). ... Member of the Fibroblast Growth Factor family. ... The fibroblast growth factor receptors are, as their name implies, receptors which bind to members of the fibroblast growth factor family of proteins. ...

Receptors

The fibroblast growth factor receptor family consists of 4 members, FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, and FGFR4. So far, four distinct membrane FGFR have been identified in vertebrates and all of them belong to the tyrosine kinase superfamily (FGFR1 to FGFR4). ...


Alternate mRNA splicing gives rise to multiple mRNA splice variants, of which the FGFR2IIIb splice variant encode isoform 2, the canonical FGF-10 receptor. 13 protein receptor isoforms are derived from the FGFR2 gene, e.ge., and the active sites differ significantly in their ligand-binding profiles. Various modes of alternative splicing Alternative splicing is the variation of the splicing process in which the exons of the primary gene transcript, the pre-mRNA, are arranged in alternative ways. ...


The signaling complex at the cell surface is believed to be a ternary complex formed between two identical FGF ligands, two identical FGFR subunits and either one or two heparan (dermatan and/or chondroitin) sulfate chains.


History

Fibroblast growth factor was found in a cow brain extract by Gospodarowicz and colleagues and tested in a bioassay which caused fibroblasts to proliferate (first published report in 1974).[3] Also known as a biological assay, a bioassay is a measurement of the effects of a substance on living organisms. ... Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts (MEF) A fibroblast is a type of cell that synthesizes and maintains the extracellular matrix of many animal tissues. ... The term cell growth is used in two different ways in biology. ...


They then further fractionated the extract using acidic and basic pH and isolated two slightly different forms that were named "acidic fibroblast growth factor" (FGF1) and "basic fibroblast growth factor" (FGF2). These proteins had a high degree of amino acid identity but were determined to be distinct mitogens. Human FGF2 occurs in low molecular weight (LMW) and high molecular weight (HMW) isoforms.[4] LMW FGF2 is primarily cytoplasmic and functions in an autocrine manner, whereas HMW FGF-2s are nuclear and exert activities through an intracrine mechanism. For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Acid-base extraction Acidity function Proton affinity Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Superacids Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Superbases Lewis bases Organic bases edit In chemistry, a base is... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Not long after FGF1 and FGF2 were isolated, another group isolated a pair of heparin-binding growth factors which they named HBGF-1 and HBGF-2, whilst a third group isolated a pair of growth factors that caused proliferation of cells in a bioassay containing blood vessel endothelium cells which they called ECGF-1 and ECGF-2. These proteins were found to be identical to the acidic and basic FGFs described by Gospodarowicz and coworkers. Heparin, a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan is widely used as an injectable anticoagulant and has the highest negative charge density of any known biological molecule. ... The term cell growth is used in two different ways in biology. ... Also known as a biological assay, a bioassay is a measurement of the effects of a substance on living organisms. ... The endothelium is the layer of thin, flat cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. ...


Function

One of the most important functions of bFGF (FGF2) is the promotion of endothelial cell proliferation and the physical organization of endothelial cells into tube-like structures. It thus promotes angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature. bFGF is a more potent angiogenic factor than VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) or PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor). As well as stimulating blood vessel growth, bFGF is an important player in wound healing. It stimulates the proliferation of fibroblasts that give rise to granulation tissue, which fills up a wound space/cavity early in the wound healing process. The endothelium is the layer of thin, flat cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. ... Angiogenesis is the physiological process involving the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels. ... f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important signaling protein involved in both vasculogenesis (the de novo formation of the embryonic circulatory system) and angiogenesis (the growth of blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Granulation tissue is the tissue that replaces a fibrin clot in healing tissue. ...


It has also been demonstrated that fibroblast growth factors are associated with many developmental processes including mesoderm induction, antero-posterior patterning, neural induction, angiogenesis, axon extension and limb formation.[5] The mesoderm is one of the three germ layers in the early developing embryo, the other two layers being the ectoderm and the endoderm. ...


They are crucial for the normal development of both vertebrates and invertebrates and any irregularities in their function leads to a range of developmental defects.[6] [7] [8] [9] Typical classes Petromyzontidae (lampreys) Placodermi - extinct Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) Acanthodii - extinct Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish) Actinistia (coelacanths) Dipnoi (lungfish) Amphibia (amphibians) Reptilia (reptiles) Aves (birds) Mammalia (mammals) Vertebrata is a subphylum of chordates, specifically, those with backbones or spinal columns. ... Invertebrate is a term coined by Chevalier de Lamarck to describe any animal without a backbone or vertebra, like insects, squids and worms. ...


See also

Insert non-formatted text hereGranulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) is a glycoprotein, growth factor or cytokine produced by a number of different tissues to stimulate the bone marrow to produce granulocytes. ... Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) is a glycoprotein, growth factor or cytokine produced by a number of different tissues to stimulate the bone marrow to produce granulocytes. ... Nerve growth factor (NGF), is a small secreted protein which induces the differentiation and survival of particular target neurons (nerve cells). ... Neurotrophins are a family of molecules that encourage survival of nervous tissue. ... Erythropoietin (IPA pronunciation: , alternative pronunciations: ) or EPO is a glycoprotein hormone that is a cytokine for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. ... Thrombopoietin is the recently discovered (1994) glycoprotein hormone that regulates the production of platelets. ... Myostatin (formerly known as Growth differentiation factor 8) is a growth factor that limits muscle tissue growth, i. ... Growth Differentiation factor-9 is a member of TGFβ superfamily that extreamly expressed in oocyte. ...

References

  1. ^ Finklestein S.P. and Plomaritoglou A. (2001). "Growth factors", in Miller L.P. and Hayes R.L., eds. Co-edited by Newcomb J.K.: Head Trauma: Basic, Preclinical, and Clinical Directions. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, 165-187. ISBN 0471360155. 
  2. ^ Olsen SK, Garbi M. et al (2003). "Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) homologous factors share structural but not functional homology with FGFs". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (36): 34226-34236. PMID 12815063. 
  3. ^ Gospodarowicz D (1974). "Localisation of a fibroblast growth factor and its effect alone and with hydrocortisone on 3T3 cell growth". Nature 249 (453): 123-7. PMID 4364816. 
  4. ^ Arese M, Chen Y. et al (1999). "Nuclear activities of basic fibroblast growth factor: potentiation of low-serum growth mediated by natural or chimeric nuclear localization signals.". Mol. Biol. Cell 10 (5): 1429-1444. PMID 10233154. 
  5. ^ Böttcher RT, Niehrs C. (2005). "Fibroblast growth factor signaling during early vertebrate development". Endocr. Rev. 26 (1): 63-77. PMID 15689573. 
  6. ^ Amaya E, Musci T.J. and Kirschner M.W. (1991). "Expression of a dominant negative mutant of the FGF receptor disrupts mesoderm formation in Xenopus embryos". Cell 66 (2): 257-270. PMID 1649700. 
  7. ^ Borland C.Z., Schutzman J.L. and Stern M.J. (2001). "Fibroblast growth factor signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans". Bioessays 23 (12): 1120-1130. PMID 11746231. 
  8. ^ Coumoul X. and Deng C.X. (2003). "Roles of FGF receptors in mammalian development and congenital diseases". Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today 69 (4): 286-304. PMID 14745970. 
  9. ^ Sutherland D, Samakovlis C . and Krasnow M.A. (1996). "Branchless encodes a Drosophila FGF homolog that controls tracheal cell migration and the pattern of branching". Cell 87 (6): 1091-1101. PMID 8978613. 

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Fibroblast Growth Factor (1522 words)
Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 in Remodeling of the Developing Basement Membrane Zone in the Trachea of Infant Rhesus Monkeys Sensitized and Challenged with Allergen.
Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is stored in the BMZ of all lung epithelium and endothelium and smooth muscle cells.
The receptor for FGF-2 in the basal cells is FGFR-1 (fibroblast growth factor receptor-1).
Basic fibroblast growth factor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (197 words)
Basic fibroblast growth factor, also known as bFGF or FGF2, is a member of the fibroblast growth factor family.
In normal tissue, basic fibroblast growth factor is present in basement membranes and in the subendothelial extracellular matrix of blood vessels.
Additionally, bFGF is a critical component of human embryonic stem cell culture medium; the growth factor is necessary for the cells to remain in an undifferentiated state, although the mechanisms by which it does this are poorly defined.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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