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Encyclopedia > Fiber

Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. Fibers are of great importance in the biology of both plants and animals, for holding tissues together. Human uses for fibers are diverse. They can be spun into filaments, thread, string or rope. They can be used as a component of composite materials. They can also be matted into sheets to make products such as paper or felt. Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. Look up material in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Yarn Spools of thread Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibers, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery and ropemaking. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ... Coils of rope used for long-line fishing A rope (IPA: ) is a length of fibers, twisted or braided together to improve strength for pulling and connecting. ... A cloth of woven carbon fiber filaments, a common element in composite materials Composite materials (or composites for short) are engineered materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties and which remain separate and distinct within the finished structure. ... A blank sheet of paper Paper is a commodity of thin material produced by the amalgamation of fibers, typically vegetable fibers composed of cellulose, which are subsequently held together by hydrogen bonding. ... A selection of 4 different felt cloths. ...

Contents

Natural fibers

Natural fibers include those produced by plants, animals, and geological processes. They can be classified according to their origin: It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fiber. ...

  • Vegetable fibers are generally based on arrangements of cellulose, often with lignin: examples include cotton, hemp jute, flax, ramie, and sisal. Plant fibers serve in the manufacture of paper and cloth.
  • Wood fiber, distinguished from vegetable fiber, is from tree sources. Forms include groundwood, thermomechanical pulp (TMP) and bleached or unbleached kraft or sulfite pulps. Kraft and sulfite, also called sulphite, refer to the type of pulping process used to remove the lignin bonding the original wood structure, thus freeing the fibers.
  • Animal fibers consist largely of particular proteins. Instances are spider silk, sinew, catgut and hair (including wool).
  • Mineral fibers comprise asbestos. Asbestos is the only naturally occurring long mineral fiber. Short, fiber-like minerals include wollastinite, attapulgite and halloysite.

==Man-made fibers==qaw Man-made fibers may come from natural raw materials or from synthetic chemicals. Many types of fiber are manufactured from natural cellulose, including rayon, modal, and the more recently developed Lyocell. Cellulose-based fibers are of two types, regenerated or pure cellulose such as from the cupro-ammonium process and modified or derivitized cellulose such as the cellulose acetates. Fiber crops are field crops grown for their fibers, which are used to make paper, cloth, or rope. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... Lignin (sometimes lignen) is a chemical compound (complex, highly cross-linked aromatic polymer) that is most commonly derived from wood and is an integral part of the cell walls of plants, especially in tracheids, xylem fibres and sclereids. ... Cotton ready for harvest. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Cannabis. ... The word Jute is also used in reference to the Germanic people, the Jutes. ... Binomial name Linum usitatissimum Linnaeus. ... Binomial name Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaudich. ... Binomial name Agave sisalana Perrine Sisal or sisal hemp is an agave Agave sisalana that yields a stiff fiber used in making rope. ... A blank sheet of paper Paper is a commodity of thin material produced by the amalgamation of fibers, typically vegetable fibers composed of cellulose, which are subsequently held together by hydrogen bonding. ... It has been suggested that Textile be merged into this article or section. ... Wood fibres are usually cellulosic elements that are extracted from trees, straw, bamboo, cotton seed, hemp, sugar cane and other sources. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Spider silk is a fibre secreted by spiders. ... A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue, attached on one end to a muscle and on the other to a bone. ... Catgut is the name applied to cord of great toughness and tenacity prepared from the intestines of sheep/goat, or occasionally from those of the hog, horse, mule, pig, and donkey. ... Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Boonesville, Arizona Wool is the fiber derived from the fur of animals and people of the Caprinae family, principally sheep, but the hair of certain species of other mammals such as goats and rabbits and oxes... It has been suggested that Asbestos fibers be merged into this article or section. ... A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition, a highly ordered atomic structure and specific physical properties. ... Synthetic fibers are the result of extensive research by scientists to increase and improve upon the supply of naturally occurring animal and plant fibers that have been used in making cloth and rope. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... Rayon is a manufactured regenerated cellulosic fiber. ... Modal® is a bio-based fiber made by spinning reconstituted cellulose from beech trees. ... The label of a coat with Tencel® Lyocell is a fibre made from wood pulp cellulose. ...


Mineral fibers

The most well-known mineral fibers are glass and metal fibers.

  • Fiberglass made from specific glass formulas and optical fiber, made from purified natural quartz, are also man-made fibers that come from natural raw materials.
  • Metallic fibers can be drawn from ductile metals such as copper, gold or silver and extruded or deposited from more brittle ones such as nickel, aluminum or iron.
  • Carbon fibers are often based on carbonised polymers, but the end product is pure carbon.

Bundle of fiberglass Fiberglass (also called fibreglass and glass fibre) is material made from extremely fine fibers of glass. ... Optical fibers An optical fiber (or fibre) is a glass or plastic fiber designed to guide light along its length by confining as much light as possible in a propagating form. ... Quartz (from German Quarz[1]) is the second most common mineral in the Earths continental crust. ... Carbon fiber composite is a strong, light and very expensive material. ...

Polymer fibers

  • Polymer fibers are a subset of man-made fibers, which are based on synthetic chemicals (often from petrochemical sources) rather than arising from natural materials by a purely physical process. Such fibers are made from:
    • polyamide nylon,
    • PET or PBT polyester
    • phenol-formaldehyde (PF)
    • polyvinyl alcohol fiber (PVOH)
    • polyvinyl chloride fiber (PVC)
    • polyolefins (PP and PE)
    • acrylic polymers, pure polyacrylonitrile PAN fibers are used to make carbon fiber by roasting them in a low oxygen environment. Traditional acrylic fiber is used more often as a synthetic replacement for wool. Carbon fibers and PF fibers are noted as two resin-based fibers that are not thermoplastic, most others can be melted.
    • Aromatic polyamids such as Twaron, Kevlar and Nomex thermally degrade at high temperatures and do not melt. These fibers have strong bonding between polymer chains
    • polyethylene (PE), eventually with extremely long chains / HMPE (e.g. Dyneema or Spectra).
    • Elastomers can even be used, e.g. spandex although urethane fibers are starting to replace spandex technology.
    • polyurethane fiber
  • Coextruded fibers have two distinct polymers forming the fiber, usually as a core-sheath or side-by-side. Coated fibers exist such as nickel-coated to provide static elimination, silver-coated to provide anti-bacterial properties and aluminum-coated to provide radar chaff. Radar chaff is actually a spool of continuous glass tow that has been aluminum coated. An aircraft-mounted high speed cutter chops it up as it spews from a moving aircraft to foil radar signals.

Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. ... Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers first produced on February 28, 1935 by Wallace Carothers at DuPont. ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester is a category of polymers, or, more specifically condensation polymers, which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... Acrylic fibers are synthetic fibers made from a polymer with a weight average molecular weight of ~100,000. ... Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) is a resinous, fibrous, or rubbery organic polymer. ... Carbon fiber composite is a strong, light and very expensive material. ... Aramid fiber (1961) is a fire-resistant and strong synthetic fiber. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), also known as high modulus polyethylene (HMPE) or high performance polyethylene (HPPE), is a thermoplastic. ... The term elastomer is often used interchangeably with the term rubber, and is preferred when referring to vulcanisates. ... Example of spandex Spandex or elastane is a synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity (stretchability). ... A polyurethane is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. ... Modern US Navy RR-129 and RR-124 chaff countermeasures and containers Chaff, originally called Window by the British, and Düppel by the WWII era German Luftwaffe, is a radar countermeasure in which aircraft or other targets spread a cloud of small, thin pieces of aluminium, metallised glass fibre...

Microfibers

Micro fibers in textiles refer to sub-denier fiber (such as polyester drawn to 0.5 dn). Denier and Detex are two measurements of fiber yield based on weight and length. If the fiber density is known you also have a fiber diameter, otherwise it is simpler to measure diameters in micrometres. Microfibers in technical fibers refer to ultrafine fibers (glass or meltblown thermoplastics) often used in filtration. Newer fiber designs include extruding fiber that splits into multiple finer fibers. Most synthetic fibers are round in cross-section, but special designs can be hollow, oval, star-shaped or trilobal. The latter design provides more optically reflective properties. Synthetic textile fibers are often crimped to provide bulk in a woven, nonwoven or knitted structure. Fiber surfaces can also be dull or bright. Dull surfaces reflect more light while bright tends to transmit light and make the fiber more transparent.


Very short and/or irregular fibers have been called fibrils. Natural cellulose, such as cotton or bleached kraft show smaller fibrils jutting out and away from the main fiber structure.


See also

Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water, making defecation easier. ... “fabric” redirects here. ... Wood fibres are (usually) cellulosic elements that are extracted from trees, straw, bamboo, cotton seed, hemp and sugar cane to name just a few sources. ... Optical fibers An optical fiber (or fibre) is a glass or plastic fiber designed to guide light along its length by confining as much light as possible in a propagating form. ... Fiber crops are field crops grown for their fibers, which are used to make paper, cloth, or rope. ... Tensile strength isthe measures the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. ... Aramid fiber (1961) is a fire-resistant and strong synthetic fiber. ... Synthetic fibers are the result of extensive research by scientists to increase and improve upon the supply of naturally occurring animal and plant fibers that have been used in making cloth and rope. ... Molded pulp is a packaging material, typically made from 100% recycled newspaper. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The spelling fibre is the British spelling, is used in Commonwealth countries, and is sometimes used in the United States as well.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Fiber: Nutrition Source, Harvard School of Public Health (1752 words)
Fiber is one of those nutrients that many of us know is important but that remains a bit of a mystery.
Fiber is present in all plants that are eaten for food, including fruits, vegetables, grains, and legumes.
Fiber is an important part of a healthy diet, and you should get a least the minimum recommended amount of 21-38 grams of dietary fiber per day for adults, depending on gender and age.
FANTASTIC FIBER (2511 words)
Fiber is the part of fruits, vegetables, and grains that is neither digested nor absorbed.
High fiber diets are usually low in fat, too, and the cholesterol-lowering effects may be related to less fat in the diet as well as to fiber.
One of the theories explaining the relationship between a high- fiber diet and a lower risk of colon cancer suggests that the longer potential toxins are in contact with the lining of the colon, the greater the chance of these lining cells becoming cancerous.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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