FACTOID # 6: Michigan is ranked 22nd in land area, but since 41.27% of the state is composed of water, it jumps to 11th place in total area.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Fever" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Fever
Name of Symptom/Sign:
Fever
Classifications and external resources
ICD-10 R50.
ICD-9 780.6
DiseasesDB 18924
An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38.7 °C
An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38.7 °C

Fever (also known as pyrexia, or a febrile response from the Latin word febris, meaning fever, and archaically known as ague) [or pyrexia from the Greek pyretos meaning fire] is a frequent medical symptom that describes an increase in internal body temperature to levels that are above normal (the common oral measurement of normal human body temperature is 36.8±0.7 °C or 98.2±1.2 °F); a temperature above 99.4°F is recognized as a definite fever by doctors worldwide. Fever is most accurately characterized as a temporary elevation in the body's thermoregulatory set-point, usually by about 1–2°C. Fever differs from hyperthermia, which is an increase in body temperature over the body's thermoregulatory set-point (due to excessive heat production or insufficient thermoregulation, or both). Carl Wunderlich discovered that fever is not a disease but a symptom of disease. The term symptom (from the Greek meaning chance, mishap or casualty, itself derived from συμπιπτω meaning to fall upon or to happen to) has two similar meanings in the context of physical and mental health: Strictly, a symptom is a sensation or change in health function experienced by a patient. ... In medicine, a sign is a feature of disease as detected by the doctor during physical examination of a patient. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // R00-R99 - Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified (R00-R09) Symptoms and signs involving the circulatory and respiratory systems (R00) Abnormalities of heart beat (R000) Tachycardia, unspecified (R001) Bradycardia, unspecified (R002) Palpitations (R008) Other and unspecified abnormalities of heart beat (R01) Cardiac murmurs and other... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3112x1927, 748 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3112x1927, 748 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... A medical/clinical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... In Roman mythology, Febris (fever) was the goddess who protected people against fevers and malaria. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... The term symptom (from the Greek meaning chance, mishap or casualty, itself derived from συμπιπτω meaning to fall upon or to happen to) has two similar meanings in the context of physical and mental health: Strictly, a symptom is a sensation or change in health function experienced by a patient. ... Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. ... Normal human body temperature is a concept that depends on the place in the body at which the measurement is made. ... Hyperthermia in its advanced state referred to as heat stroke or sunstroke, is an acute condition which occurs when the body produces or absorbs more heat than it can dissipate. ... Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. ... Carl Reinhold August Wunderlich (1815-1877) was a German physician, pioneer psychiatrist, and medical professor. ...


The elevation in thermoregulatory set-point means that the previous "normal body temperature" is considered hypothermic, and effector mechanisms kick in. The person who is developing the fever has a cold sensation, and an increase in heart rate, muscle tone and shivering attempt to counteract the perceived hypothermia, thereby reaching the new thermoregulatory set-point. Hypothermia is a condition in which an organisms temperature drops below that Required fOr normal metabolism and Bodily functionS. In warm-blooded animals, core [[body Temperature]] is maintained nEar a constant leVel through biologic [[homEostasis]]. But wheN the body iS exposed to cold Its internal mechanismS may be unable... Heart rate is a term used to describe the frequency of the cardiac cycle. ... Bodybuilder showing highly developed muscle tone. ... Shivering is a human bodily function in response to cold. ... Hypothermia is a condition in which an organisms temperature drops below that Required fOr normal metabolism and Bodily functionS. In warm-blooded animals, core [[body Temperature]] is maintained nEar a constant leVel through biologic [[homEostasis]]. But wheN the body iS exposed to cold Its internal mechanismS may be unable...


When a patient has or is suspected of having a fever, that person's body temperature is measured using a thermometer. At a first glance, fever is present if:

  • temperature in the anus (rectum/rectal) or in the ear (otic) is at or over 38.0°C (100.4°F)
  • temperature in the mouth (oral) is at or over 37.5°C (99.5°F)
  • temperature under the arm (axillary) is at or over 37.2°C (99.0°F)

However, there are many variations in normal body temperature, and this needs to be considered when measuring fever. The values given are for an otherwise healthy, non-fasting adult, dressed comfortably, indoors, in a room that is kept at a normal room temperature, during the morning, but not shortly after arising from sleep. Furthermore, for oral temperatures, the subject must not have eaten, drunk, or smoked anything in at least the previous fifteen minutes.


Body temperature normally fluctuates over the day, with the lowest levels at 4 a.m. and the highest at 6 p.m. Therefore, an oral temperature of 37.5°C (99.5°F) would strictly be a fever in the morning, but not in the afternoon. Normal body temperature may differ as much as 0.4°C (0.7°F) between individuals or from day to day. In women, temperature differs at various points in the menstrual cycle, and this can be used for family planning (although it is only one of the variables of temperature). Temperature is increased after meals, and psychological factors (like the first day in the hospital) also influence body temperature. Menstrual cycle The menstrual cycle is a recurring cycle of physiologic changes that occurs in the females of several mammals, including human beings and other apes. ... Fertility Awareness (FA) is the practice of observing one or more of a woman’s primary fertility signs to determine the fertile and infertile phases of her menstrual cycle. ...


There are different locations where temperature can be measured, and these differ in temperature variability. Tympanic membrane thermometers measure radiant heat energy from the tympanic membrane (infrared). These may be very convenient, but may also show more variability. The tympanum or tympanic membrane, colloquially known as eardrum, is a thin membrane that separates the outer ear from the middle ear. ... A common mercury thermometer A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or temperature gradient, using a variety of different principles. ...


Children develop higher temperatures with activities like playing, but this is not fever because their set-point is normal. Elderly patients may have a decreased ability to generate body heat during a fever, so even a low-grade fever can have serious underlying causes in geriatrics. Geriatrics is the branch of medicine that focuses on health promotion and the prevention and treatment of disease and disability in later life. ...

Contents

Mechanism

Temperature is regulated in the hypothalamus, in response to PGE2. PGE2 release, in turn, comes from a trigger, a pyrogen. The hypothalamus generates a response back to the rest of the body, making it increase the temperature set-point. The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... E1 - Alprostadil I2 - Prostacyclin A prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. ...

Hyperthermia: Characterized on the left. Normal body temperature (thermoregulatory set-point) is shown in green, while the hyperthermic temperature is shown in red. As can be seen, hyperthermia can be conceptualized as an increase above the thermoregulatory set-point.Hypothermia: Characterized in the center: Normal body temperature is shown in green, while the hypothermic temperature is shown in blue. As can be seen, hypothermia can be conceptualized as a decrease below the thermoregulatory set-point.Fever: Characterized on the right: Normal body temperature is shown in green. It reads "New Normal" because the thermoregulatory set-point has risen. This has caused what was the normal body temperature (in blue) to be considered hypothermic.
Hyperthermia: Characterized on the left. Normal body temperature (thermoregulatory set-point) is shown in green, while the hyperthermic temperature is shown in red. As can be seen, hyperthermia can be conceptualized as an increase above the thermoregulatory set-point.
Hypothermia: Characterized in the center: Normal body temperature is shown in green, while the hypothermic temperature is shown in blue. As can be seen, hypothermia can be conceptualized as a decrease below the thermoregulatory set-point.
Fever: Characterized on the right: Normal body temperature is shown in green. It reads "New Normal" because the thermoregulatory set-point has risen. This has caused what was the normal body temperature (in blue) to be considered hypothermic.

Image File history File links Fever-conceptual. ... Image File history File links Fever-conceptual. ...

Pyrogens

A pyrogen is a substance that induces fever. These can be either internal (endogenous) or external (exogenous). The bacterial substance lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an example of an exogenous pyrogen. ... Look up Endogenous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An externality occurs in economics when a decision (for example, to pollute the atmosphere) causes costs or benefits to individuals or groups other than the person making the decision. ... Exogenous (or exogeneous) (from the Greek words exo and gen, meaning outside and production) refers to an action or object coming from outside a system. ... Lipopolysaccharide (captions are in French) Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a large molecule consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide (carbohydrate) joined by a covalent bond. ...


Endogenous

The cytokines (such as interleukin 1) are a part of the innate immune system, produced by phagocytic cells, and cause the increase in the thermoregulatory set-point in the hypothalamus. Other examples of endogenous pyrogens are interleukin 6 (IL-6), and the tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is secreted by the macrophages, monocytes and dendritic cells. ... The innate immune system comprises the cells and mechanisms that defend the host from infection by other organisms, in a non-specific manner. ... A phagocyte is a cell that ingests and destroys foreign matter such as microorganisms or debris via a process known as phagocytosis, in which these cells ingest and kill offending cells by a process analogous to cellular digestion, usually using lysosomes which carry potent enzymes that digests cell components such... Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine secreted by T cells and macrophages to stimulate immune response to trauma, especially burns or other tissue damage leading to inflammation. ... In medicine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, cachexin or cachectin) is an important cytokine involved in systemic inflammation and the acute phase response. ...


These cytokine factors are released into general circulation where they migrate to the circumventricular organs of the brain, where the blood-brain barrier is reduced. The cytokine factors bind with endothelial receptors on vessel walls, or interact with local microglial cells. When these cytokine factors bind, they activate the arachidonic acid pathway. This article is about the biological unit. ... Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a membranic structure that acts primarily to protect the brain from chemicals in the blood, while still allowing essential metabolic function. ... The endothelium is the layer of thin, flat cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. ... Microglia are a type of glial cell that act as the immune cells of the Central nervous system (CNS). ... Arachidonic acid (AA) is an omega-6 fatty acid 20:4(ω-6). ...


Exogenous

One model for the mechanism of fever caused by exogenous pyrogens includes LPS, which is a cell wall component of gram-negative bacteria. An immunological protein called lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) binds to LPS. The LBP–LPS complex then binds to the CD14 receptor of a nearby macrophage. This binding results in the synthesis and release of various endogenous cytokine factors, such as interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and the tumor necrosis factor-alpha. In other words, exogenous factors cause release of endogenous factors, which, in turn, activate the arachidonic acid pathway. Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein (LBP) is a soluble protein that binds to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (or LPS) to elicit immune responses by presenting the LPS to important cell surface pattern recognition receptors called CD14 and TLR4. ... CD14 is a membrane-associated glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked protein expressed at the surface of cells, especially macrophages. ... A macrophage of a mouse stretching its arms to engulf two particles, possibly pathogens Macrophages (Greek: big eaters, from makros large + phagein eat) are cells within the tissues that originate from specific white blood cells called monocytes. ... Cytokines are a group of proteins and peptides that are used in organisms as signaling compounds. ...


PGE2 release

PGE2 release comes from the arachidonic acid pathway. This pathway (as it relates to fever), is mediated by the enzymes phospholipase A2 (PLA2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and prostaglandin E2 synthase. These enzymes ultimately mediate the synthesis and release of PGE2. Arachidonic acid (AA) is an omega-6 fatty acid 20:4(ω-6). ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... A phospholipase is an enzyme that converts phospholipids into fatty acids and other lipophilic substances. ... Cyclooxygenase (COX) is an enzyme (EC 1. ... Prostaglandin E synthase (or PGE synthase) is an enzyme involved in eicosanoid and glutathione metabolism. ...


PGE2 is the ultimate mediator of the febrile response. The set-point temperature of the body will remain elevated until PGE2 is no longer present. PGE2 acts on neurons in the preoptic area (POA) through the EP3 subtype of PGE receptors and the EP3-expressing neurons in the POA innervate the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), the rostral raphe pallidus nucleus in the medulla oblongata (rRPa) and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Fever signals sent to the DMH and rRPa lead to stimulation of the sympathetic output system, which evokes non-shivering thermogenesis to produce body heat and skin vasoconstriction to decrease heat loss from the body surface. It is presumed that the innervation from the POA to the PVN mediates the neuroendocrine effects of fever through the pathway involving pituitary gland and various endocrine organs. The preoptic area is a region of the hypothalamus. ... The Dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus is a nucleus of the hypothalamus. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: it is patent nonsense. ... The medulla oblongata is the lower portion of the brainstem. ... The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is an aggregation of neurons in the hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... The word sympathetic means different things in different contexts. ... | Latin = hypophysis, glandula pituitaria | GraySubject = 275 | GrayPage = 1275 | Image = Gray1180. ... Endocrinology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the endocrine system and its specific secretions called hormones. ...


Hypothalamus response

The brain ultimately orchestrates heat effector mechanisms. These may be

The autonomic nervous system may also activate brown adipose tissue to produce heat (non-exercise-associated thermogenesis, also known as non-shivering thermogenesis), but this seems mostly important for babies. Increased heart rate and vasoconstriction contribute to increased blood pressure in fever. Bodybuilder showing highly developed muscle tone. ... Shivering is a human bodily function in response to cold. ... The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Brown adipose tissue (BAT) or brown fat is one of the two types of adipose tissue (the other being white adipose tissue) that is present in many newborn or hibernating mammals. ... Thermogenesis is the process of heat production in organisms. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ...


Types

According to one common rule of thumb, pyrexia (fever) is generally classified for convenience as: Rounding to n significant figures is a form of rounding. ...

  • low grade: 38–39°C (100.4–102.2°F)
  • moderate: 39–40°C (102.2–104.0°F)
  • high-grade: 40–42°C (104.0–107.6°F)
  • hyperpyrexia: over 42°C (107.6°F)

The last is a medical emergency because it approaches the upper limit compatible with human life. In medicine, low-grade fever is a continuous or fluctuating low fever, typically defined as never exceeding 38. ... In medicine, hyperpyrexia is an excessive and unusual elevation of body temperature above 107. ... {{Otheruses4|the medical term|the Australian television series|Medical Emergenc an immediate threat to a persons life or long term health. ...


Most of the time, fever types can not be used to find the underlying cause. However, there are specific fever patterns that may occasionally hint the diagnosis: In general, diagnosis (plural diagnoses) has two distinct dictionary definitions. ...

  • Pel-Ebstein fever: a specific kind of fever associated with Hodgkin's lymphoma, being high for one week and low for the next week and so on. However, there is some debate as to whether this pattern truly exists.[1]
  • Continuous fever: temperature remains above normal throughout the day and does not fluctuate more than 1°C in 24 hours, e.g. lobar pneumonia, typhoid, urinary tract infection, brucellosis, or typhus. Typhoid fever may show a specific fever pattern, with a slow stepwise increase and a high plateau.
  • Intermittent fever: temperature is present only for some hours of the day and becomes normal for remaining hours, e.g. malaria, kala-azar, pyaemia, or septicemia. In malaria, there may be a fever with a periodicity of 24 hours (quotidian), 48 hours (tertian fever), or 72 hours (quartan fever, indicating Plasmodium vivax). These patterns may be less clear in travelers.
  • Remittent fever: temperature remains above normal throughout the day and fluctuates more than 1°C in 24 hours, e.g. infective endocarditis.

Febricula[2] is a mild fever of short duration, of indefinite origin, and without any distinctive pathology. Pel-Ebstein fever is a rarely seen condition noted in patients with Hodgkins lymphoma in which the patient experiences fevers which cyclicly increase then decrease over an average period of 1 or two weeks. ... Hodgkins lymphoma, also known as Hodgkins disease, is a type of lymphoma first described by Thomas Hodgkin in 1832. ... Pneumonia is an illness of the lungs and respiratory system in which the alveoli (microscopic air-filled sacs of the lung responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere) become inflamed and flooded with fluid. ... This is about the disease typhoid fever. ... A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection that affects any part of the urinary tract. ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ... For a similar disease with a similar name, see typhus. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by parasites that belong to the genus Leishmania and is transmitted by the bite of certain species of sand fly. ... Pyaemia is a type of septicaemia that leads to widespread abscesses and is usually caused by the staphylococcus bacteria. ... Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις) is a serious medical condition caused by a severe systemic infection leading to a systemic inflammatory response. ... Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. ...


Causes

Fever is a common symptom of many medical conditions: The term symptom (from the Greek meaning chance, mishap or casualty, itself derived from συμπιπτω meaning to fall upon or to happen to) has two similar meanings in the context of physical and mental health: Strictly, a symptom is a sensation or change in health function experienced by a patient. ...

Persistent fever which cannot be explained after repeated routine clinical inquiries, is called fever of unknown origin. This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). ... // Acute viral nasopharyngitis, or acute coryza, usually known as the common cold, is a highly contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, primarily caused by picornaviruses or coronaviruses. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... See also Bacterial gastroenteritis and Diarrhea Gastroenteritis is a general term referring to inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the stomach and intestines. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... Boil or furuncle is a skin disease caused by the inflammation of hair follicles, thus resulting in the localized accumulation of pus and dead tissues. ... A pimple is a type of skin lesion caused by inflamed and/or obstructed pores. ... For the death metal band, see Abscess (band). ... Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. ... In medicine, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the large intestine and, in some cases, the small intestine. ... {{otheruses4|1=medical hemoglobin]] into the surrounding fluid (plasma, in vivo). ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Crush syndrome: is a reperfusion injury as a result of traumatic rhabdomyolysis causing a severe systemic manifestation of trauma and dead tissues ( ischemia –from lack of O2 getting to the tissues there by destroying the tissue) involving soft tissues, principally skeletal muscle, due to prolonged severe crushing. ... Rhabdomyolysis is the rapid breakdown of skeletal muscle tissue due to traumatic injury, either mechanical, physical or chemical. ... A intracranial hemorrhage is a bleed into the substance of the cerebrum. ... chemical structure of lamotrigine Lamotrigine (marketed as Lamictal by GlaxoSmithKline) is marketed as both an anti-epileptic medication and a treatment for bipolar disorder. ... Progesterone is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... For malignant tumors specifically, see cancer. ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to accidental death of cells and living tissue. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... There are several sulphonamide-based groups of drugs. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... A metabolic disorder is a medical disorder which affects the production of energy within individual human (or animal) cells. ... Porphyrias are a group of inherited or acquired disorders of certain enzymes in the heme biosynthetic pathway (also called porphyrin pathway). ... It has been suggested that Deep Vein Thrombosis be merged into this article or section. ...


Usefulness of fever

There are arguments for and against the usefulness of fever, and the issue is controversial.[3][4] There are studies using warm-blooded vertebrates[5] and humans[6] in vivo, with some suggesting that they recover more rapidly from infections or critical illness due to fever. A warm-blooded (homeothermic) animal is one that can keep its core body temperature at a nearly constant level regardless of the temperature of the surrounding environment (that is, to maintain thermal homeostasis) . This can involve not only the ability to generate heat, but also the ability to cool down... Typical classes Petromyzontidae (lampreys) Placodermi - extinct Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) Acanthodii - extinct Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish) Actinistia (coelacanths) Dipnoi (lungfish) Amphibia (amphibians) Reptilia (reptiles) Aves (birds) Mammalia (mammals) Vertebrata is a subphylum of chordates, specifically, those with backbones or spinal columns. ... This article is about modern humans. ... In vivo (Latin for (with)in the living). ...


Theoretically, fever has been conserved during evolution because of its advantage for host defense.[3] There are certainly some important immunological reactions that are sped up by temperature, and some pathogens with strict temperature preferences could be hindered.[7] The overall conclusion seems to be that both aggressive treatment of fever[6] and too little fever control[3] can be detrimental. This depends on the clinical situation, so careful assessment is needed. A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ...


Fevers may be useful to some extent since they allow the body to reach high temperatures. This causes an unbearable environment for some pathogens. White blood cells also rapidly proliferate due to the suitable environment and can also help fight off the harmful pathogens and microbes that invaded the body.


Treatment

Fever should not necessarily be treated. Fever is an important signal that there's something wrong in the body, and it can be used for follow-up. Moreover, not all fevers are of infectious origin.


Even when treatment is not indicated, however, febrile patients are generally advised to keep themselves adequately hydrated, as the dehydration produced by a mild fever can be more dangerous than the fever itself. Water is generally used for this purpose, but there is always a small risk of hyponatremia if the patient drinks too much water. For this reason, some patients drink sports drinks or products designed specifically for this purpose. Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ... The electrolyte disturbance hyponatremia or hyponatraemia exists in humans when the sodium level in the plasma falls below 135 mmol/l. ... A sports drink is a beverage which is supposed to rehydrate athletes, as well as restoring electrolytes, sugar, and other nutrients. ...


Most people take medication against fever because the symptoms cause discomfort. Fever increases heart rate and metabolism, thus potentially putting an additional strain on elderly patients, patients with heart disease, etc. This may even cause delirium. Therefore, potential benefits must be weighed against risks in these patients. In any case, fever must be brought under control in instances when fever escalates to hyperpyrexia and tissue damage is imminent. Heart rate is a term used to describe the frequency of the cardiac cycle. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... This article is about the mental state and medical condition. ... In medicine, hyperpyrexia is an excessive and unusual elevation of body temperature above 107. ...


Treatment of fever should be based primarily on lowering the set-point, but facilitating heat loss may also contribute. The former is accomplished with antipyretics. Wet cloth or pads are also used for treatment, and applied to the forehead. Heat loss may be an effect of (possibly a combination of) heat conduction, convection, radiation, or evaporation (sweating, perspiration). This may be particularly important in babies, where drugs should be avoided. However, if water that is too cold is used, it induces vasoconstriction and prevents adequate heat loss. Antipyretics are drugs that prevent or reduce fever by lowering the body temperature from a raised state. ... Heat conduction or thermal conduction is the spontaneous transfer of thermal energy through matter, from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature, and hence acts to even out temperature differences. ... Convection in the most general terms refers to the movement of currents within fluids (i. ... For other uses, see Radiation (disambiguation). ... “Vaporization” redirects here. ... Perspiration (also called sweating or sometimes transpiration) is the production and evaporation of a fluid, consisting primarily of water as well as a smaller amount of sodium chloride (the main constituent of table salt), that is excreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ...


See also

Thermoregulation Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. ...


References

Articles

  1. ^ Asher, Richard (July 6, 1995). "Making Sense". The New England Journal of Medicine 333. 
  2. ^ Febricula, definition from Biology-Online.org, consulted June 7, 2006 http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Febricula
  3. ^ a b c Schaffner A. Fever—useful or noxious symptom that should be treated? Ther Umsch 2006; 63: 185-8. PMID 16613288
  4. ^ Soszynski D. The pathogenesis and the adaptive value of fever. Postepy Hig Med Dosw 2003; 57: 531-54. PMID 14737969
  5. ^ Su, F.; Nguyen, N.D.; Wang, Z.; Cai, Y.; Rogiers, P.; Vincent, J.L. Fever control in septic shock: beneficial or harmful? Shock 2005; 23: 516-20. PMID 15897803
  6. ^ a b Schulman, C.I.; Namias, N.; Doherty, J., et al. The effect of antipyretic therapy upon outcomes in critically ill patients: a randomized, prospective study. Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2005; 6:369-75. PMID 16433601
  7. ^ Fischler, M.P.; Reinhart, W.H. Fever: friend or enemy? Schweiz Med Wochenschr 1997; 127: 864-70. PMID 9289813

is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...

Books

  • Rhoades, R. and Pflanzer, R. Human physiology, third edition, chapter 27 Regulation of body temperature, p. 820 Clinical focus: pathogenesis of fever. ISBN 0-03-005159-2
  • Kasper, D.L.; Braunwald, E.; Fauci, A.S.; Hauser, S.L.; Longo, D.L.; Jameson, J.L. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005. ISBN 0-07-139140-1.

Harrisons Principles of Internal Medicine is an American textbook of internal medicine. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Fever - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1509 words)
Fever (also known as pyrexia, or a febrile response from the Latin word febris meaning fever, and archaically known as ague) is a frequent medical symptom that describes an increase in internal body temperature to levels that are above normal (37°C, 98.6°F).
Fever is most accurately characterized as a temporary elevation in the body’s thermoregulatory set-point, which is usually by about 1-2°C. Fever differs from hyperthermia, which is an increase in body temperature over the body’s thermoregulatory set-point (due to excessive heat production or insufficient thermoregulation, or both).
It is presumed that the elevation in thermoregulatory set-point is mediated by the VMPO, whereas the neuroendocrine effects of fever are mediated by the PVH, pituitary gland, and various endocrine organs.
Medical Breakthroughs - Learn More About Diabetes (557 words)
Acute rheumatic fever is an inflammation that may affect many parts of the body.
A bout of rheumatic fever can also damage the heart valves, and certain characteristic murmurs are nearly always audible during an acute attack of rheumatic carditis.
There is no cure for rheumatic fever once it has developed, although medications can be used to eradicate any remaining streptococcal infection and to control some of the symptoms.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m