FACTOID # 5: Minnesota and Connecticut are both in the top 5 in saving money and total tax burden per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Fertilizer" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Fertilizer
Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer
Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer

Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either through the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. Fertilizers can be organic (composed of organic matter), or inorganic (made of simple, inorganic chemicals or minerals). They can be naturally occurring compounds such as peat or mineral deposits, or manufactured through natural processes (such as composting) or chemical processes (such as the Haber process). Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... Soil Fertilization or Crop Fertilization are methods of improving soil quality with a view towards improving soil fertility. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Plant nutrition is the study of the chemical elements that are necessary for plant growth. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (646x1309, 620 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Fertilizer Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (646x1309, 620 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Fertilizer Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Animal manure is often a mixture of animals feces and bedding straw, as in this example from a stable. ... The differences in the spellings of British English and American English are as follows: Spelling differences between U.S. usage on one side and British and Commonwealth usage on the other are generally more conspicuous than spelling differences within the Commonwealth. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Foliar spraying be merged into this article or section. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... Traditionally, inorganic compounds are considered to be of mineral, not biological, origin. ... Peat in Lewis, Scotland Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Composting is the aerobic decomposition of biodegradable organic matter, producing compost. ... The Haber process (also known as Haber–Bosch process) is the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen, over an iron-substrate, to produce ammonia [1] [2] [3]. The Haber process is important because ammonia is difficult to produce, on an industrial scale. ...


They typically provide, in varying proportions, the three major plant nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium: N-P-K), the secondary plant nutrients (calcium, sulfur, magnesium), and sometimes trace elements (or micronutrients) with a role in plant nutrition: boron, chlorine, manganese, iron, zinc, copper, and molybdenum. This article is about proportionality, the mathematical relation. ... Plant nutrition is the study of the chemical elements that are necessary for plant growth. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... Plant nutrition is the study of the chemical elements that are necessary for plant growth. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Microminerals (also known as trace elements) are micronutrients that are chemical elements. ... For other uses, see Boron (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ...


Both organic and inorganic fertilizers were called "manures" derived from the French expression for manual tillage, but this term is now mostly restricted to organic manure. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Animal manure is often a mixture of animals feces and bedding straw, as in this example from a stable. ...


Though nitrogen is plentiful in the earth's atmosphere, relatively few plants engage in nitrogen fixation (conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to a biologically useful form). Most plants thus require nitrogen compounds to be present in the soil in which they grow. General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen is taken from its natural, relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds (such as, notably, ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide)[1] useful for other chemical processes. ...

Contents

History

While manure, cinder and ironmaking slag have been used to improve crops for centuries, the use of fertilizers is arguably one of the great innovations of the Agricultural Revolution of the 19th Century. Slag is also an early play by David Hare. ... The British Agricultural Revolution describes a period of agricultural development in Britain between the 16th century and the mid-19th century, which saw a massive increase in agricultural productivity and net output. ...


Key people

In the 1730s, Viscount Charles Townshend (1674-1738) first studied the improving effects of the four-crop rotation system that he had observed in use in Flanders. For this he gained the nickname of Turnip Townshend. Italic text Charles Townshend Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend (April 18, 1674–June 21, 1738), was an English statesman. ... Satellite image of circular crop fields in Haskell County, Kansas in late June 2001. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ...


Chemist Justus von Liebig (1803-1883) contributed greatly to the advancement in the understanding of plant nutrition. His influential works first denounced the vitalist theory of humus, arguing first the importance of ammonia, and later the importance of inorganic minerals. Primarily his work succeeded in setting out questions for agricultural science to address over the next 50 years. In England he attempted to implement his theories commercially through a fertilizer created by treating phosphate of lime in bone meal with sulfuric acid. Although it was much less expensive than the guano that was used at the time, it failed because it was not able to be properly absorbed by crops. Freiherr Justus von Liebig (May 12, 1803 in Darmstadt, Germany – April 18, 1873 in Munich, Germany) was a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and worked on the organization of organic chemistry. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... The Chincha guano islands in Peru. ...


At that time in England, Sir John Bennet Lawes (1814-1900) was experimenting with crops and manures at his farm at Harpenden and was able to produce a practical superphosphate in 1842 from the phosphates in rock and coprolites. Encouraged, he employed Sir Joseph Henry Gilbert, who had studied under Liebig at the University of Giessen, as director of research. To this day, the Rothamsted research station that they founded still investigates the impact of inorganic and organic fertilizers on crop yields. Caricature from Vanity Fair, 8 July 1882 Sir John Bennet Lawes, 1st Baronet FRS (December 28, 1814–August 31, 1900) was an English entrepreneur and agricultural scientist. ... This section has been identified as trivia. ... Superphosphate is a fertiliser produced by the action of concentrated Sulphuric Acid on ground phosphate rock. ... Coprolite is the name given to the mineral that results when human or animal semen is fossilized. ... Sir Joseph Henry Gilbert (1817-1901) was an English chemist born at Hull on the 1st of August 1817. ... The University of Gießen (Giessen), officially called Justus Liebig-Universität Gießen after its most famous member, the founder of modern agricultural chemistry and inventor of artificial fertilizer. ... The Rothamsted Experimental Station, one of the oldest agricultural research institutions in the world, is located at Harpenden in Hertfordshire, England. ...


In France, Jean Baptiste Boussingault (1802-1887) pointed out that the amount of nitrogen in various kinds of fertilizers is important. Jean Baptiste Joseph Dieudonne Boussingault (February 2, 1802 - May 11, 1887) was a French chemist. ...


Metallurgists Percy Gilchrist (1851-1935) and Sidney Gilchrist Thomas (1850-1885) invented the Thomas-Gilchrist converter, which enabled the use of high phosphorus acidic Continental ores on steelmaking. The dolomite lime lining of the converter turned in time into calcium phosphate, which could be used as fertilizer known as Thomas-phosphate. Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and of materials engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements and their mixtures, which are called alloys. ... Percy Carlyle Gilchrist (December 27, 1851 - December 16, 1935) was a British chemist and metallurgist born in Lyme Regis, Dorset, and who studied at the Royal School of Mines. ... Sidney Gilchrist Thomas (April 16, 1850 - August 1, 1885) was a British inventor. ... Bessemer Converter, Schematic Diagram The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel from molten pig iron. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... Steelmaking is the second step in producing steel from iron ore. ... Metallurgical converter is a vessel used in the operation of converting (metallurgy). ... Calcium phosphate is the name given to a family of minerals containing calcium ions (Ca2+) together with orthophosphates (PO43-), metaphosphates or pyrophosphates (P2O74-) and occasionally hydrogen or hydroxide ions. ...


In the early decades of the 20th Century, the Nobel prize-winning chemists Carl Bosch of IG Farben and Fritz Haber developed the process[1] that enabled nitrogen to be cheaply synthesised into ammonia, for subsequent oxidisation into nitrates and nitrites. The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... Carl Bosch (August 27, 1874 – April 26, 1940) was a German chemist and engineer. ... IG Farben (short for Interessen-Gemeinschaft Farbenindustrie AG) was a German conglomerate of companies formed in 1925 and even earlier during World War I. IG Farben held nearly a total monopoly on the chemical production, later during the time of Nazi Germany. ... Fritz Haber (9 December 1868 – 29 January 1934) was a German chemist, who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his development of synthetic ammonia, important for fertilisers and explosives. ... The Haber process (also known as Haber–Bosch process) is the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen, over an iron-substrate, to produce ammonia [1] [2] [3]. The Haber process is important because ammonia is difficult to produce, on an industrial scale. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Nitrates are the salts of nitric acid. ... In inorganic chemistry nitrites are salts of nitrous acid HNO2. ...


In 1927 Erling Johnson developed an industrial method for producing nitrophosphate, also known as the Odda process after his Odda Smelteverk of Norway. The process involved acidifying phosphate rock (from Nauru and Banaba Islands in the southern Pacific Ocean) with nitric acid to produce phosphoric acid and calcium nitrate which, once neutralized, could be used as a nitrogen fertilizer. The nitrophosphate process (also known as the Odda process) was a method for the industrial production of nitrogen fertilizers invented by Erling Johnson in the city of Odda, Norway around 1927. ... The Odda process was a method for the industrial production of nitrogen fertilizers invented by Erling Johnson in the city of Odda, Norway around 1927. ... County Hordaland Landscape Hardanger Municipality NO-1228 Administrative centre Odda Mayor (2003) Toralv Mikkelsen (Ap) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 42 1,616 km² 1,478 km² 0. ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... Satellite imagery of Banaba Island from Google Earth. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... This article is about orthophosphoric acid. ... Calcium nitrate, also called Norgessalpeter (Norwegian saltpeter) and Kalksalpeter, is a white coloured soluble salt with the formula Ca(NO3)2. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ...


Industry

The Englishmen James Fison, Edward Packard, Thomas Hadfield and the Prentice brothers each founded companies in the early 19th century to create fertilizers from bonemeal. The developing sciences of chemistry and Paleontology, combined with the discovery of coprolites in commercial quantities in East Anglia, led Fisons and Packard to develop sulfuric acid and fertilizer plants at Bramford, and Snape, Suffolk in the 1850s to create superphosphates, which were shipped around the world from the port at Ipswich. By 1870 there were about 80 factories making superphosphate.[2] After World War I these businesses came under financial pressure through new competition from guano, primarily found on the Pacific islands, as their extraction and distribution had become economically attractive. For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, ancient; ontos, being; and logos, knowledge) is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. ... Coprolite is the name given to the mineral that results when human or animal semen is fossilized. ... Norfolk and Suffolk, the core area of East Anglia. ... Sulfuric acid, (also known as sulphuric acid) H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... Bramford is a medium-sized village just to the west of Ipswich, Suffolk and is in the Mid Suffolk administrative district. ... Snape is a small village in the English county of Suffolk, on the River Alde close to Aldeburgh. ... Suffolk (pronounced ) is a large historic and modern non-metropolitan county in East Anglia, England. ... Superphosphate is a fertiliser produced by the action of concentrated Sulphuric Acid on ground phosphate rock. ... For other uses, see Ipswich (disambiguation). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Chincha guano islands in Peru. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ...


The interwar period[3] saw innovative competition from Imperial Chemical Industries who developed synthetic ammonium sulfate in 1923, Nitro-chalk in 1927, and a more concentrated and economical fertilizer called CCF based on ammonium phosphate in 1931. Competition was limited as ICI ensured it controlled most of the world's ammonium sulfate supplies. Other European and North American fertilizer companies developed their market share, forcing the English pioneer companies to merge, becoming Fisons, Packard, and Prentice Ltd. in 1929. Together they were producing 80,000 tonnes of superphosphate per annum by 1934 from their new factory and deep-water docks in Ipswich. By World War II they had acquired about 40 companies, including Hadfields in 1935, and two years later the large Anglo-Continental Guano Works, founded in 1917. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ammonium sulphate, [NH4]2[SO4] contains 21% nitrogen as ammonia and 24% sulfur as sulfate. ... Ammonium phosphate - Molar Mass = 149. ... Ammonium sulphate, [NH4]2[SO4] contains 21% nitrogen as ammonia and 24% sulfur as sulfate. ... For other uses, see Ipswich (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The post-war environment was characterized by much higher production levels as a result of the "Green Revolution" and new types of seed with increased nitrogen-absorbing potential, notably the high-response varieties of maize, wheat, and rice. This has accompanied the development of strong national competition, accusations of cartels and supply monopolies, and ultimately another wave of mergers and acquisitions. The original names no longer exist other than as holding companies or brand names: Fisons and ICI agrochemicals are part of today's Yara International[4] and AstraZeneca companies. The Green Revolution was the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ... High-yielding varieties (HYVs) are any of a group of genetically enhanced cultivars of crops such as rice, maize and wheat that have an increased growth rate, an increased percentage of usable plant parts or an increased resistance against crop diseases. ... Yara (OSE: YAR) is a Norwegian company and a world leading supplier of plant nutrients in the form of mineral fertilizers. ... AstraZeneca PLC (LSE: AZN, OMX: AZN), is a large Anglo-Swedish pharmaceutical company formed on 6 April 1999 by the merger of Swedish Astra AB and British Zeneca Group PLC. Zeneca was part of Imperial Chemical Industries prior to a demerger in 1993. ...


Inorganic fertilizers (mineral fertilizer)

Naturally occurring inorganic fertilizers include Chilean sodium nitrate, mined rock phosphate, and limestone (a calcium source). Made of Porn and sex things Inhalation respiratory irritation Skin May cause irritation. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ...


Macronutrients and micronutrients

Fertilizers can be divided into macronutrients or micronutrients based on their concentrations in plant dry matter. There are six macronutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, often termed "primary macronutrients" because their availability is usually managed with NPK fertilizers, and the "secondary macronutrients" — calcium, magnesium, and sulfur — which are required in roughly similar quantities but whose availability is often managed as part of liming and manuring practices rather than fertilizers. The macronutrients are consumed in larger quantities and normally present as a whole number or tenths of percentages in plant tissues (on a dry matter weight basis). There are many micronutrients, required in concentrations ranging from 5 to 100 parts per million (ppm) by mass. Plant micronutrients include iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), boron (B), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), chlorine (Cl), and zinc (Zn). General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... For other uses, see Boron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ...


Macronutrient fertilizers

Synthesized materials are also called artificial, and may be described as straight, where the product predominantly contains the three primary ingredients of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), which are known as N-P-K fertilizers or compound fertilizers when elements are mixed intentionally. They are named or labeled according to the content of these three elements, which are macronutrients. The mass fraction (percent) nitrogen is reported directly. However, phosphorus is reported as phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5), the anhydride of phosphoric acid, and potassium is reported as potassium oxide (K2O), which is the anhydride of potassium hydroxide. Fertilizer composition is expressed in this fashion for historical reasons in the way it was analyzed (conversion to ash for P and K); this practice dates back to Justus von Liebig (see more below). Consequently, an 18-51-20 fertilizer would have 18% nitrogen as N, 51% phosphorus as P2O5, and 20% potassium as K2O, The other 11% is known as ballast and may or may not be valuable to the plants, depending on what is used as ballast. Although analyses are no longer carried out by ashing first, the naming convention remains. If nitrogen is the main element, they are often described as nitrogen fertilizers. General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... Phosphorus pentoxide, perhaps more accurately diphosphorus pentoxide, is so called because of its empirical formula P2O5, as should be expected of any element in oxidation number +5. ... Structure of anhydride. ... This article is about orthophosphoric acid. ... Potassium oxide is a compound of potassium and oxygen used mainly as a intermediate in inorganic synthesis. ... The chemical compound potassium hydroxide, (KOH) sometimes known as caustic potash, potassa, potash lye, and potassium hydrate, is a metallic base. ... Freiherr Justus von Liebig (May 12, 1803 in Darmstadt, Germany – April 18, 1873 in Munich, Germany) was a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and worked on the organization of organic chemistry. ...


In general, the mass fraction (percentage) of elemental phosphorus, [P] = 0.436 x [P2O5]


and the mass fraction (percentage) of elemental potassium, [K] = 0.83 x [K2O]


(These conversion factors are mandatory under the UK fertilizer-labelling regulations if elemental values are declared in addition to the N-P-K declaration.[5])


An 18−51−20 fertilizer therefore contains, by weight, 18% elemental nitrogen (N), 22% elemental phosphorus (P) and 16% elemental potassium (K).


Agricultural versus horticultural

In general, agricultural fertilizers contain only one or two macronutrients. Agricultural fertilizers are intended to be applied infrequently and normally prior to or along side seeding. Examples of agricultural fertilizers are granular triple superphosphate, potassium chloride, urea, and anhydrous ammonia. The commodity nature of fertilizer, combined with the high cost of shipping, leads to use of locally available materials or those from the closest/cheapest source, which may vary with factors affecting transportation by rail, ship, or truck. In other words, a particular nitrogen source may be very popular in one part of the country while another is very popular in another geographic region only due to factors unrelated to agronomic concerns. Triple Superphosphate is a fertilizer produced by the action of concentrated phosphoric acid on ground phosphate rock. ... The chemical compound potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide composed of potassium and chlorine. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... Ammonia is a chemical compound with the formula NH3. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ...


Horticultural or specialty fertilizers, on the other hand, are formulated from many of the same compounds and some others to produce well-balanced fertilizers that also contain micronutrients. Some materials, such as ammonium nitrate, are used minimally in large scale production farming. The 18-51-20 example above is a horticultural fertilizer formulated with high phosphorus to promote bloom development in ornamental flowers. Horticultural fertilizers may be water-soluble (instant release) or relatively insoluble (controlled release). Controlled release fertilizers are also referred to as sustained release or timed release. Many controlled release fertilizers are intended to be applied approximately every 3-6 months, depending on watering, growth rates, and other conditions, whereas water-soluble fertilizers must be applied at least every 1-2 weeks and can be applied as often as every watering if sufficiently dilute. Unlike agricultural fertilizers, horticultural fertilizers are marketed directly to consumers and become part of retail product distribution lines. Related Compounds Other anions Ammonium nitrite; ammonium perchlorate Other cations Sodium nitrate; potassium nitrate; hydroxylammonium nitrate Related compounds Nitrous oxide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references The chemical compound ammonium nitrate, the nitrate of...


Nitrogen fertilizer

Major users of nitrogen-based fertilizer[6]
Country Total N consumption

(Mt pa)

of which used

for feed & pasture

USA 9.2 4.7
China 18.7 3.0
France 2.5 1.3
Germany 2.0 1.2
Canada 1.6 0.9
UK 1.3 0.9
Brazil 1.7 0.7
Spain 1.2 0.5
Mexico 1.3 0.3
Turkey 1.5 0.3
Argentina 0.4 0.1

Nitrogen fertilizer is often synthesized using the Haber-Bosch process, which produces ammonia. This ammonia is applied directly to the soil or used to produce other compounds, notably ammonium nitrate and urea, both dry, concentrated products that may be used as fertilizer materials or mixed with water to form a concentrated liquid nitrogen fertilizer, UAN. Ammonia can also be used in the Odda Process in combination with rock phosphate and potassium fertilizer to produce compound fertilizers such as 10-10-10 or 15-15-15. Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... The Haber process (also known as Haber–Bosch process) is the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen, over an iron-substrate, to produce ammonia [1] [2] [3]. The Haber process is important because ammonia is difficult to produce, on an industrial scale. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Related Compounds Other anions Ammonium nitrite; ammonium perchlorate Other cations Sodium nitrate; potassium nitrate; hydroxylammonium nitrate Related compounds Nitrous oxide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references The chemical compound ammonium nitrate, the nitrate of... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... United American Nurses (UAN) is an American union affiliated with the American Nurses Association (ANA) and the AFL-CIO. Unlike other unions that some American nurses belong to, such as the Service Employees International Union, the UAN represents only registered nurses (RNs). ... The Odda process was a method for the industrial production of nitrogen fertilizers invented by Erling Johnson in the city of Odda, Norway around 1927. ...


The production of ammonia currently consumes about 5% of global natural gas consumption, which is somewhat under 2% of world energy production.[7] Natural gas is overwhelmingly used for the production of ammonia, but other energy sources, together with a hydrogen source, can be used for the production of nitrogen compounds suitable for fertilizers. The cost of natural gas makes up about 90% of the cost of producing ammonia.[8] The price increases in natural gas in the past decade, among other factors such as increasing demand, have contributed to an increase in fertilizer price.


Nitrogen-based fertilizers are most commonly used to treat fields used for growing maize, followed by barley, sorghum, rapeseed, soyabean and sunflower. This article is about the maize plant. ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are utilised as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. ... Binomial name Brassica napus L. Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as Rape, Oilseed Rape, Rapa, Rapaseed and (one particular cultivar) Canola, is a bright yellow flowering member (related to mustard) of the family Brassicaceae. ... Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... For other uses, see Sunflower (disambiguation). ...


Health and sustainability issues

Inorganic fertilizers sometimes do not replace trace mineral elements in the soil which become gradually depleted by crops grown there. This has been linked to studies which have shown a marked fall (up to 75%) in the quantities of such minerals present in fruit and vegetables.[9] One exception to this is in Western Australia where deficiencies of zinc, copper, manganese, iron and molybdenum were identified as limiting the growth of crops and pastures in the 1940s and 1950s. Soils in Western Australia are very old, highly weathered and deficient in many of the major nutrients and trace elements. Since this time these trace elements are routinely added to inorganic fertilizers used in agriculture in this state. Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ...


In many countries there is the public perception that inorganic fertilizers "poison the soil" and result in "low quality" produce. However, there is very little (if any) scientific evidence to support these views. When used appropriately, inorganic fertilizers enhance plant growth, the accumulation of organic matter and the biological activity of the soil, preventing overgrazing and soil erosion. The nutritional value of plants for human and animal consumption is typically improved when inorganic fertilizers are used appropriately.


There are concerns though about arsenic, cadmium and uranium accumulating in fields treated with phosphate fertilizers. The phosphate minerals contain trace amounts of these elements and if no cleaning step is applied after mining the continuous use of phosphate fertilizers leads towards an accumulation of these elements in the soil. Eventually these can build up to unacceptable levels and get into the produce. (See cadmium poisoning.) General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Cadmium has no constructive purpose in the human body. ...


Another problem with inorganic fertilizers is that they are presently produced in ways which cannot be continued indefinitely. Potassium and phosphorus come from mines (or from saline lakes such as the Dead Sea in the case of potassium fertilizers) and resources are limited. Nitrogen is unlimited, but nitrogen fertilizers are presently made using fossil fuels such as natural gas. Theoretically fertilizers could be made from sea water or atmospheric nitrogen using renewable energy, but doing so would require huge investment and is not competitive with today's unsustainable methods. Innovative thermal depolymerization biofuel schemes are trialling the production of byproducts with 9% nitrogen fertilizer sourced from organic waste[10][11] The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ‎, , Sea of Salt; Arabic: , , Dead Sea) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, that is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Sea water is water from a sea or ocean. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... Thermal depolymerization (TDP) is a process for the reduction of complex organic materials (usually waste products of various sorts, often known as biomass) into light crude oil. ...


Organic fertilizers

A compost bin
A compost bin

Naturally occurring organic fertilizers include manure, slurry, worm castings, peat, seaweed, sewage , and guano. Green manure crops are also grown to add nutrients to the soil. Naturally occurring minerals such as mine rock phosphate, sulfate of potash and limestone are also considered Organic Fertilizers. Image File history File linksMetadata Havekompostbunke. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Havekompostbunke. ... Animal manure is often a mixture of animals feces and bedding straw, as in this example from a stable. ... A slurry is in general a thick suspension of solids in a liquid and may be: Look up slurry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Vermicompost (also called Worm Compost, Vermicast, Worm Castings, Worm Poop or Worm Manure) is the end-product of the breakdown of organic matter by some species of earthworm. ... Peat in Lewis, Scotland Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter. ... Ascophyllum nodosum exposed to the sun in Nova Scotia, Canada Dead Mans Fingers (Codium fragile) off Massachusetts coast For the band, see; Seaweed (band) For the rock musician, see; Seaweed (musician) Seaweeds are any of a large number of marine benthic algae. ... Sewage is the mainly liquid waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water, faeces, urine, laundry waste and other material which goes down drains and toilets from households and industry. ... The Chincha guano islands in Peru. ... In agriculture, a green manure is a type of cover crop grown primarily to add nutrients and organic matter to the soil. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ...


Manufactured organic fertilizers include compost, bloodmeal, bone meal and seaweed extracts. Other examples are natural enzyme digested proteins, fish meal, and feather meal. A handful of compost A double-wide bin with compost at different stages of decomposition Compost is the aerobically decomposed remnants of organic materials. ... Blood meal is dried, powdered blood used as a high-nitrogen fertilizer. ... bone meal n. ... Ascophyllum nodosum exposed to the sun in Nova Scotia, Canada Dead Mans Fingers (Codium fragile) off Massachusetts coast For the band, see; Seaweed (band) For the rock musician, see; Seaweed (musician) Seaweeds are any of a large number of marine benthic algae. ... Fish Meal - Menhaden, Herring, Anchovy, Redfish, and Whitefish meal Menhaden is the major source of fish meal produced in the U.S. The fish are taken in Atlantic coastal waters from Maine to Florida and in the Gulf of Mexico. ...


The decomposing crop residue from prior years is another source of fertility. Though not strictly considered "fertilizer", the distinction seems more a matter of words than reality. There are two types of agricultural crop residues. ...


Some ambiguity in the usage of the term 'organic' exists because some of synthetic fertilizers, such as urea and urea formaldehyde, are fully organic in the sense of organic chemistry. In fact, it would be difficult to chemically distinguish between urea of biological origin and that produced synthetically. On the other hand, some fertilizer materials commonly approved for organic agriculture, such as powdered limestone, mined rock phosphate and Chilean saltpeter, are inorganic in the use of the term by chemistry. Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... Urea-formaldehyde is a transparent thermosetting resin or plastic, made from urea and formaldehyde heated in the presence of a mild base such as ammonia or pyridine. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens as... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Made of Porn and sex things Inhalation respiratory irritation Skin May cause irritation. ...


Although the density of nutrients in organic material is comparatively modest, they have some advantages. Some or all organic fertilizer can be produced on-site, lowering transport costs. The majority of nitrogen supplying organic fertilizers contain insoluble nitrogen and act as a slow-release fertilizer.


Modern theories of organic agriculture admit the obvious success of Leibig's theory, but stress that there are serious limitations to the current methods of implementing it via chemical fertilization. They re-emphasize the role of humus and other organic components of soil, which are believed to play several important roles: Freiherr Justus von Liebig (May 12, 1803 in Darmstadt, Germany – April 18, 1873 in Munich, Germany) was a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and worked on the organization of organic chemistry. ...

  • Mobilizing existing soil nutrients, so that good growth is achieved with lower nutrient densities while wasting less
  • Releasing nutrients at a slower, more consistent rate, helping to avoid a boom-and-bust pattern
  • Helping to retain soil moisture, reducing the stress due to temporary moisture stress
  • Improving the soil structure

Organics also have the advantage of avoiding certain problems associated with the regular heavy use of artificial fertilizers: Soil structure is determined by how individual soil granules clump or bind together and aggregate. ...

  • the possibility of "burning" plants with the concentrated chemicals (i.e. an over supply of some nutrients)
  • the progressive decrease of real or perceived "soil health", apparent in loss of structure, reduced ability to absorb precipitation, lightening of soil color, etc.
  • the necessity of reapplying artificial fertilizers regularly (and perhaps in increasing quantities) to maintain fertility
  • extensive runoff of soluble nitrogen and phosphorus, leading to eutrophication
  • the cost (substantial and rising in recent years) and resulting lack of independence

Organic fertilizers can have disadvantages:

  • As, typically, a dilute source of nutrients when compared to inorganic fertilizers, applying significant amounts of nutrients in a distant location from the source would incur increased costs for transportation
  • The composition of organic fertilizers tends to be more complex and variable than a standardized inorganic product.
  • Improperly-processed organic fertilizers may contain pathogens from plant or animal matter that are harmful to humans or plants. However, proper composting should remove them.[12]

In non-organic farming a compromise between the use of artificial and organic fertilizers is common, often using inorganic fertilizers supplemented with the application of organics that are readily available such as the return of crop residues or the application of manure. A pathogen (from Greek pathos, suffering/emotion, and gene, to give birth to), infectious agent, or more commonly germ, is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... Composting is the aerobic decomposition of biodegradable organic matter, producing compost. ... Organic farming is a form of agriculture which excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulators, livestock feed additives, and genetically modified organisms. ...


Risks of fertilizer use

The problem of over-fertilization is primarily associated with the use of artificial fertilizers, because of the massive quantities applied and the destructive nature of chemical fertilizers on soil nutrient holding structures. The high solubilities of chemical fertilizers also exacerbate their tendency to degrade ecosystems, particularly through eutrophication. For other uses, see Ecological Systems Theory. ... Eutrophication, strictly speaking, means an increase in chemical nutrients -- typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus -- in an ecosystem. ...


Storage and application of some nitrogen fertilizers in some weather or soil conditions can cause emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Ammonia gas (NH3) may be emitted following application of inorganic fertilizers, or manure or slurry. Besides supplying nitrogen, ammonia can also increase soil acidity (lower pH, or "souring"). Excessive nitrogen fertilizer applications can also lead to pest problems by increasing the birth rate, longevity and overall fitness of certain pests.[13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... For other uses, see Nitrous oxide (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Acidity is a controversial novelette written for the popular South Asian website Chowk. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ...


The concentration of up to 100 mg/kg of cadmium in phosphate minerals (for example, minerals from Nauru[19] and the Christmas islands[20]) increases the contamination of soil with cadmium, for example in New Zealand.[21] Uranium is another example of a contaminant often found in phosphate fertilizers.[22][23] [24] General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the Australian territory. ... This article is about the chemical element. ...


For these reasons, it is recommended that knowledge of the nutrient content of the soil and nutrient requirements of the crop are carefully balanced with application of nutrients in inorganic fertilizer especially. This process is called nutrient budgeting. By careful monitoring of soil conditions, farmers can avoid wasting expensive fertilizers, and also avoid the potential costs of cleaning up any pollution created as a byproduct of their farming. Nutrient budgeting is used in agriculture. ...


It is also possible to over-apply organic fertilizers; however, their nutrient content, their solubility, and their release rates are typically much lower than chemical fertilizers. By their nature, most organic fertilizers also provide increased physical and biological storage mechanisms to soils, which tend to mitigate their risks.


Global issues

The growth of the world's population to its current figure has only been possible through intensification of agriculture associated with the use of fertilizers.[25] There is an impact on the sustainable consumption of other global resources as a consequence. Map of countries by population — China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than one billion, together possess more than a third of the worlds population. ... The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo. ... Ecological footprint (EF) analysis tries to measure human demand on the Earths ecosystems and natural resources. ...


The use of fertilizers on a global scale emits significant quantities of greenhouse gas into the atmosphere. Emissions come about through the use of: [26] Attribution of recent climate change is the effort to scientifically ascertain mechanisms responsible for relatively recent changes observed in the Earths climate. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ...

By changing processes and procedures, it is possible to mitigate some, but not all, of these effects on anthropogenic climate change. Manure is the term used to refer to the droppings, dung, feces (faeces) or excrement of plant-eating mammals (herbivores) and poultry. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... For other uses, see Nitrous oxide (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... Ammonium bicarbonate (also called bicarbonate of ammonia, ammonium hydrogen carbonate, hartshorn, or powdered baking ammonia) is the bicarbonate salt of ammonia. ... Nitrogen has six different oxides: Nitric oxide (NO) Nitrous oxide (N2O) Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3) Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) Dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) The term nitrogen oxide is imprecise and can be used to refer to any of these or to a mixture of them. ... For other uses, see Nitrous oxide (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Anthropogenic climate change is climate change caused by human action, either direct or indirect. ...


See also

Ecological sanitation, also known as ecosan, is a modern alternative to conventional sanitation techniques. ... Subsistence farmers with a Treadle Pump. ... Plant nutrition is the study of the chemical elements that are necessary for plant growth. ... Soil conditioners, also called soil amendments, are materials added to soil to improve plant growth and health. ... Vermicompost (also called worm compost, vermicast, worm castings, worm humus or worm manure) is the end-product of the breakdown of organic matter by some species of earthworm. ...

References

  1. ^ Haber & Bosch Most influential persons of the 20th century
  2. ^ History of Fisons at Yara.com
  3. ^ Competition Commission report
  4. ^ History of Yara at Yara.com
  5. ^ UK Fertilizers Regulations 1990, Schedule 2 Part 1, Para. 7.
  6. ^ Food and Agricultural Organization of the U.N. Table 3.3 retrieved 9 Aug 2007
  7. ^ IFA - Statistics - Fertilizer Indicators - Details - Raw material reserves (2002-10; accessed 2007-04-21)
  8. ^ Sawyer JE (2001). "Natural gas prices affect nitrogen fertilizer costs". IC-486 1: 8. 
  9. ^ Lawrence, Felicity (2004). "214", in Kate Barker: Not on the Label. Penguin, 213. ISBN 0-14-101566-7. 
  10. ^ Discover Magazine May 2003
  11. ^ Discover Magazine Apr 2006
  12. ^ ciwmb.ca.gov - organics document
  13. ^ Jahn GC (2004). "Effect of soil nutrients on the growth, survival and fecundity of insect pests of rice: an overview and a theory of pest outbreaks with consideration of research approaches. Multitrophic interactions in Soil and Integrated Control". International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) wprs Bulletin 27 (1): 115-122. .
  14. ^ Jahn GC, Sanchez ER, Cox PG (2001). "The quest for connections: developing a research agenda for integrated pest and nutrient management". International Rice Research Institute - Discussion Paper 42: 18. 
  15. ^ Jahn GC, Cox PG, Rubia-Sanchez E, Cohen M (2001). "The quest for connections: developing a research agenda for integrated pest and nutrient management. pp. 413-430,". S. Peng and B. Hardy [eds.] "Rice Research for Food Security and Poverty Alleviation". Proceeding the International Rice Research Conference, 31 March – 3 April 2000, Los Baños, Philippines. Los Baños (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute.: 692. 
  16. ^ Jahn GC, Almazan LP, Pacia J (2005). "Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on the intrinsic rate of increase of the rusty plum aphid, Hysteroneura setariae (Thomas) (Homoptera: Aphididae) on rice (Oryza sativa L.)". Environmental Entomology 34 (4): 938-943. .
  17. ^ Preap V, Zalucki MP, Nesbitt HJ, Jahn GC (2001). "Effect of fertilizer, pesticide treatment, and plant variety on realized fecundity and survival rates of Nilaparvata lugens (Stål); Generating Outbreaks in Cambodia". Journal of Asia Pacific Entomology 4 (1): 75-84. .
  18. ^ Preap V, Zalucki MP, Jahn GC (2002). "Effect of nitrogen fertilizer and host plant variety on fecundity and early instar survival of Nilaparvata lugens (Stål): immediate response". Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Inter-Country Forecasting System and Management for Planthopper in East Asia. 13-15 November 2002. Guilin China. Published by Rural Development Administration (RDA) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO): 163-180,226. 
  19. ^ Syers JK, Mackay AD, Brown MW, Currie CD (1986). "Chemical and physical characteristics of phosphate rock materials of varying reactivity". J Sci Food Agric 37: 1057-1064. .
  20. ^ Trueman NA (1965). "The phosphate, volcanic and carbonate rocks of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)". J Geol Soc Aust 12: 261-286. 
  21. ^ Taylor MD (1997). "Accumulation of Cadmium derived from fertilisers in New Zealand soils". Science of Total Environment 208: 123-126. 
  22. ^ Hussein EM (1994). "Radioactivity of phosphate ore, superphosphate, and phosphogypsum in Abu-zaabal phosphate". Health Physics 67: 280-282. 
  23. ^ Barisic D, Lulic S, Miletic P (1992). "Radium and uranium in phosphate fertilizers and their impact on the radioactivity of waters". Water Research 26: 607-611. .
  24. ^ Scholten LC, Timmermans CWM (1992). "Natural radioactivity in phosphate fertilizers". Nutrient cycling in agroecosystems 43: 103-107. doi:10.1007/BF00747688. 
  25. ^ Vaclav Smil, e.g.: Nature 29 July 1999: Detonator of the population explosion
  26. ^ Food and Agricultural Organization of the U.N. retrieved 9 Aug 2007

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

  Results from FactBites:
 
IFA: International Fertilizer Industry Association (261 words)
Papers presented at the IFA International Workshop on Fertilizer Best Management Practices, Brussels, Belgium, 7-9 March 2007
How Can the Fertilizer Industry Contribute to the Nutrition Security Challenge Through Micronutrient Applications?
Glossary of Fertilizer Terms - The multilingual table of the fertilizer types is now available in Chinese and Russian
Fertilizer (734 words)
Fertilizer, any material, natural or manufactured, which may be added to the soil to supply plant nutrients.
Phosphate fertilizers are made from phosphate rock (about 25% phosphorus), treated with sulphuric acid to produce phosphoric acid which, in turn, is used to manufacture fertilizers such as ammonium phosphate.
In addition to being used to produce phosphate fertilizers, sulphur dioxide gas is combined with water to produce sulphuric acid, which is mixed with anhydrous ammonia to produce ammonium sulphate.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m