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Encyclopedia > Fertility

Fertility is the natural capability of giving life. As a measure, "Fertility Rate" is the number of children born per couple, person or population. This is different to fecundity, which is defined as the potential for reproduction (influenced by gamete production, fertilisation and carrying a pregnancy to term). In the English language, the term was originally applied only to females, but increasingly is applied to males as well, as common understanding of reproductive mechanisms increases and the importance of the male role is better known. Infertility is a deficient fertility. Fecundity is the potential reproductive capacity of an organism or population, measured by the number of gametes (e. ... Look up Female in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Reproduction (disambiguation) Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... The shield and spear of the Roman god Mars, which is also the alchemical symbol for iron, represents the male sex. ... Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a man or a woman to contribute to conception. ...


Human fertility depends on factors of nutrition, sexual behavior, culture, instinct, endocrinology, timing, economics, way of life, and emotions. Animal fertility is no less complex, and may display astounding mechanisms. The updated USDA food pyramid, published in 2005, is a general nutrition guide for recommended food consumption. ... Sexual behavior is a form of physical intimacy that may be directed to reproduction (one possible goal of sexual intercourse) and/or to the enjoyment of activity involving sexual gratification. ... Culture (Culture from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate,) generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... The suckling of a newborn at its mothers nipple is an example of an instinctive behavior. ... Endocrinology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the endocrine system and its specific secretions called hormones. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Emotional redirects here. ...

Contents

Agriculture

See also arable land, soil fertility, harvest, Neolithic revolution.

Fertility is also applied to farmlands and plants, where it implies a capacity to yield large crops of sound fruits, seeds or vegetables. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Soil fertility is the characteristic of soil that supports abundant plant life. ... Look up Harvest in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Modern arable agriculture typically uses large fields like this one in Dorset, England. ... Popular Japanese fashion magazine throughout the 1990s; the photography of which has recently been reissued in two collections from Phaidon press. ... This writeup is about biological seeds; for other meanings see Seed (disambiguation). ... Vegetables on a market Vegetable is a nutritional and culinary term denoting any part of a plant that is commonly consumed by humans as food, but is not regarded as a culinary fruit, nut, herb, spice, or grain. ...


Demographics

The fertility rate is a demographic measure of the number of children per woman. Although it has been until recently considered to be a fairly reliable indicator of population growth, it is no longer so in much of Asia. Due to selective abortion and other factors, the ratio of women relative to men in populations is declining. Therefore, the fertility rate as it has traditionally been defined is no longer an authoritative measure of population growth in China, India, and Myanmar. The (total) fertility rate of a population is the average number of child births per woman. ... Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the statistical study of human populations. ... A male Caucasian toddler child A child (plural: children) is a young human. ... Small Text For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Sex-selective abortion is the practice of aborting a fetus after a determination (usually by ultrasound but also rarely by amniocentesis or another procedure) that the fetus is an undesired sex. ...


Human fertility

Both women and men have hormonal cycles which determine both when a woman can achieve pregnancy and when a man is most fertile. The female cycle is approximately twenty-eight days long, but the male cycle is variable. Men can ejaculate and produce sperm at any time of the month, but their sperm quality dips occasionally, which scientists guess is in relation to their internal cycle. Hormone is also the NATO reporting name for the Soviet/Russian Kamov Ka-25 military helicopter. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A spermatozoon or spermatozoan ( spermatozoa), from the ancient Greek σπέρμα (seed) and (living being) and more commonly known as a sperm cell, is the haploid cell that is the male gamete. ... Semen quality is a measure of the ability of semen to accomplish fertilisation. ...


Furthermore, age also plays a role, especially for women.


Menstrual cycle

Main article: Menstrual cycle#The fertile window

Women are fertile only about seven days in each menstrual cycle. Ovulation occurs at about the fourteenth day of their menstrual cycle, this obviously being the most fertile time for females. The exact point of ovulation depends, however[1]. If the egg is not fertilized by the male’s sperm, the egg will break down within 1–2 days into its components (mostly protein) and be reabsorbed by the body. However, sperm can survive inside the uterus for five days. Thus, a successful copulation can occur during seven days of the female cycle; five days before and two days after ovulation. Menstrual cycle The menstrual cycle is a recurring cycle of physiological changes that occurs in the females of human beings and other great apes. ... Menstrual cycle The menstrual cycle is a recurring cycle of physiological changes that occurs in the females of human beings and other great apes. ... Menstrual cycle The menstrual cycle is a recurring cycle of physiological changes that occurs in the females of human beings and other great apes. ...


Female fertility after 30

Women's fertility peaks in their early teens, and often deteriorates after 30. Of women trying to get pregnant, without using fertility drugs or in vitro fertilization: In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a technique in which egg cells are fertilized outside the mothers body in cases where conception is difficult or impossible through normal intercourse. ...

  • At age 30, 75% will get pregnant within one year, and 91% within four years.
  • At age 35, 66% will get pregnant within one year, and 84% within four years.
  • At age 40, 44% will get pregnant within one year, and 64% within four years.[2]

Those figures are for conception, not for the birth of a healthy baby. According to the March of Dimes, "about 9 percent of recognized pregnancies for women aged 20 to 24 ended in miscarriage. The risk rose to about 20 percent at age 35 to 39, and more than 50 percent by age 42".[3] March of Dimes official logo March of Dimes is the name of health charities in both the United States and Canada. ...


Birth defects, especially those involving chromosome number and arrangement, also increase with the age of the mother. According to the March of Dimes, "At age 25, a woman has about a 1-in-1,250 chance of having a baby with Down syndrome; at age 30, a 1-in-1,000 chance; at age 35, a 1-in-400 chance; at age 40, a 1-in-100 chance; and at 45, a 1-in-30 chance."[4] Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ...


The use of fertility drugs and/or in vitro fertilization can increase the chances of becoming pregnant at a later age. Successful pregnancies facilitated by fertility treatment have been documented in women as old as 67.[5] Fertility medication may in a larger sense include any medication that enhances fertility, but in a specific sense consists of agents that stimulate follicle development of the ovary. ... In the Bible, Sarah is said to have given birth to her son, Isaac, when she was 90 years old. ...


Doctors recommend that women over 30 who have been unsuccessful in trying to conceive for more than 6 months undergo some kind of fertility testing [6].


See also

In polytheistic religions and mythologies, a fertility god is a male deity who is responsible for ensuring human fertility. ... Fertility rites are religious rituals that reenact, either actually or symbolically, sexual acts and/or reproductive processes. ... Natural fertility is a concept developed by French demographer Louis Henry to refer to the level of fertility that would prevail in a population that makes no conscious effort to limit, regulate, or control fertility, so that fertility depends only on physiological factors affecting fecundity. ... Fertility clinics are staffed medical clinics that assist couples, and sometimes individuals, who want to become parents but for medical reasons have been unable to achieve this goal via the natural course. ...

References

  1. ^ Ovusoft.com
  2. ^ Fertility Treatment Less Successful After 35. WebMD. Retrieved on July 4, 2006.
  3. ^ Pregnancy After 35. March of Dimes. Retrieved on July 4, 2006.
  4. ^ The sterility tax can be reestablished in Russia. Retrieved on September 22, 2006.
  5. ^ Spanish woman ' is oldest mother'. BBC News. Retrieved on 2006-12-30.
  6. ^ [http://fertilitytesting.co.uk/female_fertility_tests.html Fertility Testing] (Female Fertility Testing)

is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Bock, J. (2002). Evolutionary Theory and the Search for a Unified Theory of Fertility. American Journal of Human Biology 14(2) 145-148. Full text

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