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Encyclopedia > Ferruccio Busoni
Ferruccio Busoni
Ferruccio Busoni

Ferruccio Busoni (April 1, 1866July 27, 1924) was an Italian composer, pianist, music teacher and conductor. Image File history File links Ferruccio Busoni - Project Gutenberg eText 15604 From http://www. ... Image File history File links Ferruccio Busoni - Project Gutenberg eText 15604 From http://www. ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... July 27 is the 208th day (209th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 157 days remaining. ... Year 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... Pianist Claudio Arrau, Carnegie Hall, 1954. ... Allegory of Music on the Opéra Garnier Music is an art form that involves organized and audible sounds and silence. ... A conductor conducting a band at a ceremony A conductors score and batons Conducting is the act of directing a musical performance by way of visible gestures. ...

Contents

Biography

Dante Michelangelo Benvenuto Ferruccio Busoni was born in Empoli in Italy, the only child of two professional musicians: his Italian/German mother a pianist, his Italian father a clarinetist. They were often touring during his childhood, and he was brought up in Trieste for the most part. Empoli is a town in Tuscany, Italy, about 30 km southwest of Florence. ... Two soprano clarinets: a B♭ clarinet (left) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... Trieste (Italian: Trieste; Slovenian and Croatian: Trst; German: Triest; Hungarian: Trieszt; Latin: Tergeste; Serbian: Трст or Trst) is a city and port in northeastern Italy right on the border with Slovenia. ...


Busoni was a child prodigy. He made his public debut on the piano with his parents, at the age of seven. A couple of years later he played some of his own compositions in Vienna where he heard Franz Liszt play, and met Liszt, Johannes Brahms and Anton Rubinstein. A grand piano, with the lid up. ... Vienna (German: Wien ) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Franz Liszt (Hungarian: Liszt Ferenc) (October 22, 1811 – July 31, 1886) was a Hungarian virtuoso pianist and composer of the Romantic period. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Rubinsteins portrait by Ilya Repin. ...


Busoni had a brief period of study in Graz where he conducted a performance of his own composition 'Stabat Mater' when he was twelve years old, before leaving to Leipzig in 1886. He subsequently held several teaching posts, the first in 1888 at Helsinki, where he met his wife, Gerda Sjöstrand, the daughter of a Swedish sculptor. He taught in Moscow in 1890, and in the United States from 1891 to 1894 where he also toured as a virtuoso pianist. The Grazer Schloßberg Clock Tower Graz [graːts] (Slovenian: Gradec IPA: /gra. ... [] (Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk) is the largest city in the Federal State (Bundesland) of Saxony in Germany. ... Founded 1550 Country Finland Province Southern Finland Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Area[1] - Of which land - Rank 185. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   8537. ...


In 1894 he settled in Berlin, giving a series of concerts there both as pianist and conductor. He particularly promoted contemporary music. He also continued to teach in a number of masterclasses at Weimar, Vienna and Basel, among his pupils being Egon Petri. His piano playing and philosophy of music influenced Claudio Arrau. Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... For the locality in Texas called Weimar see Weimar, Texas, there is also Weimar bei Kassel and Weimar in Marburg-Biedenkopf. ... Vienna (German: Wien ) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Basel (British English traditionally: Basle and more recently Basel , German: Basel , French: Bâle , Italian: Basilea ) is Switzerlands third most populous city (166,563 inhabitants (2004); 690,000 inhabitants in the conurbation stretching across the immediate cantonal and national boundaries made Basel Switzerlands second-largest urban area as... Egon Petri (March 23, 1881 - May 27, 1962) was a classical pianist. ... Claudio Arrau Claudio Arrau León (February 6, 1903 – June 9, 1991) was a Chilean pianist of world fame for his deep interpretations of a huge, vast repertoire spanning from the baroque to 20th-century composers. ...


In 1907, he penned his Sketch of a New Aesthetic of Music, lamenting the traditional music "lawgivers", and predicting a future music that included the division of the octave into more than the traditional 12 degrees. His philosophy that "Music was born free; and to win freedom is its destiny," greatly influenced his students Luigi Russolo, Percy Grainger and Edgard Varèse, all of whom played significant roles in the 20th century opening of music to all sound. Luigi Russolo ca. ... Percy Aldridge Grainger (8 July 1882 – 20 February 1961) was an Australian-born pianist, composer, and champion of the saxophone and the Concert band. ... Edgard Victor Achille Charles Varèse (December 22, 1883 – November 6, 1965) was a French-born composer. ...


During World War I, Busoni lived first in Bologna, where he directed the conservatory, and later in Zürich. He refused to perform in any countries that were involved in the war. He returned to Berlin in 1920 where he gave masterclasses in composition. He had several composition pupils who went on to become famous, including Kurt Weill, Edgard Varèse and Stefan Wolpe. Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz... Bologna (IPA , from Latin Bononia, BulÃ¥ggna in the local dialect) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Pianura Padana, between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly between the Reno River and the Sàvena River. ... Zürich (German:   , Zürich German: Züri , in English generally Zurich, Italian: Zurigo) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... An album of Weills music by operatic soprano Teresa Stratas… …and one by industrial music band The Young Gods. ... Edgard Victor Achille Charles Varèse (December 22, 1883 – November 6, 1965) was a French-born composer. ... Stefan Wolpe (August 25, 1902 – April 4, 1972) was a German-born composer. ...


Busoni died in Berlin from a kidney disease. He was interred in the Städtischen Friedhof III, Berlin-Schöneberg, Stubenrauchstraße 43-45. He left a few recordings of his playing as well as a number of piano rolls. His compositions were largely neglected for many years after his death, but he was remembered as a great virtuoso and arranger of Bach for the piano. Around the 1980s there was a revival of interest in his compositions. Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... Städtischer Friedhof III is a cemetery in the Friedenau district of the borough of Tempelhof-Schöneberg in Berlin, Germany. ... Schöneberg is a district of Berlin. ... A piano roll is the medium used to operate the player piano or pianola, band/fairground organs, calliopes and hand-cranked organs and orchestrions and pipe organs as well. ...


He is commemorated by a plaque at the site of his last residence in Berlin-Schöneberg, Viktoria-Luise-Platz 11, and by the Ferruccio Busoni International Competition. Underground station Viktoria-Luise-Platz Viktoria-Luise-Platz is an oval on Motzstraße in Schöneberg, Berlin. ...


Busoni's music

Ferruccio Busoni
Ferruccio Busoni

The majority of Busoni's works are for the piano. Busoni's music is typically contrapuntally complex, with several melodic lines unwinding at once. Although his music is never entirely atonal in the Schoenbergian sense, his later works are often in indeterminate key. In the program notes for the premiere of his Sonatina seconda of 1912, Busoni calls the work senza tonalità (without tonality). Johann Sebastian Bach and Franz Liszt are often identified as key influences, though some of his music has a neo-classical bent, and includes melodies resembling Mozart's. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x826, 100 KB) Portrait of Ferruccio Busoni, from the Library of Congresss George Grantham Bain Collection File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ferruccio Busoni ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x826, 100 KB) Portrait of Ferruccio Busoni, from the Library of Congresss George Grantham Bain Collection File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ferruccio Busoni ... In music, counterpoint is a texture involving the simultaneous sounding of separate melodies or lines against each other, as in polyphony. ... Look up Melody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary In music, a melody is a series of linear events or a succession, not a simultaneity as in a chord. ... Atonality describes music not conforming to the system of tonal hierarchies, which characterizes the sound of classical European music between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. ... In music theory, the key identifies the tonic triad, the chord, major or minor, which represents the final point of rest for a piece, or the focal point of a section. ... Johann Sebastian Bach (pronounced ) (21 March 1685 O.S. – 28 July 1750 N.S.) was a prolific German composer and organist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra and solo instruments drew together the strands of the Baroque period and brought it to its ultimate maturity. ... Franz Liszt (Hungarian: Liszt Ferenc) (October 22, 1811 – July 31, 1886) was a Hungarian virtuoso pianist and composer of the Romantic period. ... Neoclassicism in music was a 20th century development, particularly popular in the period between the two World Wars, in which composers drew inspiration from music of the 18th century, though some of the inspiring canon was drawn as much from the Baroque period as the Classical period - for this reason... Mozart redirects here. ...


Some idea of Busoni's mature attitude to composition can be gained from his 1907 manifesto, Sketch of a New Aesthetic of Music, a publication somewhat controversial in its time. As well as discussing then little-explored areas such as electronic music and microtonal music (both techniques he never employed), he asserted that music should distill the essence of music of the past to make something new. Electronic music is a term for music created using electronic devices. ... Microtonal music is music using microtones — intervals of less than an equally spaced semitone, or as Charles Ives put it, the notes between the cracks of the piano. ...


Many of Busoni's works are based on music of the past, especially on the music of Johann Sebastian Bach. He arranged several of Bach's works for the piano, including the famous Toccata and Fugue in D Minor (originally for organ) and the chaconne from the D minor violin partita. To create a viable work for Romantic piano from an original solo violin piece required a person of Busoni's boldness, inexorable feeling for musical geometry (which requires an in-depth knowledge of integrating chord structures together by parts), and distinctive sonority. Earlier Brahms had also made a transcription of the same chaconne, but for left hand only. Thus some consider him an originator of neoclassicism in music. Johann Sebastian Bach (pronounced ) (21 March 1685 O.S. – 28 July 1750 N.S.) was a prolific German composer and organist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra and solo instruments drew together the strands of the Baroque period and brought it to its ultimate maturity. ... Toccata and Fugue in D Minor is the name of two different pieces of music by Johann Sebastian Bach for the organ: BWV 538 and BWV 565. ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany Modern style pipe organ at the concert hall of Aletheia University in Matou, Taiwan The organ is a keyboard instrument with one or more manuals, and usually a pedalboard. ... In music a chaconne is a musical form. ... The Sonatas and Partitas for solo violin (BWV 1001–1006) is a set of six works composed by Johann Sebastian Bach. ... Neoclassicism in music was a 20th century development, particularly popular in the period between the two World Wars, in which composers drew inspiration from music of the 18th century, though some of the inspiring canon was drawn as much from the Baroque period as the Classical period - for this reason...


The first version of Busoni's largest and best known solo piano work, Fantasia Contrappuntistica, was published in 1910. About half an hour in length, it is essentially an extended fantasy on the final incomplete fugue from Bach's The Art of Fugue. It uses several melodic figures found in Bach's work, most notably the BACH motif (B flat, A, C, B natural). Busoni revised the work a number of times and arranged it for two pianos. Versions have also been made for organ and for orchestra. Fantasia Contrappuntistica is a solo piano piece composed by Ferruccio Busoni. ... The Art of Fugue or The Art of the Fugue (Die Kunst der Fuge), BWV 1080, is an unfinished work by Johann Sebastian Bach composed in 1748-1749 and published after his death in 1750. ... The BACH motif. ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany Modern style pipe organ at the concert hall of Aletheia University in Matou, Taiwan The organ is a keyboard instrument with one or more manuals, and usually a pedalboard. ...


Busoni used elements of other composers' works. The fourth movement of An die Jugend (1909), for instance, uses two of Niccolò Paganini's Caprices for solo violin (numbers 11 and 15), while the 1920 piece Piano Sonatina No. 6 (Fantasia da camera super Carmen) is based on themes from Georges Bizet's opera Carmen. An die Jugend is a piece of classical music for solo piano by Ferruccio Busoni. ... Niccolò (or Nicolò) Paganini (October 27, 1782 – May 27, 1840) was an Italian violinist, violist, guitarist and composer. ... Georges Bizet. ... Poster from the 1875 premiere of Carmen Carmen is a French opera by Georges Bizet. ...


Busoni was a virtuoso pianist, and his works for piano are difficult to perform. The Piano Concerto (1904) is probably the largest such work ever written. Performances generally last over seventy minutes, requiring great stamina from the soloist. The concerto is written for a large orchestra with a bass choir that is hidden from the audience's view in the last movement. A choir or chorus is a musical ensemble of singers. ...


Busoni's suite for orchestra Turandot (1904), probably his most popular orchestral work, was expanded into his opera Turandot in 1917, and Busoni completed two other operas, Die Brautwahl (1911) and Arlecchino (1917). He began serious work on his best known opera, Doktor Faust, in 1916, leaving it incomplete at his death. It was then finished by his student Philipp Jarnach, who worked with Busoni's sketches as he knew of them, but in the 1980s Anthony Beaumont, the author of an important Busoni biography, created an expanded and improved completion by drawing on material that Jarnach did not have access to. The Teatro alla Scala in Milan. ... Arlecchino oder Die Fenster (Harlequin, or The Windows) is an opera by Ferruccio Busoni. ... Doktor Faust is an opera by Ferruccio Busoni with a libretto by the composer himself based on the myth of Faust. ... Philipp Jarnach (b. ...


Busoni's editions

Busoni also edited of music by other composers. The best known of these is his edition of the complete Bach solo keyboard works, which he edited with the assistance of his students Egon Petri and Bruno Mugellini. He adds tempo markings, articulation and phrase markings, dynamics and metronome markings to the original Bach, as well as extensive performance suggestions. In the Goldberg Variations, for example, he suggests cutting eight of the variations for a "concert performance", as well as substantially rewriting many sections. The edition remains controversial, but has recently been reprinted. Johann Sebastian Bach (pronounced ) (21 March 1685 O.S. – 28 July 1750 N.S.) was a prolific German composer and organist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra and solo instruments drew together the strands of the Baroque period and brought it to its ultimate maturity. ... Egon Petri (March 23, 1881 - May 27, 1962) was a classical pianist. ... The Goldberg Variations, BWV 988, are a set of 30 keyboard variations by Johann Sebastian Bach. ...


On a smaller scale, Busoni edited works by Beethoven, Brahms, Chopin, Mozart. Liszt, Schoenberg and Schumann. The Busoni version of Liszt's La Campanella was championed by pianists such as Ignaz Friedman and Josef Lhevinne, and more recently by John Ogdon. 1820 portrait by Joseph Karl Stieler Beethoven redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin (in French, Frédéric François Chopin) (English: IPA: or ; French: ), (March 1, 1810[1] â€“ October 17, 1849) was a Polish pianist and composer of the Romantic era. ... Mozart redirects here. ... Franz Liszt (Hungarian: Liszt Ferenc) (October 22, 1811 – July 31, 1886) was a Hungarian virtuoso pianist and composer of the Romantic period. ... Schoenberg redirects here. ... Robert Schumann (June 8, 1810 – July 29, 1856) was a German composer and pianist. ... La Campanella is a piano etude written by virtuoso pianist Franz Liszt as part of a series of the six Grandes Etudes de Paganini (Grand Paganini Etudes), S. 141. ... Ignaz Friedman (also spelled Ignace or Ignacy) (February 14, 1882 – January 26, 1948) was a Polish pianist and composer famous for his Chopin interpretations. ... Josef Lhévinne (December 13, 1874 - December 2, 1944) was a Russian pianist and piano teacher. ... John Andrew Howard Ogdon (Mansfield Woodhouse, Nottinghamshire January 27, 1937 – August 1, 1989) was an English pianist and composer. ...


Recordings

Busoni made a considerable number of piano rolls, and a small number of these have been re-recorded onto vinyl record or CD. His recorded output on gramophone record is much smaller and rarer - unfortunately many were destroyed when the Columbia factory burnt down. Originally, he had recorded a considerable number, including Liszt's Sonata in B minor and Beethoven's Hammerklavier Sonata. The following pieces (recorded for Columbia) survive from February 1922: A piano roll is the medium used to operate the player piano or pianola, band/fairground organs, calliopes and hand-cranked organs and orchestrions and pipe organs as well. ... A gramophone record, (also phonograph record - often simply record) is an analog sound recording medium: a flat disc rotating at a constant angular velocity, with inscribed spiral grooves in which a stylus or needle rides. ... CD may stand for: Compact Disc Canadian Forces Decoration Cash Dispenser (at least used in Japan) CD LPMud Driver Centrum-Demokraterne (Centre Democrats of Denmark) Certificate of Deposit České Dráhy (Czech Railways) Chad (NATO country code) Chalmers Datorförening (computer club of the Chalmers University of Technology) a 1960s... The Beatles Magical Mystery Tour as a 33 ⅓ LP vinyl record A gramophone record (also phonograph record, or simply record) is an analogue sound recording medium consisting of a flat disc with an inscribed modulated spiral groove starting near the periphery and ending near the center of the disc. ...

  • Prelude & Fugue No. 1 (Bach)
  • Etude Op. 25 No. 5 (Chopin)
  • Chorale Prelude "Nun freut euch liebe Christen" (Bach-Busoni)
  • Ecossaisen (Beethoven)
  • Prelude Op. 28 No. 7 & Etude Op. 10 No. 5 (Chopin) the two works are connected by an improvisatory passage
  • Etude Op. 10 No. 5 (Chopin)
  • Nocturne Op. 15 No. 2 (Chopin)
  • Hungarian Rhapsody No. 13 (Liszt) this has substantial cuts, to fit it on two sides of a 78 record.

Busoni also mentions recording the Gounod-Liszt Faust Waltz in a letter to his wife in 1919. However, this recording was never released. Unfortunately for posterity, Busoni never recorded his original works.


The value of these recordings in ascertaining Busoni's performance style is a matter of some dispute. Many of his colleagues and students expressed disappointment with the recordings and felt they did not truly represent Busoni's pianism. His student Egon Petri was horrified by the piano roll recordings when they first appeared on LP and said that it was a travesty of Busoni's playing. Similarly, Petri's student Gunnar Johansen who had heard Busoni play on several occasions, remarked, "Of Busoni's piano rolls and recordings, only Feux follets (Liszt's 5th Transcendental Etude) is really something unique. The rest is curiously unconvincing. The recordings, especially of Chopin, are a plain misalliance". However, Kaikhosru Sorabji, a fervent admirer, found the records to be the best piano recordings ever made when they were released. Egon Petri (March 23, 1881 - May 27, 1962) was a classical pianist. ... Gunnar Johansen, pianist (1906 – 1991) He studied in his native Denmark with the pianist and conductor Victor Schiöler, then in Berlin with Egon Petri, the disciple of Ferruccio Busoni. ... Kaikhosru Shapurji Sorabji (August 14, 1894 - October 15, 1988) was a pianist, music journalist and composer of Spanish-Sicilian and Parsi descent, who was born in and lived in Britain. ...


See also

The Fantasie on Two Motives from Mozarts Marriage of Figaro (also known as the Figaro Fantasy) is an operatic fantasy by Franz Liszt. ...

References and external links


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