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Encyclopedia > Ferrara
Comune di Ferrara
Coat of arms of Comune di Ferrara
Municipal coat of arms
Country Italy Italy
Region Emilia-Romagna
Province Ferrara (FE)
Mayor Gaetano Sateriale (since June 13, 2004)
Elevation 9 m
Area 404 km²
Population
 - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 131,907
 - Density 323/km²
Time zone CET, UTC+1
Coordinates 44°50′N 11°37′E
Gentilic Ferraresi
Dialing code 0532
Postal code 44100
Frazioni Aguscello, Albarea, Baura, Boara, Borgo Scoline, Bova, Casaglia, Cassana, Castel Trivellino, Chiesuol del Fosso, Cocomaro di Cona, Cocomaro di Focomorto, Codrea, Cona, Contrapò, Corlo, Correggio, Denore, Focomorto, Francolino, Gaibana, Gaibanella, Sant'Egidio, Malborghetto di Boara, Malborghetto di Correggio, Marrara, Mezzavia, Monestirolo, Montalbano, Parasacco, Pescara, Pontegradella, Pontelagoscuro, Ponte Travagli, Porotto, Porporana, Quartesana, Ravalle, Sabbioni, San Bartolomeo in Bosco, San Martino, Spinazzino, Torre della Fossa, Uccellino, Viconovo, Villanova
Patron St. George
 - Day April 23

Location of Ferrara in Italy
Website: www.comune.ferrara.it

Ferrara is a city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, capital city of the province of Ferrara. Image File history File links Ferrara-Stemma. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... The Regions of Italy were granted a degree of regional autonomy in the 1948 constitution, which states that the constitutions role is: to recognize, protect and promote local autonomy, to ensure that services at the State level are as decentralized as possible, and to adapt the principles and laws... Provinces of Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna is an administrative region of Northern Italy comprising the two historic regions of Emilia and Romagna. ... In Italy, the province (in Italian: provincia) is an administrative division of an intermediate level, between municipality (comune) and region (Regione). ... link title Headline text Ferrara (It. ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Central European Time West Africa Time British Summer Time* Irish Summer Time* Western European Summer Time* Category: ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Here are a list of area codes in Italy. ... A frazione, in Italy, is the name given in administrative law to a type of territorial subdivision of a comune; for other subdivisions, see municipio, circoscrizione, quartiere. ... For alternate uses, see Saint George (disambiguation) Saint George on horseback rides alongside a wounded dragon being led by a princess, late 19th century engraving. ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (114th in leap years). ... Image File history File links Italy_Regions_220px_(including_Pelagie_Islands). ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... Provinces of Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna is an administrative region of Northern Italy comprising the two historic regions of Emilia and Romagna. ... link title Headline text Ferrara (It. ...


It is situated 50 km north-northeast of Bologna, on the Po di Volano, a branch channel of the main stream of the Po river, located 5 km north. The town has broad streets and numerous palaces dating from the 14th century, when it hosted the court of the house of Este. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Po (Latin: Padus) is a river that flows 652 kilometers (405 miles) eastward across northern Italy, from Monviso (in the Cottian Alps) to the Adriatic Sea near Venice. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... For Tolkiens fictional character, see Estë To know more about the city, see Este Este, Italian princely family, rulers of Ferrara (1240–1597), Modena and Reggio (1288–1796). ...

Street in the Renaissance town center.
Street in the Renaissance town center.

Modern times have brought a renewal of industrial activity. Ferrara is on the main rail line from Bologna to Padua and Venice, and has branches to Ravenna, Poggio Rusco (for Suzzara) and Codigoro. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x1000, 257 KB) Description: Street in the Rennaissance town center of Ferrara, Italy own image, taken March 26th, 2002 Photographer: Herbert Ortner, Vienna, Austria File links The following pages link to this file: Ferrara ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x1000, 257 KB) Description: Street in the Rennaissance town center of Ferrara, Italy own image, taken March 26th, 2002 Photographer: Herbert Ortner, Vienna, Austria File links The following pages link to this file: Ferrara ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ravenna is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... Poggio Rusco its a small town in the Province of Mantua,whose inhabitants are 6,459 (March 31, 2006). ... Country Italy Region Lombardy Province Province of Mantua (MN) Mayor Elevation 20 m Area 60. ... Codigoro is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Ferrara in the Italian region Emilia-Romagna, located about 70 km northeast of Bologna and about 40 km east of Ferrara. ...

Contents

History

The origin of Ferrara is uncertain; it is unlikely that it occupies the site of the ancient Forum Alieni, as some suppose. It was probably settled by the inhabitants of the lagoons at the mouth of the Po. It appears first in a document of the Lombard king Aistulf of 754(?), as a city forming part of the Exarchate of Ravenna. After 984 it was a fief of Tedaldo, count of Modena and Canossa, nephew of the emperor Otto I. It afterwards made itself independent, and in 1101 was taken by siege by the countess Matilda. At this time it was mainly dominated by several great families, among them the Adelardi (or Aleardi). This mid bay barrier in Narrabeen, a suburb of Sydney (Australia), has blocked what used to be a bay to form a lagoon. ... The Lombards or Longobards or Langobards were the Germanic tribe who gave their name to Lombardy, an administrative entity in Northern Italy. ... Aistulf, also called Aistulf of Friuli, (d. ... Events Pope Stephen III crowns Pepin the short King of the Franks at St. ... The Exarchate of Ravenna was a center of Byzantine power in Italy, from the end of the 6th century to 751 A.D., when the last Exarch was put to death by the Emperors enemies in Italy, the Lombards. ... Ravenna is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Enyu of Japan Emperor Kazan ascends to the throne of Japan Births Deaths Categories: 984 ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... A count is a nobleman in most European countries, equivalent in rank to a British earl, whose wife is also still a countess (for lack of an Anglo-Saxon term). ... Modena (Mòdna in Modenese dialect) is a city and a province on the south side of the Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... Canossa is a former castle of Matilda, Countess of Tuscany, situated in the foothills of the Apennines, in the province of Reggio Emilia and about eighteen miles from Parma. ... Emperor Otto I Otto I the Great (November 23, 912 - May 7, 973), son of Henry I the Fowler, king of the Germans, and Matilda of Ringelheim, was Duke of Saxony, King of the Germans and arguably the first Holy Roman Emperor. ... Events A second wave of crusaders arrives in the newly established Kingdom of Jerusalem, after being heavily defeated by Kilij Arslan I at Heraclia. ...


In 1146, Guglielmo Adelardi, the last of the Adelardi, died, and his property passed, as the dowry of his niece the Marchesella, to Azzo VI d'Este. There was considerable hostility between the newly entered family and the Salinguerra, but after considerable struggles Azzo VII Novello was nominated perpetual podestà in 1242; in 1259 he took Ezzelino of Verona prisoner in battle. His grandson, Obizzo II (12641293), succeeded him, and he was made perpetual lord of the city by the population. The house of Este was from henceforth settled in Ferrara. In 1289 he was also chosen as lord of Modena, one year later he was made lord of Reggio. Events Saint Bernard of Clairvaux preaches the Second Crusade at Vezelay, Burgundy First written mention of Bryansk. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is a gift of money or valuables given by the groomss family to that of the bride to permit their marriage. ... The Palace of the Podestà in Florence, known as the Palazzo Vecchio or the Palazzo della Signoria Podestà is the name given to certain high officials in many Italian cities, since the later middle ages, mainly as Chief magistrate of a city state (like otherwise styled counterparts in other cities... // Events April 5 - During a battle on the ice of Chudskoye Lake, Russian forces rebuff an invasion attempt by the Teutonic Knights. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Ezzelino da Romano III (1194 - 1259) was an Italian conqueror, dictator, political figure and soldier. ... Verona (population est. ... Events May 12 - The Battle of Lewes begins (ends May 14). ... Events May 20 - King Sancho IV of Castile creates the Study of General Schools of Alcala The Minoresses (Franciscan nuns) are first introduced into England Births Deaths Categories: 1293 ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Modena (Mòdna in Modenese dialect) is a city and a province on the south side of the Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Reggio Emilia (RE) Mayor Graziano Delrio (from July 1, 2004) Elevation 58 m Area 231 km² Population  - Total 141,383  - Density 612/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Reggiani Dialing code 0522 Postal code 42100 Frazioni see list Patron San Prospero  - Day...


Niccolò III (13931441) received several popes with great magnificence, especially Eugene IV, who held a council here in 1438. His son Borso received the title of duke for the imperial fiefs of Modena and Reggio from emperor Frederick III in 1452 (in which year Girolamo Savonarola was born here), and in 1471 was made duke of Ferrara by Pope Paul II. Ercole I (14711505) carried on a war with Venice and increased the magnificence of the city. Events Ottoman Turks occupy Veliko Turnovo in north-central Bulgaria. ... This page is about the year 1441. ... The current Pope is Benedict XVI (born Joseph Alois Ratzinger), who was elected at the age of 78 on 19 April 2005. ... Eugenius IV, né Gabriel Condulmer (1383 - February 23, 1447) was pope from March 3, 1431 to his death. ... Events Pachacuti who would later create Tahuantinsuyu, or Inca Empire became the ruler of Cuzco In Italy, the siege of Brescia by the condottieri troops of Niccolò Piccinino was raised after the arrival of Scaramuccia da Forlì. January 1 - Albert II of Habsburg becomes King of Hungary March 18 - Albert... Ercole I dEste was one of the most important patrons of arts in the Italian Renaissance. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of Dukes of Modena. ... Detail of Aeneas Piccolomini Introduces Eleonora of Portugal to Frederick III by Pinturicchio (1454-1513) Frederick III of Habsburg (Innsbruck, September 21, 1415 – August 19, 1493 in Linz) was elected as German King as the successor of Albert II in 1440. ... Events October - English troops under John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, land in Guyenne, France, and retake most of the province without a fight. ... Girolamo Savonarola by Fra Bartolomeo, c. ... This article is about the year 1471, not the BT caller ID service accessible by dialling 1-4-7-1. ... List of the Lords and Dukes of Ferrara and Modena In 1452 the Italian family of Este, Lords of Ferrara, were created Dukes of Modena and Reggio, becoming Dukes of Ferrara also in 1471. ... Paul II, né Pietro Barbo (February 23, 1417 – July 26, 1471), was Pope from 1464 until his death. ... Ercole dEste I (1431 – 1505) was Duke of Ferrara from 1471 until 1505. ... This article is about the year 1471, not the BT caller ID service accessible by dialling 1-4-7-1. ... 1505 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venexia) is the capital of the region of Veneto and the province of the same name in Italy. ...


During the reign of Ercole I, one of the most significant patrons of the arts in late 15th and early 16th century Italy after the Medici, Ferrara grew into a cultural center, renowned especially for music. Composers came to Ferrara from many parts of Europe, especially France and Flanders; Josquin Des Prez worked for Duke Ercole for a time (producing the Missa Hercules dux Ferrariæ, which he wrote for him); Jacob Obrecht came to Ferrara twice (and died during an outbreak of plague there in 1505); and Antoine Brumel served as principal musician from 1505. Alfonso I, son of Ercole, was also an important patron; his preference for instrumental music resulted in Ferrara becoming an important center of composition for the lute. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The Medici coat of arms The Medici family was a powerful and influential Florentine family from the 13th to 17th century. ... Flanders (Dutch: Vlaanderen) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; some prefer to call this the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians... Josquin des Prez Josquin Des Prez (French rendering of Dutch Josken, diminutive of Joseph; latinized Josquinus Pratensis, alternatively Jodocus Pratensis) (c. ... Jacob Obrecht Jacob Obrecht (November 22, 1458 – late July, 1505) was a Dutch composer of the Renaissance. ... Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411). ... 1505 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Antoine Brumel (around 1460 – 1512 or 1513) was a French composer. ... 1505 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Portrait of Alfonso dEste by an unknown artist Alfonso dEste (1486–1534) was Duke of Ferrara during the War of the League of Cambrai. ... The lute is a plucked string instrument with a fretted neck and a deep round back. ...


Alfonso married the notorious Lucrezia Borgia, and continued the war with Venice with success. In 1509 he was excommunicated by Pope Julius II, and he overcame the pontifical army in 1512 defending Ravenna. Portrait of a Woman by Bartolomeo Veneziano, traditionally assumed to be Lucrezia Borgia. ... 1509 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Julius II, born Giuliano della Rovere (December 5, 1443 – February 21, 1513), was Pope from 1503 to 1513. ... 1512 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ravenna is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ...


Gaston de Foix fell in the battle, in which he was supporting Alfonso. With the succeeding popes he was able to make peace. He was the patron of Ariosto from 1518 onwards. His son Ercole II married Renée, daughter of Louis XII of France; he too embellished Ferrara during his reign (15341559). Gaston de Foix, Duc de Nemours (1489-1512) was a nephew of Louis XII of France. ... Ludovico Ariosto (September 8, 1474 _ July 6, 1533) was a Ferrarese poet, author of the epic poem Orlando furioso (1516), Orlando Enraged. He was born at Reggio, in Hungary in 1518, and wished Aniosto to accompany him. ... Events A plague of tropical fire ants devastates crops on Hispaniola. ... Ercole II dEste (April 5, 1508 - October 3, 1559) was Duke of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio from 1534 to 1559. ... Louis XII the Father of the People (French: Louis XII le Père du Peuple) (June 27, 1462 – January 1, 1515) was King of France 1498 – January 1, 1515. ... 1534 (MDXXXIV) was a common year in the 16th century. ... Events January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ...


His son Alfonso II married Lucrezia, daughter of grand-duke Cosimo I of Tuscany, then Barbara, sister of the emperor Maximilian II and finally Margherita Gonzaga, daughter of the duke of Mantua. He raised the glory of Ferrara to its highest point, and was the patron of Tasso and Guarini, favouring, as the princes of his house had always done, the arts and sciences. He had no legitimate male heir, and in 1597 Ferrara was claimed as a vacant fief by Pope Clement VIII, as was also Comacchio. Alfonso II dEste. ... Cosimo I de Medici in Armour by Agnolo Bronzino Cosimo I de Medici (June 12, 1519, Florence [1] – April 21, 1574, Castello) was the first Grand Duke of Tuscany, ruling from 1537 to 1574, during the waning days of the Renaissance. ... Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II. His Coat of Arms Maximilian II of the Habsburg dynasty (July 31, 1527 – October 12, 1576) was king of Bohemia from 1562, king of Hungary from 1563 and emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 1564 until his death. ... Margherita Gonzaga dEste, Duchess of Ferrara (May 27, 1564 - January 6, 1618) was the daughter of William I, Duke of Mantua (Guglielmo Gonzaga) and Eleanora of Austria, and the sister of Vincent I, Duke of Mantua and Anna Caterina Gonzaga. ... The Duchy of Mantua was an Italian state that was ruled by the Gonzaga family from 1328 to 1708. ... Torquato Tasso (March 11, 1544 – April 25, 1595) was an Italian poet of the 16th century, best known for his poem La Gerusalemme liberata (Jerusalem Delivered; 1575), in which he describes the imaginary combats between Christians and Muslims at the end of the First Crusade, during the siege of Jerusalem. ... Giovanni Battista Guarini (December 10, 1538 – October 7, 1612) was an Italian poet and diplomat. ... Events 17 January - A court case in Guildford recorded evidence that a certain plot of land was used for playing “kreckett” (i. ... Clement VIII, born Ippolito Aldobrandini (Fano, Italy, February 24, 1536 – March 3, 1605 in Rome) was Pope from January 30, 1592 to March 3, 1605. ... Comacchio is a town of Emilia Romagna, Italy, in the province of Ferrara, 48 km by road from the town of Ferrara, on the level of the sea, in the centre of the lagoon of Valli di Comacchio, just N. of the present mouth of the Reno. ...


During the reign of Alfonso II, Ferrara once again developed an impressive musical establishment, rivaled in Italy only by the adjacent city of Venice, and the traditional musical centers such as Rome, Florence and Milan. Composers such as Luzzasco Luzzaschi, Lodovico Agostini, and later Carlo Gesualdo, represented the avant-garde tendency of the composers there, writing for gifted virtuoso performers, including the famous concerto di donne — the three virtuoso female singers Laura Peverara, Anna Guarini, and Livia d'Arco. Vincenzo Galilei praised the work of Luzzaschi, and Girolamo Frescobaldi studied with him. Visitors came to hear the spectacular productions of the Este musicians, the activities of which mostly ceased in 1598 with the demise of the Este court. Nickname: The Eternal City Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 8th century BC Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1,285 km²  (496. ... Florences skyline Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... Milan (Italian: Milano; Milanese: Milán (listen)) is the main city of northern Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. ... Luzzasco Luzzaschi (c. ... Lodovico Agostini (1534 – September 20, 1590) was an Italian composer, singer, priest, and scholar of the late Renaissance. ... Carlo Gesualdo, Prince of Venosa. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... The Concerto delle donne ( consort of ladies) was a group of professional women singers established by Duke Alfonso II of Ferrara in 1580 and active until the court was dissolved in 1597. ... Laura Peverara (ca. ... Anna Guarini, Contessa Trotti, (1563 – May 3, 1598) was an Italian virtuoso singer of the late Renaissance. ... Livia dArco (c. ... Vincenzo Galilei (1520 – July 2, 1591) was an Italian lutenist, composer, and music theorist, and the father of the famous astronomer Galileo Galilei. ... Girolamo Frescobaldi (September, 1583 – March 1, 1643) was an Italian musician, one of the most important composers of keyboard music in the late Renaissance and early Baroque periods. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ...


A fortress was constructed by Pope Paul V on the site of the castle called "Castel Tedaldo", at the south-west angle of the town. The town remained a part of the states of the Church, the fortress being occupied by an Austrian garrison from 1832 until 1859, when it became part of the kingdom of Italy. Paul V, né Camillo Borghese (Rome, September 17, 1552 – January 28, 1621) was Pope from May 16, 1605 until his death. ... The Papal States (Gli Stati della Chiesa or Stati Pontificii, States of the Church) was one of the major historical states of Italy before the boot-shaped peninsula was unified under the Piedmontese crown of Savoy (later a republic). ... 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1859 (MDCCCLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Anthem: Il Canto degli Italiani (also known as Fratelli dItalia) Capital (largest city) Rome Italian1 Government Republic  - President Giorgio Napolitano  - Prime Minister Romano Prodi Formation    - Unification 17 March 1861   - Republic 2 June 1946  Accession to EU March 25, 1957 (founding member) Area  - Total 301,318 km² (71st) 116,346. ...


Main sights

The romanesque cathedral.
The romanesque cathedral.
Enlarge
Memorial to poet Ludovico Ariosto.

The town is still surrounded by more than 9 kilometres of ancient walls, mainly built in the 15th and 16th centuries[1]. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x1000, 302 KB) Description: The gothic Cathedral of Ferrara, Italy own image, taken March 26th, 2002 Photographer: Herbert Ortner, Vienna, Austria File links The following pages link to this file: Ferrara ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x1000, 302 KB) Description: The gothic Cathedral of Ferrara, Italy own image, taken March 26th, 2002 Photographer: Herbert Ortner, Vienna, Austria File links The following pages link to this file: Ferrara ... Interior of the Saint-Saturnin church St-Sernin basilica, Toulouse, 1080 – 1120: elevation of the east end Romanesque sculpture, cloister of St. ... Castello Estense, Ferrara, Italy. ... Castello Estense, Ferrara, Italy. ... View of the Castello Estense. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 979 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ludovico Ariosto Ferrara Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 979 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ludovico Ariosto Ferrara Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Ludovico Ariosto (September 8, 1474 – July 6, 1533) was an Italian poet, author of the epic poem Orlando furioso (1516), Orlando Enraged. He was born at Reggio, in Emilia. ... km redirects here. ...


The most prominent building is the square Castello Estense, in the centre of the town, a brick building surrounded by a moat, with four towers. It was built after 1385 and partly restored in 1554; the pavilions on the top of the towers date from the latter year. View of the Castello Estense. ... The moated manor house of Baddesley Clinton in Warwickshire, England Moats (also known as a Fosse) were deep and wide water-filled trenches, excavated to provide a barrier against attack upon castle ramparts or other fortifications. ... Events August 14 - Battle of Aljubarrota between the Portuguese under John I of Portugal and the Castilians, under John I of Castile. ... Events January 5 - Great fire in Eindhoven, Netherlands. ...


Near it is the hospital of Santa Anna, where the poet Torquato Tasso was confined during his attack of insanity (15791586). Torquato Tasso (March 11, 1544 – April 25, 1595) was an Italian poet of the 16th century, best known for his poem La Gerusalemme liberata (Jerusalem Delivered; 1575), in which he describes the imaginary combats between Christians and Muslims at the end of the First Crusade, during the siege of Jerusalem. ... Events January 6 - The Union of Atrecht united the southern Netherlands under the Duke of Parma, governor in the name of king Philip II of Spain. ... 1586 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ...


The Palazzo del Municipio, rebuilt in the 18th century, was the earlier residence of the Este family. Close by it is the cathedral of San Giorgio, consecrated in 1135, when the Romanesque lower part of the main façade and the side façades were completed. It was built by Guglielmo degli Adelardi (d. 1146), who is buried in it. The upper part of the main façade, with arcades of pointed arches, dates from the 13th century and the portal has recumbent lions and elaborate sculptures above. The interior was restored in the baroque style in 1712. The campanile, in the Renaissance style, dates from 14511493, but the last storey was added at the end of the 16th century. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Events January - Byland Abbey founded Stephen of Blois succeeds King Henry I. Empress Maud, daughter of Henry I and widow of Henry V opposed Stephen and claims the throne as her own Owain Gwynedd of Wales defeats the Normans at Crug Mawr. ... Romanesque St. ... West façade of the Notre-Dame de Strasbourg Cathedral A facade (or façade) is the exterior of a building – especially the front, but also sometimes the sides and rear. ... Events Saint Bernard of Clairvaux preaches the Second Crusade at Vezelay, Burgundy First written mention of Bryansk. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ... St. ... Raphael was famous for depicting illustrious figures of the Classical past with the features of his Renaissance contemporaries. ... // Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II. June 30 - French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture... 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...


A little way off is the university, which has faculties of law, architecture, pharmacy, medicine and natural science; the library has valuable manuscripts, including part of that of the Orlando Furioso and letters by Tasso. In the university took their degree Nicolaus Copernicus (1503) and Paracelsus. The University of Ferrara (Università degli Studi di Ferrara) is main university of the city of Ferrara in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. ... Weighing scales represent the way law balances peoples interests For other senses of this word, see Law (disambiguation). ... The Parthenon on top of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, αρχιτεκτων, a master builder, from αρχι- chief, leader and τεκτων, builder, carpenter) is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ... Bowl of Hygeia Pharmacy (from the Greek φάρμακον = drug) is a transitional field between health sciences and chemical sciences and a profession charged with ensuring the safe use of medication. ... Medicine is the branch of health science and the sector of public life concerned with maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, treatment and possible prevention of disease and injury. ... The lunar farside as seen from Apollo 11 Natural science is the rational study of the universe via rules or laws of natural order. ... A modern-style library in Chambéry In the traditional sense of the word, a library is a collection of books and periodicals, . It can refer to an individuals private collection, but more often it is a large collection that is funded and maintained by a city or institution. ... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... Ruggiero Rescuing Angelica by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres. ... Torquato Tasso (March 11, 1544 - April 25, 1595) was an Italian poet of the 16th century, best known for his poem La Gerusalemme liberata (Jerusalem Delivered; 1575), in which he describes the imaginary combats between Christians and Muslims at the end of the First Crusade, during the siege of Jerusalem. ... Nicolaus Copernicus (February 19, 1473 – May 24, 1543) was an astronomer who provided the first modern formulation of a heliocentric (sun-centered) theory of the solar system in his epochal book, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres). ... 1503 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Paracelsus Paracelsus (born 11 November or 17 December 1493 in Einsiedeln, Switzerland - 24 September 1541) was an alchemist, physician, astrologer, and general occultist. ...


Ferrara has many early Renaissance palaces, often retaining terracotta decorations; few towns of Italy as small have so many, though most are comparatively small in size. Among them may be noted those in the north quarter (especially the four at the intersection of its two main streets), which was added by Ercole I in 14921505, from the plans of Biagio Rossetti, and hence called the Addizione Erculea. Terra cotta is a hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction. ... 1492 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1505 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Biagio Rossetti, (circa 1447 - 1516), was an Italian architect and urbanist from Ferrara. ...


Among the finest palaces is Palazzo dei Diamanti, so named for the diamond points into which the facade's stone blocks are cut. It houses the National Picture Gallery, with a large collection of the school of Ferrara, which first rose to prominence in the latter half of the 15th century, with Cosimo Tura, Francesco Cossa and Ercole dei Roberti. Noted masters of the 16th century School of Ferrara (Painting) include Lorenzo Costa and Dosso Dossi, the most eminent of all, Girolamo da Carpi and Benvenuto Tisio (il Garofalo). Palazzo dei Diamanti is palace in Ferrara, northern Italy. ... // A scattering of round-brilliant cut diamonds shows off the many reflecting facets. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... An Allegorical Figure, c. ... Triumph of Venus (detail), 1469-1470. ... List of painters of the School of Ferrara include: *15th Century Cosimo Tura Francesco Cossa Ercole dei Roberti *16th century Lorenzo Costa Dosso Dossi Girolamo da Carpi Benvenuto Tisio (il Garofalo) Category: Italian painters ... Lorenzo Costa (1460 - 1535) was an Italian painter. ... Circe and her Lovers in a Landscape, 1514 - 1516. ... Girolamo Da Carpi (1501 - 1556) was the son of an Este’s court painter and decorator in Ferrara (Italy). ... Benvenuto Tisio [or Tisi] (1481 - September 16, 1559), commonly called Il Garofalo, Italian painter of the Ferrarese school, was born at Garofolo, in the Ferrarese territory, and constantly used the gillyflower (garofalo) as a symbol with which to sign his pictures. ...


The Archivio Storico Comunale contains a relevant amount of historical documents, starting from 15th century. The Archivio Storico Diocesano is more ancient, mentioned in documents in 955, and contains precious documents collected across the centuries by the clergy. Many libraries also enrich this town, which possesses a cultural heritage of extraordinary importance. Events August 10 - Otto I the Great defeats Magyars in the Battle of Lechfeld Edwy becomes King of England. ...


The Monastero del Corpus Domini contains tombs of the Estes, including Alfonso I, Alfonso II, Ercole I, Ercole II, as well as Lucrezia Borgia, Eleonora d'Aragona, and a dozen others. Portrait of Alfonso dEste by an unknown artist Alfonso dEste (1486–1534) was Duke of Ferrara during the War of the League of Cambrai. ... Alfonso II dEste Alfonso II dEste (November 22, 1533-1597) was duke of Ferrara from 1559 to 1597. ... Ercole dEste I (1431 – 1505) was Duke of Ferrara from 1471 until 1505. ... Ercole II dEste (April 5, 1508 - October 3, 1559) was Duke of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio from 1534 to 1559. ... Portrait of a Woman by Bartolomeo Veneziano, traditionally assumed to be Lucrezia Borgia. ...


Other sights include:

  • The Cathedral (12th century)
  • The historical theatre
  • The Certosa
  • The church of San Francesco (by Biagio Rossetti)
  • The church of San Benedetto
  • The church of Santa Maria in Vado
  • The church of San Domenico
  • The church of San Paolo
  • The church of San Giorgio
  • The Renaissance church of San Cristoforo
  • The Palazzo Schifanoia, built in 1385 by Alberto V d'Este. It includes frescoes depicting the life of Borso of Este, the signs of the zodiac and allegorical representations of the months. The vestibule was decorated with stucco mouldings by Domenico di Paris of Padua. The building also contains fine choir-books with miniatures and a collection of coins and Renaissance medals.
  • The Palazzo della Ragione ("Palace of Reason"), built in Gothic style in 1315-1326 (the original one has been destroyed during World War II).
  • The simple house of Ludovico Ariosto, erected by himself after 1526, in which he died in 1532.

Ferrara hosts also some synagogues and a Jewish Museum, in the heart of the mediæval centre, close to the cathedral and the Castello Estense. This street was part of the ghetto in which the Jews were separated from the rest of the population of Ferrara from ca. 1627 to 1859. (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Biagio Rossetti, (circa 1447 - 1516), was an Italian architect and urbanist from Ferrara. ... Ceres, allegory of August: detail of a fresco designed by Cosimo Tura Salone dei Mesi, 1469-70 Palazzo Schifanoia (Palazzo Flee Care), Ferrara, is a Renaissance palace of pleasures that was built for the delight of the Este. ... Events August 14 - Battle of Aljubarrota between the Portuguese under John I of Portugal and the Castilians, under John I of Castile. ... 360-degree panorama of the night sky with constellations superimposed. ... An allegory (from Greek αλλος, allos, other, and αγορευειν, agoreuein, to speak in public) is a figurative mode of representation conveying a meaning other than (and in addition to) the literal. ... Vestibule can have the following meanings, each primarily based upon a common origin, from early 17th century French, derived from Latin vestibulum ‘entrance court. ... Stucco is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water which is applied wet, and hardens when it dries. ... Tronco Maestro Riviera: a pedestrian walk along a section of the inland waterway or naviglio interno of Padua. ... The Western (Royal) Portal at Chartres Cathedral ( 1145). ... Events August 13 - Louis X of France marries Clemence dAnjou. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Osman I (1299-1326) to Orhan I (1326-1359) Aradia de Toscano, is initiated into a Dianic cult of Italian Witchcraft (Stregheria), and discovers through a vision that she is the human incarnation of the goddess Aradia. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... Ludovico Ariosto (September 8, 1474 – July 6, 1533) was an Italian poet, author of the epic poem Orlando furioso (1516), Orlando Enraged. He was born at Reggio, in Emilia. ... Events January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... Events May 16 - Sir Thomas More resigns as Lord Chancellor of England. ... Lesko synagogue, Poland A synagogue (Hebrew: בית כנסת ; beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: שול, shul; Ladino אסנוגה esnoga) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ... This article describes some ethnic, historic, and cultural aspects of the Jewish identity; for a consideration of the Jewish religion, refer to the article Judaism. ... A ghetto is an area where people from a specific racial or ethnic background or united in a given culture or religion live as a group, voluntarily or involuntarily, in milder or stricter seclusion. ... Events A Dutch ship makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia. ... 1859 (MDCCCLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ...


Ferrara in culture

Enlarge
Girolamo Savonarola statue, Ferrara.

Tha famous friar Girolamo Savonarola and the musician Girolamo Frescobaldi were both born in Ferrara, as well as the painters Giovanni Boldini (1842) and Filippo de Pisis (1896). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 1055 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ferrara Girolamo Savonarola Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 1055 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ferrara Girolamo Savonarola Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Girolamo Savonarola by Fra Bartolomeo, c. ... Girolamo Savonarola by Fra Bartolomeo, c. ... Girolamo Frescobaldi (September, 1583 – March 1, 1643) was an Italian musician, one of the most important composers of keyboard music in the late Renaissance and early Baroque periods. ... Giovanni Boldini (1910) Giovanni Boldini (1842 – 1931) was an italian portrait painter. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Apart from Tasso and Ariosto, the other notable Renaissance writer Matteo Maria Boiardo worked here. Ferrara was able to develop its own lineage or School of painters and artists. The list of painters and artists living in Ferrara must be completed with the names of Andrea Mantegna, Giovanni Bellini, Leon Battista Alberti, Pisanello, Piero della Francesca, Rogier van der Weyden, Battista Dossi (brother of Dosso Dossi) and Titian. Matteo Maria Boiardo (c. ... List of painters of the School of Ferrara include: *15th Century Cosimo Tura Francesco Cossa Ercole dei Roberti *16th century Lorenzo Costa Dosso Dossi Girolamo da Carpi Benvenuto Tisio (il Garofalo) Category: Italian painters ... The Lamentation over the Dead Christ Tempera on canvas, 68x81 cm, 1490 Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan. ... Giovanni Bellini painted his first female nude when he was about 85 years old. ... Leone Battista Alberti (February 1404 - 25th April 1472), Italian painter, poet, linguist, philosopher, cryptographer, musician, architect, and general Renaissance polymath . ... Categories: 1911 Britannica | Stub | Italian painters | Gothic painting | 1380 births | 1456 deaths ... The Baptism of Christ, 1442 (National Gallery, London) Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Piero della Francesca Piero della Francesca was an Italian artist of the Early Renaissance. ... Deposition by Roger van der Weyden (c. ... Circe and her Lovers in a Landscape, 1514 - 1516. ... Titians self-portrait, 1566. ...


The Ferrara Bible was a translation of the Old Testament into Ladino (Judaeo-Spanish) by Sephardic Jews and dedicated to Ercole II. The Ferrara Bible was a publication of the Ladino version of the Old Testament used by Sephardi Jews in Spain. ... Ladino is a Romance language, derived mainly from Old Castilian (Spanish) and Hebrew. ...


Ferrara was the seat of the famous novel Il giardino dei Finzi-Contini, by Giorgio Bassani, and of its movie adaptation by Vittorio De Sica (1970). Wim Wenders and Michelangelo Antonioni's Al di là delle nuvole (1995) and Ermanno Olmi's Il mestiere delle Armi (2001), about the last days of Giovanni dalle Bande Nere, were also shot here. Il giardino dei Finzi-Contini (The Garden of the Finzi-Continis) is a historical novel by Giorgio Bassani that chronicles the relationships between the narrator and the children of the Finzi-Contini family from the rise of Mussolini until the start of World War II. Vittorio De Sica turned the... Giorgio Bassani (March 4, 1916 - April 13, 2000) was a novelist, poet, essayist, editor, and international intellectual. ... Vittorio de Sica (July 7, 1901 - November 13, 1974) was an Italian neorealist director and actor. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ... Wilhelm Ernst (Wim) Wenders (born August 14, 1945) is a German-born film director, author and producer. ... Michelangelo Antonioni (born September 29, 1912, Ferrara, Emilia Romagna) is an Italian modernist film director whose films are widely considered as some of the most influential in film aesthetic. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ermanno Olmi (born July 24, 1931) is a noted Italian director. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... Portrait of Giovanni by Gian Paolo Pace, now housed in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. ...


The Palium of St. George is a typical medieval feast held every last Sunday of May. The Buskers Festival is a non-competitive parade of the best street musicians in the world. In terms of tradition and dimension it is the most important festival of this kind. Busking is the practice of doing live performances in public places to entertain people, usually to solicit donations and tips. ...


Politics

After the municipal elections on June 12 and 13 2004, the division of the 40 seats in the Ferrara city council was as followed: June 12 is the 163rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (164th in leap years), with 202 days remaining. ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

The Democrats of the Left (Italian: Democratici di Sinistra, often referred to as DS) is the main Italian left-wing political party, part of the Ulivo electoral coalition. ... Forza Italia (Forward Italy) is an Italian party. ... National Alliance (Italian: Alleanza Nazionale, often shortened to AN) is a right-wing Italian political party. ... Daisy-Democracy is Freedom (full name in Italian: Democrazia è Libertà – La Margherita: Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy) is a centrist political Party in Italy. ... The Rose in the Fist is an Italian political federation of parties founded in 2005. ... The Communist Refoundation Party (Italian: Partito della Rifondazione Comunista) is an Italian reformed communist party. ... The Party of Italian Communists (Italian: Partito dei Comunisti Italiani, also translated into English as Italian Communists Party) is a political party in Italy. ... The Federation of the Greens (Federazione dei Verdi, or just Verdi) is the Italian Green Party. ...

External links

  • Official site

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ferrara (1243 words)
He raised the glory of Ferrara to its highest point, and was the patron of Tasso and Guarini, favouring, as the princes of his house had always done, the arts and sciences.
Ferrara is on the main line from Bologna to Padua and Venice, and has branches to Ravenna and Poggio Rusco (for Suzzara).
This street was part of the ghetto in which the Jews were separated from the rest of the population of Ferrara from 1627 to 1859.
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