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Encyclopedia > Fernand Braudel

Fernand Braudel (August 24, 1902November 27, 1985) was a French historian. He revolutionized the 20th century study of his discipline by considering the effects of such outside disciplines as economics, anthropology, and geography on global history[1]. He was a prominent member of the Annales School of historiography, who concentrated on meticulous historical analysis in the social sciences. is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... This article is about the occupation of studying history. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... The Annales School (Annales is pronounced // in French) is a school of historical writing named after the French scholarly journal Annales dhistoire économique et sociale (later called , then renamed in 1994 as ) where it was first expounded. ... Historiography studies the processes by which historical knowledge is obtained and transmitted. ... The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ...

Contents

Life

Braudel was born in Luméville-en-Ornois, in the département of the Meuse, France, where he also lived with his paternal grandmother for a long time. He studied at the elite Paris Institute of Political Studies (better known as Sciences Po). His father, who was a natural mathematician, aided him in his studies. Braudel also studied a good deal of Latin and a little Greek. He loved history and wrote poetry. Braudel wanted to be a doctor, but his father opposed this idea. In 1923, he went to Algeria, then a French colony, to teach history. Returning to France in 1932, he worked as a high school teacher and met Lucien Febvre, the co-founder of the influential Annales journal, who was to have a great influence on his work. With him, he travelled to Brazil in 1935 to "build" the University of São Paulo, returning together with Febvre in 1937. In 1939, he joined the army but was captured in 1940 and became a prisoner of war in a camp near Lübeck in Germany, where, working from memory, he put together his great work La Méditerranée et le Monde Méditerranéen a l'époque de Philippe II (The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II). Part of his .motivation for writing the book, he said, was that, as a "Northerner," he had come to love the Mediterranean. After the war, he worked with Febvre in a new college, founded separately from the Sorbonne, dedicated to social and economic history. Meuse is a département in northeast France, named after the Meuse River. ... The Paris Institute of Political Studies (French: Institut détudes politiques de Paris), often referred to as Sciences-Po (pronounced see-ahns po), is a Grand Établissement in Paris, France. ... Sciences Po, often referred to as Foundation Nationale des Sciences Politiques de Paris, Institut detudes Politiques de Paris, or simply IEP Paris, is a leading specialist school in the French capital. ... Lucien Febvre (July 22, 1878, Nancy - Saint-Amour, Jura, September 11, 1956) was a French historian best known for the role he played in establishing the Annales School of history. ... The Annales School is a school of historical writing named after the French scholarly journal Annales dhistoire économique et sociale (later called Annales. ... Central plaza at USPs main campus at São Paulo City, showing the Clock Tower The University of São Paulo (in Portuguese Universidade de São Paulo; USP) is one of the three public universities funded by the State of São Paulo. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Luebeck. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ...


Work

In 1962, he wrote A History of Civilizations to be the basis for a history course, but its rejection of the traditional event-based narrative was too radical for the French ministry of education, which rejected it [2]


Besides La Méditerranée, his most famous work is the three-volume Civilisation Matérielle, Economie et Capitalisme, XVe-XVIIIe (Capitalism and Material Life, 1400-1800), which first appeared in 1979. It is a broad-scaled history of the pre-industrial modern world, presented in the minute detail demanded by the school called cliometrics focusing on how people made economies work. Like all his major works, it mixes traditional economic material with much description of the social impact of economic events on everyday life, and gives much attention to food, fashion, social customs and similar areas. Cliometrics refers to the systematic use of economic theory and econometrics techniques to study economic history. ... For other uses, see Fashion (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Convention (norm) be merged into this article or section. ...


Braudel claims that there are long-term cycles in the capitalist economy which developed in Europe in the 12th century. Cities and later nation-states follow each other subsequently as centers of these cycles. Venice in 13th to 15th century (1250–1510), Antwerp in 16th (1500–1569), Amsterdam in 16th to 18th (1570–1733), London and England in 18th and 19th (1733–1896). He argued that "structures"—a word he uses to mean many kinds of organized behaviours, attitudes, and conventions, as well as literal structures and infrastructures—that were built up in Europe during the Middle Ages contributed to or were perhaps responsible for the success of European-based cultures up to the present day. Much of this he appears to attribute to the long-lived independence of city-states, which although later subjected by geographic states, were not always completely suppressed--probably for reasons of usefulness. For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


One feature of Braudel's work is his evident compassion for the suffering of marginal people.[3] He points out the obvious: that most surviving historical sources come from the wealthy (or at least literate) classes—those who are either rich or aspire to be. He gives importance to the apparently ephemeral lives of slaves, serfs, and peasants, as well as to the urban poor, and shows their contributions to the wealth and power of their respective masters and societies. Indeed, he appears to think that these people form the real material of civilization. His work is often illustrated with contemporary depictions of daily life, rarely with pictures of noblemen or kings.


Braudel has been considered one of the greatest of those modern historians who have emphasised the role of large scale socio-economic factors in the making and telling of history[4]. He can also be considered as one of the precursors of World Systems Theory. Unlike former sociological theories, which presented general models of social change with particular focus at the societal level, world-systems theory (or world system perspective) explores the role and relationships between societies (and the subsequent changes produced by them). ...


SUNY Binghamton in New York has a Fernand Braudel Center, and there is an Instituto Fernand Braudel de Economia Mundial in São Paulo, Brazil. Binghamton University Binghamton University, also known as the State University of New York at Binghamton, is a public university located in the Binghamton, New York, USA area. ... This article is about the state. ... The Fernand Braudel Center for the Study of Economies, Historical Systems, and Civilizations at Binghamton University, State University of New York was founded in September 1976 and is named after French historian Fernand Braudel. ... Landmark buildings Edifício Italia (at left) and Copan (curved façade at center), in São Paulo Downtown. ...


Recognition

After he had published la Méditerannée, Braudel went into the Bibliothèque Nationale and applied for a library card. He was handed a short form to fill out. Under "Nom," he wrote "BRAUDEL, Fernand"; under "Métier," he wrote "historien." He was turned down. He then wrote The Structures of Ordinary Life. petey wants a cookie! The new buildings of the library. ...


Works

  • La Méditerranée et le Monde Méditerranéen a l'époque de Philippe II 3 vols. (Originally appeared in 1949; revised several times)
* La part du milieu (vol. 1) ISBN 2-253-06168-9
* Destins collectifs et mouvements d'ensemble (vol. 2) ISBN 2-253-06169-7
* Les événements, la politique et les hommes (vol. 3) ISBN 2-253-06170-0
  • Ecrits sur l'Histoire (1969) ISBN 2-08-081023-5
  • The Mediterranean in the Ancient World
  • Civilisation matérielle, économie et capitalisme, XVe-XVIIIe siècle
* Les structures du quotidien (vol. 1, 1967) ISBN 2-253-06455-6
* Les jeux de l'échange (vol. 2, 1979) ISBN 2-253-06456-4
* Le temps du monde (vol. 3, 1979) ISBN 2-253-06457-2
  • Civilization and Capitalism, 15th–18th Centuries, 3 vols. (1979)
  • On History (1980), English translation of Ecrits sur l'Histoire by Sian Reynolds
  • La Dynamique du Capitalisme (1985) ISBN 2-08-081192-4
  • The Identity of France (1986)
  • Ecrits sur l'Histoire II (1990) ISBN 2-08-081304-8
  • Out of Italy, 1450–1650 (1991)
  • A History of Civilizations (1995)
  • Les mémoires de la Méditerranée (1998)
  • Personal Testimony Journal of Modern History, vol. 44, no. 4. (December 1972)

References

  • Pierre Daix, Braudel, (Paris: Flammarion, 1995)
  • Giuliana Gemelli, Fernand Braudel (Paris: Odile Jacob, 1995)
  • Hufton, Olwen. "Fernand Braudel", Past and Present, No. 112. (Aug., 1986), pp. 208–213.

Notes

  1. ^ Fernand Braudel, A History of Civilizations, translated by Richard Mayne (New York: Penguin Books, 1993).
  2. ^ Richard Mayne, "Translator's Introduction" in Fernand Braudel, "A History of Civilization," (New York: Penguin Books, 1993), pp. xxvi-xxvii.
  3. ^ Fernand Braudel, A History of Civilizations, translated by Richard Mayne (New York: Penguin Books, 1993).
  4. ^ i.e. Fernand Braudel, "The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II" (Berkely: University of California Press, 1996)

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Fernand Braudel
Preceded by
André Chamson
Seat 15
Académie française
1984-1985
Succeeded by
Jacques Laurent

  Results from FactBites:
 
The world economic system in Asia before European hegemony (5485 words)
It is an appropriate moment to critically reexamine the work of Fernand Braudel and Immanuel Wallerstein, both of whom have advanced the view that a world-economy emerged in Western Europe by at least 1450, then spread outward from Europe to encompass the rest of the world.
Yet, Braudel's and Wallerstein's own data and analysis of their "world-economies" demonstrate that they were not economically autonomous, but had for centuries been intimately connected and dependent on each other.
Braudel's and Wallerstein's focus on Western Europe and the Americas is too limited and neglects the active participation of the rest of Europe, Asia, and Africa in a world economy.
Fernand Braudel (341 words)
Fernand Braudel (August 24 1902 - November 27 1985) was a historian who revolutionized the 20th century study of the discipline by considering the effects of economics and geography on global history, a prominent member of the Annales School of historiography, who concentrated on meticulous socia scientific historical analysis.
Braudel has been considered one of the greatest of those modern historians who have emphasised the role of large scale socio-economic factors in the making and telling of history.
SUNY Binghamton in New York has a "Fernand Braudel Center", and there is a Instituto Fernand Braudel de Economia Mundial in São Paulo.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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