FACTOID # 2: Puerto Rico has roughly the same gross state product as Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Fermented beverage
Bottles of cachaça, a Brazilian alcoholic beverage.
Bottles of cachaça, a Brazilian alcoholic beverage.

An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol. It is a drug, and depressant, and most societies regulate or restrict the sale and use of alcohol. Image:CachacaDivininha. ... Image:CachacaDivininha. ... Cachaça Java, from Salinas-MG, Brazil Cachaça (pronounced ka SHA sa, IPA: ) (also called pinga, branquinha, maldita, caninha, caxaca, caxa, aguardente, cana or chacha) is the most popular distilled alcoholic beverage in Brazil, made from sugarcane juice (also called garapa). ... The word drink is primarily a verb, meaning to ingest liquids. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical compound, one of the alcohols that is most often found in alcoholic beverages. ... Oral medication Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive substance in the world. ... See also sedative. ...

Contents


Chemistry

Main article: ethanol

Ethanol (CH3CH2OH), the active ingredient in alcoholic beverages, is almost always produced by fermentation - the metabolism of carbohydrates by certain species of yeast in the absence of oxygen. The process of culturing yeast under alcohol-producing conditions is referred to as brewing. Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical compound, one of the alcohols that is most often found in alcoholic beverages. ... This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer or more simplified. ... Santorio Santorio (1561-1636) in his steelyard balance, from Ars de statica medecina, first published 1614 Metabolism (from μεταβολισμος (metabolismos)) is the biochemical modification of chemical compounds in living organisms anggjgjhnd cell (b). ... Carbohydrates are chemical compounds that contain oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon atoms. ... Yeasts are single-celled (unicellular) fungi, a few species of which are commonly used to leaven bread, ferment alcoholic beverages, and even drive experimental fuel cells. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ... A 16th century brewer A 21st century brewer This article concerns the production of alcoholic beverages. ...


It has been suggested that alcoholic impurities (congeners) are the cause of hangovers. However, it is more likely that they are caused by ethanal a toxic breakdown intermediate naturally produced by the liver as the alcohol is metabolised. A congener (from Latin roots meaning born together or within the same race or kind) is applied in biology to mean organisms within the same genus; in chemistry to mean a chemical that is in some way related to another e. ... A hangover is the sum of unpleasant physical effects following heavy consumption of alcohol. ... Acetaldehyde, also known as ethanal, is a chemical compound, an aldehyde with formula CH3CHO and structure It is a highly reactive flammable liquid with a strong fruity smell. ... Santorio Santorio (1561-1636) in his steelyard balance, from Ars de statica medecina, first published 1614 Metabolism (from μεταβολισμος (metabolismos)) is the biochemical modification of chemical compounds in living organisms and cells. ...


Alcoholic beverages with a concentration of more than 50%vol (100 proof) ethanol or greater are flammable liquids and easily ignited. Some exotic beverages gain their distinctive flavors through intentional ignition of the drink, such as the Flaming Dr. Pepper or the Fiery Blue Mustang. Flammable or Flammability refers to the ease at which a substance will ignite, causing fire or combustion. ... Wikibooks Bartending has more about this subject: Flaming Dr. Pepper The Flaming Dr. Pepper is a flaming cocktail that is said to taste like the soft drink Dr Pepper, although it does not contain any. ...


It should be noted that in chemistry, alcohol is a general term for any organic compound in which a hydroxyl group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom, which in turn is bound to other carbon atoms and further hydrogens. Other alcohols such as propylene glycol and the sugar alcohols may appear in food or beverages regularly, but these alcohols do not make them "alcoholic". Chemistry (derived from alchemy) is the science of matter at or near the atomic scale. ... In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which a hydroxyl group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom of an alkyl or substituted alkyl group. ... Benzene An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon, with the exception of carbides, carbonates, carbon oxides and elementary carbon. ... // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ... In organic chemistry functional groups are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... Propylene glycol, also known as 1,2-propanediol, is an organic compound (a diol alcohol), usually a tasteless, odorless, and colorless clear oily liquid that is hygroscopic and miscible with water, acetone, and chloroform. ... A sugar alcohol (also known as a polyol, polyhydric alcohol, or polyalcohol) is a hydrogenated form of carbohydrate, whose carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone, reducing sugar) has been reduced to a primary or secondary hydroxyl group. ...


Alcoholic content

The concentration of alcohol in an alcoholic beverage may be specified in percent alcohol by volume (ABV), in percentage by weight (sometimes abbreviated w/w for weight for weight), or in proof. The 'proof' measurement roughly corresponds in a 2:1 ratio to percent alcoholic content by volume (e.g. 80 proof ≈ 40% ABV). Common distillation cannot exceed 192 proof because at that point ethanol is an azeotrope with water. Alcohols of this purity are commonly referred to as grain alcohol and are not meant for human consumption, with the notable exception of neutral grain spirits. In chemistry, concentration is the measure of how much of a given substance there is mixed with another substance. ... Alcohol by volume (ABV) is an indication of how much alcohol (expressed as a percentage) is included in an alcoholic beverage. ... Alcoholic proof is a measure of how much ethanol is in an alcoholic beverage, and is approximately twice the percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV, the unit that is commonly used presently). ... Strathisla whisky distillery in Keith, Scotland Distillation is a method of separation of substances based on differences in their vapor pressures. ... An azeotrope is a liquid mixture of two or more components which has a unique constant boiling point. ... Ethyl alcohol, also known as ethanol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical compound, one of the alcohols that is most often found in alcoholic beverages. ... Neutral grain spirits (a. ...


Most yeasts cannot grow when the concentration of alcohol is higher than about 18% by volume, so that is a practical limit for the strength of fermented beverages such as wine, beer, and sake. Strains of yeast have been developed that can survive in solutions of up to 25% alcohol by volume, but these were bred for ethanol fuel production, not beverage production. Spirits are produced by distillation of a fermented product, concentrating the alcohol and eliminating some of the by-products. Many wines are fortified wines with additional grain alcohol to achieve higher ABV than is easily reached using fermentation alone. Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of fruit, typically grapes though a number of other fruits are also quite popular - such as plum, elderberry and blackcurrant. ... A selection of bottled beers A selection of cask beers Beer is the worlds oldest and most popular alcoholic beverage, selling over 133,000 million litres (35,000 million gallons) a year. ... Sake barrels at Itsukushima Shrine Sake (Japanese: é…’; pronounced IPA: ) is a Japanese alcoholic beverage, brewed mainly from rice. ... Strathisla whisky distillery in Keith, Scotland Distillation is a method of separation of substances based on differences in their vapor pressures. ... A fortified wine is a wine to which additional alcohol has been added, most commonly in the form of brandy (a distilled spirit). ...


Flavoring

Ethanol is a moderately good solvent for many "fatty" substances and essential "oils", and thus facilitates the inclusion of several coloring, flavoring, and aromatic compounds to alcoholic beverages, especially to distilled ones. These flavoring ingredients may be naturally present in the starting material, or may be added before fermentation, before distillation, or before bottling the distilled product. Sometimes the flavour is obtained by allowing the beverage to stand for months or years in barrels made of special wood, or in bottles where scented twigs or fruits — or even insects — have been inserted. A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ... Popular Japanese fashion magazine throughout the 1990s; the photography of which has recently been reissued in two collections from Phaidon press. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Symphypleona - globular springtails Subclass Archaeognatha (jumping bristletails) Subclass Dicondylia Monura - extinct Thysanura (common bristletails) Subclass Pterygota Diaphanopteroidea - extinct Palaeodictyoptera - extinct Megasecoptera - extinct Archodonata - extinct Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Blattodea (cockroaches) Mantodea (mantids) Isoptera (termites) Zoraptera Grylloblattodea Dermaptera (earwigs) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets...


History

Main article: History of alcohol

Alcoholic beverages have been widely consumed since prehistoric times by people around the world, seeing use as a component of the standard diet, for hygienic or medical reasons, for their relaxant and euphoric effects, for recreational purposes, for artistic inspiration, as aphrodisiacs, and for other reasons. Some have been invested with symbolic or religious significance suggesting the mystical use of alcohol, e.g. by Greco-Roman religion in the ecstatic rituals of Dionysus (also called Bacchus), god of drink and revelry; in the Christian Eucharist; and at the Jewish Passover. The history of alcohol in the ancient world extends back before recorded time. ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational purposes rather than for work, medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... An aphrodisiac is an agent which acts on the mind and causes the arousal of the mood of sexual desire. ... Greek religion is the polytheistic religion practiced in ancient Greece in form of cult practices, thus the practical counterpart of Greek mythology. ... Ecstasy, from the Greek εκστασις, to be outside oneself, is a category of trance or trancelike states in which an individual transcends ordinary consciousness and as a result has a heightened capacity for exceptional thought or experience. ... Dionysus with a panther and satyr, in the Palazzo Altemps (Rome, Italy) Dionysus or Dionysos (Ancient Greek: Διώνυσος or Διόνυσος; also known as Bacchus in both Greek and Roman mythology and associated with the Italic Liber), the Thracian god of wine, represents not only the intoxicating power of wine, but also its... Bacchus is the name of: the Roman god Bacchus, known to the Greeks as Dionysus the Christian martyr Saint Bacchus, companion to Saint Sergius; see: Saint Sergius the asteroid 2063 Bacchus the Bacchus grape variety, grown predominantly in Germany the Bacchus (painting) by Leonardo da Vinci the comic book Bacchus... Christianity is a monotheistic religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus as recounted in the New Testament. ... The Eucharist or Communion or The Lords Supper, is the rite that Christians perform in fulfillment of Jesus instruction, recorded in the New Testament[1], to do in memory of him what he did at his Last Supper. ... Jews (Hebrew: יהודים, Yehudim) are followers of Judaism or, more generally, members of the Jewish people (also known as the Jewish nation, or the Children of Israel), an ethno-religious group descended from the ancient Israelites and converts who joined their religion. ... Passover (Hebrew: פסח; transliterated as Pesach or Pesah), also called חג המצות (Chag HaMatzot - Festival of Matzot) is a Jewish holiday which is celebrated in the spring. ...


Fermented beverages

Chemical analyses of organics absorbed and preserved in pottery jars from the Neolithic village of Jiahu, in Henan province, Northern China, have revealed that a mixed fermented beverage of rice, honey, and fruit was being produced as early as 9,000 years ago. This is approximately the same time that barley beer and grape wine were beginning to be made in the Middle East. Recipes have been found on clay tablets and art in Mesopotamia that show individuals using straws to drink beer from large vats and pots. Jiahu (賈湖) was the site of a Neolithic Yellow River culture based in the central plains of ancient China, modern Henan Province. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A selection of bottled beers A selection of cask beers Beer is the worlds oldest and most popular alcoholic beverage, selling over 133,000 million litres (35,000 million gallons) a year. ...


Wine was consumed in Classical Greece at breakfast or at symposia, and in the 1st century BC it was part of the diet of most Roman citizens. However, both Greeks and Romans generally consumed their wine watered (from 1 parts of wine to 1 part of water, to 1 part of wine to 4 parts of water). The transformation of water into wine at a wedding feast is one of the miracles attributed to Jesus in the New Testament, and his use of wine in the Last Supper led to it becoming an essential part of the Eucharist rite in most Christian traditions. This article describes the ancient classical period: for the classical period in music (second half of the 18th century): see Classical music era. ... Originally, the term symposium referred to a drinking party; the Greek verb sympotein means to drink together. The term has since come to refer to any academic conference, irrespective of drinking. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Jesus (8-2 BC/BCE — 29-36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... This article relates the event related in the New Testament of the Bible, see The Last Supper (disambiguation) for other uses, including a list of famous works of art with this name. ... The Eucharist or Communion or The Lords Supper, is the rite that Christians perform in fulfillment of Jesus instruction, recorded in the New Testament[1], to do in memory of him what he did at his Last Supper. ...


The ambiguity of the Qur'anic ban on alcoholic beverages, meant that wine (usually sold by Christian tavern-keepers) remained fairly popular in Islamic lands over the centuries, as revealed in the verses of Persian poet and mathematician Omar Khayyám (1040–1131): The , (Arabic: recitation, also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Alcoran, Turkish Kuran), is the central text of Islam. ... The Persians are an Iranian people who speak the Persian language and share a common culture and history. ... Tomb of Omar Khayyám, Nishapur, Iran. ...

"Here with a Loaf of Bread beneath the Bough,
A Flask of Wine, a Book of Verse—and Thou
Beside me singing in the Wilderness—
And Wilderness is Paradise enow." [1]

In Europe during the Middle Ages, beer was consumed by the whole family, thanks to a triple fermentation process — the men had the strongest, then women, then children. A document of the times mentions nuns having an allowance of six pints of ale a day. Cider and pomace wine were also widely available, while grape wine was the prerogative of the higher classes. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, wine production in Europe appears to have been sustained chiefly by monasteries. World map showing Europe Europe is one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Nun in cloister, 1930; photograph by Doris Ulmann In general, a nun is a female ascetic who chooses to voluntarily leave mainstream society and live her life in prayer and contemplation in a monastery or convent. ... A pint of cider. ... Pomace wine is a kind of wine made from grape pomace. ...


By the time the Europeans reached the Americas in the 15th century, several native civilizations had developed alcoholic beverages. According to a post-Conquest Aztec document, consumption of the local "wine" (pulque) was generally restricted to religious ceremonies, but freely allowed to those over 70 years old (possibly the all-time record for legal drinking age). The natives of South America manufactured a beer-like product from cassava or maize (cauim, chicha), which had to be chewed before fermentation in order to turn the starch into sugars. (Curiously, the same technique was used in ancient Japan to make sake from rice and other starchy crops.) World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... A Hupa man, 1923 The term indigenous peoples of the Americas encompasses the inhabitants of the Americas before the arrival of the European explorers in the 15th century, as well as many present-day ethnic groups who identify themselves with those historical peoples. ... The Aztecs were a Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people of central México in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. ... Pulque, or octili, is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of the maguey, and is a traditional native beverage of Mesoamerica. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Binomial name Manihot esculenta Crantz The cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta) is a woody shrub of the Euphorbiaceae (spurge family) that is extensively cultivated as an annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous root, a major source of carbohydrate. ... Binomial name Zea mays L. Maize (Zea mays ssp. ... Cauim is a traditional alcoholic beverage of the Native American populations of Brazil, since pre-Columbian times. ... Chicha is a fermented beverage brewed by the indigenous people of the Andean region, dating back to the Inca Empire when women were taught the techniques of brewing chicha in Acllahuasis (feminine schools). ... Starch is a complex carbohydrate which is insoluble in water, it is used by plants as a way to store excess glucose. ... Sake barrels at Itsukushima Shrine Sake (Japanese: 酒; pronounced IPA: ) is a Japanese alcoholic beverage, brewed mainly from rice. ... Species Oryza glaberrima Oryza sativa Rice refers to two species (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) of grass, native to tropical and subtropical southeastern Asia and to Africa, which together provide more than one fifth of the calories consumed by humans[1]. Rice is an annual plant, growing to 1-1. ...


The medicinal use of alcoholic beverages was mentioned in Sumerian and Egyptian texts dated from 2100 BC or earlier. The Hebrew Bible recommends giving alcoholic drinks to those who are dying or depressed, so that they can forget their misery. (Redirected from 2100 BC) (22nd century BC - 21st century BC - 20th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2130 - 2080 BC -- Ninth Dynasty wars in Egypt 2112 - 2095 BC -- Sumerian campaigns of Ur-Nammu 2064 - 1986 BC -- Twin Dynasty wars in Egypt 2049... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article discusses usage of the term Hebrew Bible. For the article on the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh. ...


Distilled beverages

Main article: Distilled beverages

Beer and wine are typically limited to a maximum 15 percent alcohol, although brewers have reached 25% alcohol. Beyond this limit yeast is adversely affected and cannot ferment. Since the fourth millennium BC in Babylonia, higher levels of alcohol have been obtained in a number of ways. It was not until the still was invented by Islamic alchemists in the 8th or 9th centuries that the history of distilled beverages began. Distilled alcohol appeared first in Europe in the mid 12th century and by the early 14th century it had spread throughout Europe. It also spread eastward, mainly by the Mongols, and was practiced in China by the 14th century. However, recent archeological evidence has supported the idea that China has had wines and distilled beverages dating back to 5000 BC. Paracelsus gave alcohol its modern name, taking it from the Arabic word which means "finely divided", a reference to distillation... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The term still is a contraction of the verb to distill. A still is an apparatus used to distill miscible or immiscible (eg. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Various distilled beverages in a Spanish bar A distilled beverage is a liquid preparation meant for consumption containing ethyl alcohol purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... (6th millennium BC – 5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – other millennia) Events 4713 BC – The epoch (origin) of the Julian Period described by Joseph Justus Scaliger occurred on January 1, the astronomical Julian day number zero. ... Paracelsus Paracelsus (November 11 or December 17, 1493 - September 24, 1541) was a famous alchemist, physician, astrologer, and general occultist. ...


Uses

In many countries, alcoholic beverages are commonly consumed at the major daily meals (lunch and dinner). Most early beers were in fact highly nutritional and served as a means of calorie distribution. Beer can be stored longer than grain or bread without fear of pest infestation or rotting, and drinking beer avoided the tooth-destroying grit that was present in hand-ground or early mill-ground flours.


In places and eras with poor public sanitation, such as Medieval Europe, consumption of alcoholic beverages (particularly weak or "small" beer) was one method of avoiding water-borne diseases such as the cholera. Though strong alcohol kills bacteria, the low concentration in beer or even wine will have only a limited effect. Probably the boiling of water, which is required for the brewing of beer, and the growth of yeast, which would tend to crowd out other micro-organisms, were more important than the alcohol itself. In any case, the ethanol (and possibly other ingredients) of alcoholic beverages allows them to be stored for months or years in simple wood or clay containers without spoiling, which was certainly a major factor in their popularity. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... World map showing Europe Europe is one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ... A selection of bottled beers A selection of cask beers Beer is the worlds oldest and most popular alcoholic beverage, selling over 133,000 million litres (35,000 million gallons) a year. ... Drawing of Death bringing the cholera, in Le Petit Journal. ... Boiling is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which typically occurs when a liquid is heated to a temperature such that its vapor pressure is above that of the surroundings, such as air pressure. ...


A recent study indicated that ethanol has been found to stimulate the virulence of Acinetobacter baumannii. Tests on infected nematode worms that were dosed with ethanol found that the worms laid fewer eggs and their life spans were only 80% of worms infected with a version of A. baumannii that didn't respond to ethanol. This study suggests that the common misconception that drinking alcohol kills infections is false and drinking alcohol may actually help the infection to grow.  Acinetobacter is a genus of Proteobacteria. ... Classes Adenophorea    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria The roundworms (Phylum Nematoda from Gr. ...


In colder climates, strong alcoholic beverages such as vodka are popularly seen as a way to "warm up" the body, possibly because ethanol is a quickly absorbed source of food energy and dilates peripheral blood vessels (Peripherovascular dilation). This however is a dangerous myth, and people experiencing hypothermia should avoid alcohol. Although a drunk may feel warmer, the body loses heat and body temperature decreases, which may cause hypothermia, and eventually death. This is because of the dilation of blood vessels not in the core of the body; because of this increased bloodflow, the body loses its heat out of its less protected outer extremities. Look up Vodka in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Food energy is the amount of energy in food that is available through digestion. ... Hypothermia is a medical condition in which the victims core body temperature has dropped to significantly below normal and normal metabolism begins to be impaired. ...


In many cultures, both contemporary and historical, alcoholic beverages — mostly because of their neurological effects — have also played an important role in various kinds of social interaction, providing a form of "liquid courage" (those who consume it "gain" confidence and lose discretion) While other psychoactive drugs (such as opium, coca, khat, cannabis, kava-kava, etc.) also have millennial traditions of social use, only coffee, tea and tobacco have been as universally used and accepted as ethanol is today. Opium is a narcotic analgesic drug which is obtained from the unripe seed pods of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L. or the synonym paeoniflorum). ... Binomial name Erythroxylum coca Lam. ... Binomial name Catha edulis (Vahl) Forssk. ... A Cannabis sativa plant The drug cannabis, commonly known as marijuana, is produced from parts of the cannabis plant, primarily the cured flowers and gathered trichomes of the female plant. ... Kava is an ancient crop of the western Pacific. ... Coffee in beverage form Coffee is a beverage, served hot or with ice, prepared from the roasted seeds of the coffee plant. ... Tea leaves in a gaiwan. ... Species Nicotiana acuminata Nicotiana alata Nicotiana attenuata Nicotiana benthamiana Nicotiana clevelandii Nicotiana excelsior Nicotiana forgetiana Nicotiana glauca Nicotiana glutinosa Nicotiana langsdorffii Nicotiana longiflora Nicotiana obtusifolia Nicotiana paniculata Nicotiana plumbagifolia Nicotiana quadrivalvis Nicotiana repanda Nicotiana rustica Nicotianasuaveolens Nicotiana sylvestris Nicotiana tabacum Nicotiana tomentosa Ref: ITIS 30562 as of August 26, 2005...


Alcohol consumption and health

Main article: Alcohol consumption and health

The relationship between alcohol consumption and health has been the subject of formal scientific research since at least 1926, when Dr. Raymond Pearl published his book, Alcohol and Longevity asserting that drinking alcohol in moderation is associated with greater longevity than either abstaining or drinking heavily. ...

Moderate consumption

Moderate consumption of alcohol is defined by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans as no more than two drinks for men and one drink for women per day (the UK equivalent is 3-4 units per day for men and 2-3 units for women). This amount is possibly beneficial for the heart and circulatory system but might have already other negative effects on overall health. Moderate consumers statistically have somewhat lower blood pressure and fewer heart attacks and strokes. Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the blood vessels. ... A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ...


Excess consumption

Excess consumption is detrimental to one's health. The neurological effects of alcohol use are often a factor in deadly motor vehicle accidents and fights. People under the influence of alcohol sometimes find themselves in dangerous or compromising situations where they would not be had they remained sober. Operating a motor vehicle or heavy machinery under the influence of alcohol is a serious crime in almost all developed nations.


Some people are prone to developing a chemical dependency to alcohol, alcoholism. The results of alcoholism are considered a major health problem in many nations. A chemical dependency is such a strong dependency on a substance that it becomes necessary to have this substance just to function properly; The need of a substance developed from abusing the substance, requiring the substance for survival, like the need for food, or water See also: addiction drug tolerance... Alcoholism is a powerful craving for alcohol which often results in the compulsive consumption of alcohol otherwise known as an addiction. ...


Legal considerations

Alcohol restriction in Victoria, Australia.
Alcohol restriction in Victoria, Australia.

Most countries have rules forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages to children. For example, in the Netherlands, Germany and Austria, one has to be 16 to buy beer or wine and 18 to buy distilled alcoholic beverages. However, possession of alcoholic beverages is not illegal for minors in Germany. Law there is directed at the potential sellers of alcoholic beverages and not at the minors. German law puts control concerning the consumption of alcoholic beverage into the hands of custodial persons and persons with parental power. See [2]. Download high resolution version (546x802, 119 KB)sign informing citizens of illegal drinking hours located in Port Campbell, Victoria, Australia. ... Download high resolution version (546x802, 119 KB)sign informing citizens of illegal drinking hours located in Port Campbell, Victoria, Australia. ... Emblems: Pink heath (floral) helmeted honeyeater (bird) Leadbeaters possum (faunal) Motto: Peace and Prosperity Slogan or Nickname: Garden State, The Place To Be, On The Move Other Australian states and territories Capital Melbourne Government Governor Premier Const. ... A child (plural: children) is a young human,or an individual who has not yet reached puberty. ...


In most European countries, eg. Poland, one has be 18 to legally buy, drink or possess alcoholic beverages. In Iceland one has to be 20 to legally buy or possess alcoholic beverages, although one could drink them from the age of 18. In most countries of central, eastern, and southern Europe it is also forbidden to drink alcoholic beverages in public places, such as streets and parks.


In law, sometimes the term "intoxicating agent" is used for a category of substances, which includes alcoholic beverages and some other drugs. Giving any of these substances to a person to create an abnormal condition of the mind (such as drunkenness), in order to facilitate committing a crime, may be an additional crime. ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational purposes rather than for work, medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... Infirmary of a rock festival Drunkenness, in its most common usage, is the state of being intoxicated with ethyl alcohol to a sufficient degree to impair mental and motor functioning. ...


Some countries may forbid the commerce, consumption or advertising of alcoholic beverages, or restrict them in various ways. During the period known as Prohibition, from 1919 to 1933, it was illegal to manufacture, transport, import, export, or sell alcoholic beverages in the United States. Many Muslim countries, such as Saudi Arabia, continue to prohibit alcohol for religious reasons. In the United States there are still communities with bans on alcohol sales. The Guinness logo is highly recognisable and is present in all their advertising campaigns. ... Prohibition agents destroying barrels of alcohol. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


In the Nordic countries, there is a government monopoly on the selling of hard alcohol in stores. In Sweden, beers with a lower alcohol content, called folköl (less than 3.5 % alcohol), can be sold in regular stores to anyone older than 18, but drinks with a high content of alcohol can only be sold in the official government-run vendors by people older than 20, or in licenced facilities such as restaurants and bars, where the age limit is 18. The state-run vendor is called Systembolaget in Sweden, Vinmonopolet in Norway, Alko in Finland, and Vínbúðín in Iceland. The purpose of this system is to cut down on the consumption of alcohol in these countries where binge drinking is an ancient tradition. The first such monopoly was in Falun in the 19th Century. In the early 20th Century, Sweden had a short prohibition of hard alcohol, followed by strict rationing, and then more lax regulation, including being open on Saturdays. These measures have had success in the past, but since joining the European Union it has been harder to curb importation, legal or illegal, from other EU countries, making these measures less effective. There is an ongoing debate over whether or not to maintain the state-run alcohol monopolies. Systembolaget (colloquially known as systemet or bolaget, the literal English translation would be The System Company) is a government owned chain of liquor stores in Sweden. ... Alko is the national alcoholic beverage retailing monopoly in Finland. ...


Most countries have laws against drunk driving, driving with a certain concentration of ethanol in the blood. The legal threshold of blood alcohol content ranges from 0.0% to 0.05% or 0.08%, according to local law. Drunk driving (drink driving in the UK) or drinking and driving is the act of operating a motor vehicle after having consumed alcohol (i. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Blood alcohol content (BAC) or blood alcohol concentration is the concentration of alcohol in blood. ...


Most countries also specify a legal drinking age, below which the consumption of alcohol is prohibited. In the U.S., the legal age for purchase or possession (but not necessarily consumption) in every state has been 21 since the passage of the National Minimum Drinking Age Act in 1984, which tied federal highway funds to states' raising their minimum drinking age to 21. Many states specifically permit consumption under the age of 21 for religious or health reasons or with parental approval. Most European countries however, have a legal drinking age of 18. In Canada the legal drinking age is 18 in the provinces of Alberta, Manitoba and Quebec, and 19 in all other provinces. 21 (twenty-one) is the natural number following 20 and preceding 22. ... The National Minimum Drinking Age Act of 1984 was passed on July 17, 1984 by the United States Congress as a mechanism whereby all states would become thereafter required to legislate and enforce the age of 21 years as a minimum age for purchasing or public possession of alcoholic beverages. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 18 (eighteen) is the natural number following 17 and preceding 19. ...


In many countries, production of alcoholic beverages requires a license, and alcohol production is taxed. In the U.S., the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives and the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (formerly one organization known as the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms) enforce federal laws and regulations related to alcohol, though most regulations regarding serving and selling alcoholic beverages are made by the individual states. There also exist intrastate regulatory differences, as between Montgomery County, Maryland and the rest of the state. In the UK the Customs and Excise department issues distilling licences. The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (BATF) is a law enforcement agency within the United States Department of Justice. ... The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, shortened to Tax and Trade Bureau or TTB, is a part of the United States Department of the Treasury. ... The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (BATFE or ATFE) is a law enforcement agency within the United States Department of Justice. ... Montgomery County is a suburban county located in the state of Maryland north of Washington, D.C.. The county, sometimes referred to informally as MoCo, is the most populous and affluent jurisidiction in Maryland. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,417 sq. ... In the UK, Her Majestys Customs and Excise is a department of the British Government. ...


Common state regulations in the United States are:

  • Many U.S. states require that distilled liquor be sold only in dedicated liquor stores. For example: In Washington, liquor stores are run by the state. In Oklahoma, liquor stores may not refrigerate any beverages. Often, liquor sales are prohibited on Sunday by a Blue law. Other laws, governing a variety of issues, vary regionally.
  • Most U.S. states follow a Three-tier (alcohol distribution) system where producers cannot sell directly to retailer but must instead sell to distributors who in turn sell to retailers.
  • Most U.S. states do not allow open containers of alcohol inside of moving vehicles.
  • Some U.S. states offer relaxed rules for beer at or below 3.2% alcohol.
  • Many cities and counties ban drinking alcoholic beverages in public; that is, on the street or sidewalk.
  • Often bars serving distilled liquor are exempted from Smoking bans.

In New Zealand it is legal to produce any form of alcohol for personal use including spirits. This has made the sale and use of home distillation equipment popular. Official language(s) None Capital Olympia Largest city Seattle Area  Ranked 18th  - Total 71,342 sq. ... Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,960 sq. ... A blue law, in the United States and Canada, is a type of law restricting activities or sales of goods on Sunday, which had its roots in accommodating Christian Sunday worship, although it persists to this day more as a matter of tradition. ... The Three-tier system of alcohol distribution is the system for distributing alcoholic beverages set up in the United States after the repeal of Prohibition. ... Smoking bans are government prohibitions or voluntary bans decided by establishment management on tobacco smoking in public or quasi-public indoor areas such as offices, restaurants, hotels, or even outdoor public areas such as parks and sports stadiums. ...


Some religions—most notably Islam, Sikhism, the Bahá'í Faith, Latter-day Saints, the Nikaya and most Mahayana schools of Buddhism and some Protestant sects of Fundamentalist Christianity—forbid or discourage the consumption of alcoholic beverages for these and other reasons. See also:Teetotalism, Temperance movement. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Harimandir Sāhib, known popularly as the Golden Temple, is a sacred shrine for Sikhs Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that found its genesis in sixteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nānak and nine successive human Gurus. ... Seat of the Universal House of Justice, governing body of the Baháís in Haifa, Israel The Baháí Faith is a global religion founded by Baháulláh in the 19th century in Persia. ... A Latter-day Saint is a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). ... Nikaya Buddhism is a general term for those schools of Buddhism that accept only the class of sutras collected in the Pāli Canon as authentic. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Buddhism is a religion and philosophy focusing on the teachings of the Buddha Śākyamuni (Siddhārtha Gautama), who probably lived in the 5th century BCE. Buddhism spread throughout the ancient Indian sub-continent in the five centuries following the Buddhas death, and propagated into Central, Southeast, and East Asia... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... This article concerns the self-labeled Fundamentalist Movement in Protestant Christianity. ... Teetotalism is the practice or promotion of complete abstinence from alcoholic beverages. ... A cartoon from Australia ca. ...


Types of alcoholic beverages

Main article: List of alcoholic beverages

Alcoholic beverages include low-alcohol-content beverages produced by fermentation of sugar- or starch-containing products, and high-alcohol-content beverages produced by distillation of the low-alcohol-content beverages. Sometimes, the alcohol content of low-alcohol-content beverages is increased by adding distilled products, particularly in the case of wines. Such fortified wines include Port wine and Sherry. Fermented beverages Beer Ale Barleywine Bitter ale Mild ale Pale ale Porter Stout Cask ale Stock ale Fruit Beer Lager beer Bock Dry beer Oktoberfest Märzen Pilsener Schwarzbier Small beer Wheat beer Witbier White Beer Hefeweizen Cauim Chicha Cider Kilju Kumis Lappish Hags Love Potion Mead Perry Pulque... This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer or more simplified. ... Magnified crystals of refined sugar In general use, non-scientists take sugar to mean sucrose, also called table sugar or saccharose, a white crystalline solid disaccharide. ... Starch is a complex carbohydrate which is insoluble in water, it is used by plants as a way to store excess glucose. ... Strathisla whisky distillery in Keith, Scotland Distillation is a method of separation of substances based on differences in their vapor pressures. ... A fortified wine is a wine to which additional alcohol has been added, most commonly in the form of brandy (a spirit distilled from wine). ... A glass of tawny port. ... Sherry solera Sherry is a type of wine originally produced in and around the town of Jerez, Spain. ...


The process involved (as well as the resulting alcohol content) defines the finished product. Beer involves a relatively short (incomplete) fermentation process and an equally short aging process (a week or two) resulting in an alcohol content generally between 3-8%, as well as natural carbonation. Wine involves a longer (complete) fermentation process, and a relatively long aging process (months or years -- sometimes decades) resulting in an alcohol content between 7-18%. Sparkling wine is generally made by adding a small amount of sugar before bottling, which causes a secondary fermentation to continue in the bottle. Distilled products are generally not made from a "beer" that would normally be palatable as fermentation is normally completed, but no aging is involved until after distillation. Most are 30% or greater alcohol by volume. Liqueurs are characterized by the way in which their flavors are infused and typically have high sugar content. Spirits typically contain 37.5% alcohol or greater and are not infused with flavors during the distilling process, however some modern spirits are infused with flavors after distilling (the Swedish vodka Absolut, for instance). A selection of bottled beers A selection of cask beers Beer is the worlds oldest and most popular alcoholic beverage, selling over 133,000 million litres (35,000 million gallons) a year. ... Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of fruit, typically grapes though a number of other fruits are also quite popular - such as plum, elderberry and blackcurrant. ... A glass of sparkling wine A Sparkling wine cork Sparkling wine is a wine with significant levels of carbon dioxide in it making it fizzy. ... A liqueur is a sweet alcoholic beverage, often flavoured with fruits, herbs, spices, flowers, seeds, roots, plants, barks, and sometimes cream. ... Absolut Vodka is a Swedish brand of vodka, owned by V&S Group, and produced at their facilities near Åhus, Skåne in southern Sweden. ...


Standard drinks of alcoholic beverages in the United States all contain equivalent amounts of alcohol, about 0.6 fl. oz. (American) each (17.75ml). A U.S. standard drink is a 12 ounce can or bottle of beer, a five ounce glass of dinner wine, or a 1.5 ounce drink of 40% distilled spirits (either straight or in a mixed drink).


In the UK alcohol content is measured in units. One unit equates to 10ml of pure ethanol (approx. 1/3 fl. oz. American). A typical pint of beer or large glass of containing approx 2 units. A shot (25ml) of 40% spirit contains exactly 1 unit.


The names of some beverages are determined by the source of the material fermented:

Source Name of fermented beverage Name of distilled beverage
barley beer, ale Scotch whisky
rye rye beer Rye whisky
corn corn beer Bourbon whiskey
wheat wheat beer Wheat whisky, Korn (Germany)
rice sake, sonti, makkoli, tuak shochu (Japan), soju (Korea)
juice of fruits, other than apples or pears wine (most commonly from grapes) brandy, Cognac (France), Branntwein (Germany), Pisco (Peru/Chile)
juice of apples ("hard") cider, apfelwein applejack (or apple brandy), Calvados, cider, lambig
juice of pears perry, or pear cider pear brandy
juice of sugarcane, or molasses basi, betsa-betsa (regional) rum, cachaça, aguardiente, guaro
juice of agave pulque tequila, mezcal
juice of plums plum wine slivovitz, tzuica, palinca
pomace pomace wine grappa (Italy), Trester (Germany), marc (France)
honey mead distilled mead ("mead brandy" or "honey brandy")
potato and/or grain potato beer vodka: potato mostly used in Ukraine, otherwise grain or potato. A strong drink called aquavit or brännvin in Sweden, akvavit in Denmark and Norway, and brennivín in (Iceland) is made from potato or grain.
Milk Kumis Araka

Note that in common speech, wine or brandy is made from grapes unless the fruit is specified: "plum wine" or "cherry brandy" for example, although in some cases grape-derived alcohol is added. Binomial name Hordeum vulgare L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is a major food and animal feed crop, a member of the grass family Poaceae. ... A selection of bottled beers A selection of cask beers Beer is the worlds oldest and most popular alcoholic beverage, selling over 133,000 million litres (35,000 million gallons) a year. ... Ale is an ancient word for a fermented alcoholic beverage obtained chiefly from malted barley. ... A bottle of an independent bottling of Royal Brackla Single Malt Scotch whisky is a whisky made in Scotland. ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Rye beer is the newest trend in brewing today, but the practice of adding rye to a beer recipe has quite a bit of history. ... Rye whisky describes two types of whiskies, theoretically distilled from rye. ... Binomial name Zea mays L. Maize (Zea mays ssp. ... Chicha is a fermented beverage brewed by the indigenous people of the Andean region, dating back to the Inca Empire when women were taught the techniques of brewing chicha in Acllahuasis (feminine schools). ... Bourbon bottle, 19th century Bourbon is an American form of whiskey made from (pursuant to U.S. trade law) at least 51% corn, or maize, (typically about 70%) with the remainder being wheat, rye, and malted barley. ... Species T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat (Triticum spp. ... German Weizenbier German Kristallweizen (left) and Hefeweizen (right) Wheat beer is a beer that is brewed with both malted barley and malted wheat, rather than only barley. ... Whisky (or whiskey) is the name for a broad category of alcoholic beverages distilled from grains, that are subsequently aged in oak casks. ... Species Oryza glaberrima Oryza sativa Rice refers to two species (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) of grass, native to tropical and subtropical southeastern Asia and to Africa, which together provide more than one fifth of the calories consumed by humans[1]. Rice is an annual plant, growing to 1-1. ... Sake barrels at Itsukushima Shrine Sake (Japanese: é…’; pronounced IPA: ) is a Japanese alcoholic beverage, brewed mainly from rice. ... Sonti is an Indian rice wine, made much like sake. ... Makkoli is a traditional alcoholic beverage indiginous to Korea. ... A potent alcoholic drink enjoyed by the Ibans of Sarawak. ... ShōchÅ« (焼酎; lit. ... Soju is an alcoholic beverage with origins in Korea. ... Juice is a fluid naturally contained in animal or plant tissue. ... Fruit stall in Barcelona, Catalonia. ... Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of fruit, typically grapes though a number of other fruits are also quite popular - such as plum, elderberry and blackcurrant. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Brandy pot stills at the Van Ryn Brandy Cellar near Stellenbosch, South Africa Brandy (short for brandywine, from Dutch brandewijn—fire wine) is a general term for distilled wine, usually 40–60% ethyl alcohol by volume. ... A brandy snifter A cognac pot still Cognac (IPA: [k*njæk] where * is É’, oÊŠ, É‘:, or É”:), named after the town of Cognac in France, is a brandy, which must be produced in the region surrounding the town. ... Some bottles of Chilean Pisco Some bottles of Peruvian Pisco Pisco (from Quechua: pisqu, little bird) is a liquor distilled from grapes (a brandy) made in wine-producing regions of South America. ... Species Malus domestica Malus sieversii Apple is the fruit (pome) of the genus Malus belonging to the family Rosaceae, and is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits. ... A pint of cider. ... Apfelwein Apfelwein (German, apple wine) is the German form of cider, produced from apples. ... Applejack is a strong alcoholic beverage produced from apples, originating from the American colonial period. ... A bottle of calvados Pays DAuge Calvados is an apple brandy from the French région of Lower Normandy. ... Species About 30 species, including: Pyrus amygdaliformis Pyrus austriaca Pyrus balansae Pyrus betulifolia Pyrus bourgaeana Pyrus bretschneideri Pyrus calleryana Pyrus caucasica Pyrus communis Pyrus cordata Pyrus cossonii Pyrus elaeagrifolia Pyrus fauriei Pyrus kawakamii Pyrus korshinskyi Pyrus lindleyi Pyrus nivalis Pyrus pashia Pyrus persica Pyrus phaeocarpa Pyrus pyraster Pyrus pyrifolia Pyrus... Traditional perry (poiré in French) is bottled champagne-style in Normandy Perry or pear cider is an alcoholic beverage made of fermented pear juice. ... Traditional perry (poiré in French) is bottled champagne-style in Normandy Perry or pear cider is an alcoholic beverage made of fermented pear juice. ... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Insert non-formatted text here Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of between 6 and 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native... Molasses or treacle is a thick, syrupy derivative of the juice of the sugarcane plant or the processing of sugar beet. ... Caribbean rum, circa 1941 For other uses, see Rum (disambiguation). ... Cachaça Java, from Salinas-MG, Brazil Cachaça (pronounced ka SHA sa, IPA: ) (also called pinga, branquinha, maldita, caninha, caxaca, caxa, aguardente, cana or chacha) is the most popular distilled alcoholic beverage in Brazil, made from sugarcane juice (also called garapa). ... Aguardiente is a Latin American liquor meaning fiery water. In Mexico it consists of a mix of rum and mezcal, it was supposedly drunk by Mexican leader Antonio López de Santa Anna at the Alamo. ... Guaro is the popular name for the Larenses, inhabitants of Lara State, in central west Venezuela. ... Species Agave americana Agave fourcroydes Agave sisalana many others, see text Agaves are succulent plants of a large botanical genus of the same name, belonging to the family Agavaceae. ... Pulque, or octili, is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of the maguey, and is a traditional native beverage of Mesoamerica. ... Various brands of tequila Tequila is a strong distilled alcoholic beverage made primarily in the area surrounding Tequila, a town in the western Mexican state of Jalisco, 50 km from Guadalajara. ... A bottle of Mexican Mezcal bought in Cancun. ... Species See text. ... Slivovitz (Serbian: шљивовица or Å¡ljivovica, Slovenian: slivovka, Croatian: Å¡ljivovica, Bosnian: Å¡ljivovica, Macedonian: slivova, Polish: Å›liwowica ; Romanian: ÅŸliboviţă; Bulgarian: сливова (slivova); Slovak: slivovica; Czech: slivovice) is a strong, colourless alcoholic beverage primarily made of distilled fermented plum juice, though similarly to poteen it is often home-brewed out of a variety of source... Tzuica (Romanian: Å¢uică) is the name of a popular Romanian alcoholic drink produced by distilling the plums juice, sometimes mixed with different other fruits (pears especially). ... Palinka (Hungarian: pálinka; Romanian: palincă) is a traditional type of brandy that is produced in Romania (Transylvania) and Hungary. ... Pomace is a substance prepared by pressing or grinding various fruits, for example in the manufacture of olive oil (from olives), wine (from grapes), or cider (from apples). ... Pomace wine is a kind of wine made from grape pomace. ... Three bottles of varietal grappa Grappa, also known as Grappa Wine, is an Italian grape-based spirit of between 40% and 60% alcohol by volume (80 to 120 proof). ... Pomace brandy is a liquor distilled from pomace wine. ... Honey honey comb A capped frame of honeycomb Honey is a sweet and viscous fluid produced by honeybees and other insects from the nectar of flowers. ... Mead Mead is a fermented alcoholic beverage made of honey, water, and yeast. ... Binomial name Solanum tuberosum L. The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a perennial plant of the Solanaceae, or nightshade, family, commonly grown for its starchy tuber. ... This article is about grains in general. ... Look up Vodka in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Akvavit, also known as aquavit, is a Scandinavian distilled beverage of typically about 40% alcohol by volume. ... Brennivín is an Icelandic schnapps, considered the countrys signature alcoholic beverage. ... A glass of cow milk Milk most often means the nutrient fluid produced by the mammary glands of female mammals. ... Kumis (called airag by the Mongolians, but not to be confused with either arak or arrack), is a traditional drink of the people of Central Asia. ...


In the USA and Canada, cider often means unfermented apple juice (see the article on cider), while fermented cider is called hard cider. Unfermented cider is sometimes called sweet cider. Also, applejack was originally made by a freezing process described in the article on cider which was equivalent to distillation but more easily done in the cold climate of New England. In the UK, cider is always alcoholic, and in Australia it can be either. A pint of cider. ... Applejack is a strong alcoholic beverage produced from apples, originating from the American colonial period. ... A pint of cider. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ...


Beer is generally made from barley, but can sometimes contain a mix of other grains. Whisky is sometimes made from a blend of different grains, especially Irish whiskey which may contain several different grains. The style of whisky (Scotch, Rye, Bourbon) generally determines the primary grain used, with additional grains usually added to the blend (most often barley, and sometimes oats). Irish whiskey is barley malt whiskey made in Ireland. ... Binomial name Avena sativa Carolus Linnaeus (1753) The Oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain, and the seeds of this plant. ...


Two common distilled beverages are vodka and gin. Vodka can be distilled from any source (grain and potatoes being the most common) but the main characteristic of vodka is that it is so thoroughly distilled as to exhibit none of the flavors derived from its source material. Gin is a similar distillate which has been flavored by contact with herbs and other plant products, especially juniper berries. The name comes from the Dutch liquor genever, which in turn takes its name from the Dutch word for juniper. Look up Vodka in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Gin and tonic. ... This article is about grains in general. ... Binomial name Solanum tuberosum L. The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a perennial plant of the Solanaceae, or nightshade, family, commonly grown for its starchy tuber. ... Species See text. ...


See also

Wikibooks has more about this subject: Bartending/Cocktails This is a partial list of cocktails. ... Alcohol equivalence refers to the fact that United States standard drinks of alcoholic beverages contain equivalent amounts of alcohol, which is . ... A breathalyzer (or breathalyser) is a device for estimating blood alcohol content (BAC) from a breath sample. ... Dionysus with a panther and satyr, in the Palazzo Altemps (Rome, Italy) Dionysus or Dionysos (Ancient Greek: Διώνυσος or Διόνυσος; also known as Bacchus in both Greek and Roman mythology and associated with the Italic Liber), the Thracian god of wine, represents not only the intoxicating power of wine, but also its... Drug abuse has a wide range of definitions, all of them relating to the use, misuse or overuse of a psychoactive drug or performance enhancing drug for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. ... The effects of alcohol on the human body take several forms. ... The history of alcohol in the ancient world extends back before recorded time. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical that alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness, or behavior. ... For the drawing or cutting tool, see Straightedge. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Teetotalism is the practice or promotion of complete abstinence from alcoholic beverages. ... This article covers various topics involving alcoholic beverages in Canada. ...

References

  1.   Smith, M.G., and M. Snyder (2005). "Ethanol-induced virulence of Acinetobacter baumannii". American Society for Microbiology meeting, Atlanta.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Category:Alcoholic beverages

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m