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Encyclopedia > Fermentation (biochemistry)
Fermentation in progress

Fermentation is the process of releasing energy from a carbohydrate without oxygen by producing alcohol or lactic acid. In common usage, fermentation is a type of anaerobic respiration; however, a more strict definition defines fermentation as respiration under anaerobic conditions with no external electron acceptor. Fermentation does not necessarily have to be carried out in an anaerobic environment, however. For example, even in the presence of abundant oxygen, yeast cells greatly prefer fermentation to oxidative phosphorylation, as long as sugars are readily available for consumption [1]. Fermentation in progress Fermentation typically refers to the conversion of sugar to alcohol using yeast. ... Image File history File links Fermenting. ... Image File history File links Fermenting. ... Anaerobic respiration refers to the oxidation of molecules in the absence of oxygen to produce energy, in opposition to Aerobic respiration which does use oxygen. ... Cellular respiration was discovered by mad scientist Mr. ... It has been suggested that Anoxic sea water, Oxygen minimum zone, and Hypoxic zone be merged into this article or section. ... An electron acceptor is a chemical entity that accepts electrons transferred to it from another compound. ... The electron transport chain in the mitochondrion is the site of oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotes. ...


Sugars are the common substrate of fermentation, and typical examples of fermentation products are ethanol, lactic acid, and hydrogen. However, more-exotic compounds can be produced by fermentation, such as butyric acid and acetone. Yeast carries out fermentation in the production of ethanol in beers, wines and other alcoholic drinks, along with the production of large quantities of carbon dioxide. Anaerobic respiration in mammalian muscle under periods of intense exercise (which has no external electron acceptor) is, under the strict definition, a type of fermentation. For other uses, see Substrate. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... For the production of milk by mammals, see Lactation. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Butyric acid, (from Greek βουτυρος = butter) IUPAC name n-Butanoic acid, or normal butyric acid, is a carboxylic acid with structural formula CH3CH2CH2-COOH. It is notably found in rancid butter, parmesan cheese, and vomit, and has an unpleasant odor and acrid taste, with a sweetish aftertaste (similar to ether). ... The chemical compound acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with approximately 1,500 species described. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... For other uses of Muscles, see Muscles (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

French chemist Louis Pasteur was the first zymologist, when, in 1857, he connected yeast to fermentation. Pasteur originally defined fermentation as respiration without air. Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in microbiology. ... Zymology is the science of fermentation. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Pasteur performed careful research and concluded, "I am of the opinion that alcoholic fermentation never occurs without simultaneous organization, development and multiplication of cells.... If asked, in what consists the chemical act whereby the sugar is decomposed ... I am completely ignorant of it."


The German Eduard Buchner, winner of the 1907 Nobel Prize in chemistry, later determined that fermentation is actually caused by a yeast secretion that he termed zymase. Eduard Buchner (May 20, 1860 -- August 12, 1917) was a German chemist and zymologist, the winner of the 1907 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on fermentation. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ), as designated in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, is awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace. ... Zymase is a enzyme complex that catalyze glycolysis, the fermentation of sugar into ethanol and carbon dioxide. ...


The research efforts undertaken by the Danish Carlsberg scientists greatly accelerated the gain of knowledge about yeast and brewing. The Carlsberg scientists are generally acknowledged with jump-starting the entire field of molecular biology. Note: Carling beer is not produced by the Carlsberg brewery. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ...


Reaction

See also: glycolysis

The reaction of fermentation differs according to the sugar being used and the product produced. Below the sugar will be glucose (C6H12O6), the simplest sugar, and the product will be ethanol (2C2H5OH). This is one of the fermentation reactions carried out by yeast, and used in food production. The word glycolysis is derived from Greek γλυκύς (sweet) and λύσις (letting loose). ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ...


Chemical equation

C6H12O6 + 2Pi + 2ADP- → 2CH3CH2OH + 2CO2 + 2 ATP (energy released:118 kJ/mol)

Word equation A kilojoule (abbreviation: kJ) is a unit of energy equal to 1000 joules. ... The mole (symbol: mol) is the SI base unit that measures an amount of substance. ...

Sugar (glucose or fructose) → alcohol (ethanol) + carbon dioxide + energy (ATP)

The actual biochemical pathway the reaction takes varies depending on the sugars involved, but the most common involves part of the glycolysis pathway, which is shared with the early stages of aerobic respiration in most organisms. The later stages of the pathway vary considerably depending on the final product. In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell, catalyzed by enzymes, resulting in either the formation of a metabolic product to be used or stored by the cell, or the initiation of another metabolic pathway (then called a flux generating step). ... The word glycolysis is derived from Greek γλυκύς (sweet) and λύσις (letting loose). ... This article or section should be merged with aerobic metabolism. ...


Energy source in anaerobic conditions

Fermentation is thought to have been the primary means of energy production in earlier organisms before oxygen was at high concentration in the atmosphere, and thus would represent a more ancient form of energy production in cells.


Fermentation products contain chemical energy (they are not fully oxidized) but are considered waste products, since they cannot be metabolized further without the use of oxygen (or other more highly-oxidized electron acceptors). A consequence is that the production of ATP by fermentation is less efficient than oxidative phosphorylation, whereby pyruvate is fully oxidized to carbon dioxide. Fermentation produces 4 ATP molecules per molecule of glucose, compared to 38 by aerobic respiration: 8 are produced from FADH2, and 30 are produced from NADH, for a total of 38. Since 2 ATP molecules are used in glycolysis, the net yield for fermentation is 2 ATP versus 36 ATP from aerobic respiration. Pyruvate (CH3COCOO−) is the ionized form of pyruvic acid. ... This article or section should be merged with aerobic metabolism. ...


Aerobic glycolysis is a method employed by muscle cells for the production of lower-intensity energy over a longer period of time when oxygen is plentiful. Under low-oxygen conditions, however, vertebrates use the less-efficient but faster anaerobic glycolysis to produce ATP. The speed at which ATP is produced is about 100 times that of oxidative phosphorylation.[citation needed] While fermentation is helpful during short, intense periods of exertion, it is not sustained over extended periods in complex aerobic organisms. In humans, for example, lactic acid fermentation provides energy for a period ranging from 30 seconds to 2 minutes. This article or section should be merged with aerobic metabolism. ... The electron transport chain in the mitochondrion is the site of oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotes. ...


The final step of fermentation, the conversion of pyruvate to fermentation end-products, does not produce energy. However, it is critical for an anaerobic cell, since it regenerates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), which is required for glycolysis. This is important for normal cellular function, as glycolysis is the only source of ATP in anaerobic conditions. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ or in older notation DPN+) is an important coenzyme found in cells. ...


Products

Products produced by fermentation are actually waste products produced during the reduction of pyruvate to regenerate NAD+ in the absence of oxygen. In general, bacteria produce acids: Vinegar (acetic acid) is the direct result of bacterial metabolism (Bacteria need oxygen to convert the alcohol to acetic acid). In milk, the acid coagulates the casein, producing curds. In pickling, the acid preserves the food from pathogenic and putrefactive bacteria. R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Casein (from Latin caseus cheese) is the most predominant phosphoprotein found in milk and cheese. ...


When yeast ferments, it breaks down the glucose (C6H12O6) into exactly two molecules of ethanol (CH3CH2OH) and two molecules of carbon dioxide (CO2). Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...

  • Ethanol fermentation (performed by yeast and some types of bacteria) breaks the pyruvate down into ethanol and carbon dioxide. It is important in bread-making, brewing, and wine-making. Usually only one of the products is desired; in bread-making, the alcohol is baked out, and, in alcohol production, the carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere or used for carbonating the beverage. When the ferment has a high concentration of pectin, minute quantities of methanol can be produced.
  • Lactic acid fermentation breaks down the pyruvate into lactic acid. It occurs in the muscles of animals when they need energy faster than the blood can supply oxygen. It also occurs in some bacteria and some fungi. It is this type of bacteria that converts lactose into lactic acid in yogurt, giving it its sour taste.

In vertebrates, during intense exercise, cellular respiration will deplete oxygen in the muscles faster than it can be replenished. An associated burning sensation in muscles has been attributed to lactic acid's causing a decrease in the pH during a shift to anaerobic glycolysis. While this does partially explain acute muscle soreness, lactic acid may also help delay muscle fatigue[citation needed], although, eventually the lower pH will inhibit enzymes involved in glycolysis.[citation needed] Contrary to currently popular belief, the lactic acid is not the primary causes for the drop in pH, but rather ATP-derived hydrogen ions.[citation needed] Beer - A Product of Ethanol Fermentation Ethanol fermentation is the biological process by which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose, are converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with approximately 1,500 species described. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ... A 16th century brewer A 21st century brewer This article concerns the production of alcoholic beverages. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Pectin, a white to light brown powder, is a heterosaccharide derived from the cell wall of higher terrestrial plants. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naptha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a distinctive odor that is somewhat milder and sweeter than ethanol (ethyl alcohol). ... Lactic acid Lactic acid fermentation is a form of anaerobic respiration that occurs in some bacteria and animal cells in the absence of oxygen. ... For the production of milk by mammals, see Lactation. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose molecules bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage. ... Yoghurt Yoghurt or yogurt, less commonly yoghourt or yogourt, is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. ... Cellular respiration was discovered by mad scientist Mr. ... For the production of milk by mammals, see Lactation. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Delayed onset muscle soreness cannot be attributed to the lactic acid and other waste products as they are quickly removed after exercise. It is actually due to microtrauma of the muscle fibers. Eventually the liver metabolizes the lactic acid back to pyruvate. Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS) is the pain or discomfort often felt 24 to 72 hours after exercising and subsides generally within 2 to 3 days. ... gay ... A muscle fiber (American usage) or muscle fibre (British usage) is a single cell of a muscle. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ...


Hydrogen gas is produced in many types of fermentation (mixed acid fermentation, butyric acid fermentation, caproate fermentation, butyric acid fermentation, butanol fermentation, glyoxylate fermentation), as a way to regenerate NAD+ and FAD from NADH and FADH2. Electrons are transferred to ferredoxin, which in turn is oxidized by hydrogenase, producing H2. Hydrogen gas is a substrate for methanogens and sulphate reducers, which keep the concentration of hygdrogen sufficiently low to allow the production of such an energy-rich compound. [2] Mixed acid fermentation is an anaerobic fermentation where the products are three acids (lactate, acetate and formate) as well as ethanol and equal amounts of H2 and CO2. ... Butyric acid, (from Greek βουτυρος = butter) IUPAC name n-Butanoic acid, or normal butyric acid, is a carboxylic acid with structural formula CH3CH2CH2-COOH. It is notably found in rancid butter, parmesan cheese, and vomit, and has an unpleasant odor and acrid taste, with a sweetish aftertaste (similar to ether). ...


Some anaerobic eukaryotic microorganisms also produce hydrogen gas, in their hydrogenosomes. The concentration of hydrogen gas is kept low by symbionts such as methanogens that reside in the cytosol of the eukaryot.[2] A hydrogenosome is an organelle of ciliates, trichomonads and fungi. ...


Enzymology

Enzymology is the scientific term for yeast-oriented fermentation. It deals with the biochemical processes involved in fermentation, with yeast selection and physiology, and with the practical issues of brewing. Enzymology is occasionally known as zymology or zymurgy. Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with approximately 1,500 species described. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A 16th century brewer A 21st century brewer This article concerns the production of alcoholic beverages. ...


See also

Fermenting must. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... This article is about industrial fermentation. ... A fermentation lock allows carbon dioxide released by the beer to escape the fermenter, while not allowing air to enter the fermenter, thus avoiding possible bacterial contamination. ... A fed-batch is a biotechnological batchprocess which is based on feeding of a growth limiting nutrient substrate to a culture. ... A chemostat. ... Beer - A Product of Ethanol Fermentation Ethanol fermentation is the biological process by which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose, are converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide. ...

References

  1. ^ Dickinson, J. R. (1999). Carbon metabolism. In: The Metabolism and Molecular Physiology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ed. J. R. Dickinson and M. Schweizer, Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis.
  2. ^ a b Madigan, Martinko, Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 11th ed

External links

  • The chemical logic behind fermentation and respiration
  • Inline disintegration to reduce fermentation time and improve the yield

ǢǢ Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is responsible for some carbohydrate metabolism. ... Beer - A Product of Ethanol Fermentation Ethanol fermentation is the biological process by which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose, are converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide. ... Lactic acid Lactic acid fermentation is a form of anaerobic respiration that occurs in some bacteria and animal cells in the absence of oxygen. ... The word glycolysis is derived from Greek γλυκύς (sweet) and λύσις (letting loose). ... Pyruvic acid Oxaloacetic acid Phosphoenolpyruvate Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate Fructose 6-phosphate Glucose-6-phosphate Glucose Gluconeogenesis is the generation of glucose from non-sugar carbon substrates like pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and amino acids (primarily alanine and glutamine). ... Glycogenesis is the process of glycogen synthesis, in which glucose molecules are added to chains of glycogen. ... Glycogen Glucose Glucose-6-phosphate Glycogenolysis is the catabolism of glycogen by removal of a glucose monomer and addition of phosphate to produce glucose-1-phosphate. ... The pentose phosphate pathways Nonoxidative phase The pentose phosphate pathway (also called Phosphogluconate Pathway, or Hexose Monophosphate Shunt [HMP shunt]) is a process that serves to generate NADPH and the synthesis of pentose (5-carbon) sugars. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Carbon fixation is a process found in autotrophs, usually driven by photosynthesis, whereby carbon dioxide is converted into organic compounds. ... Carbohydrate catabolism is the breakdown of carbohydrates into smaller units. ... Cellular respiration was discovered by mad scientist Mr. ...


 
 

COMMENTARY     

Simon Munywe
4th August 2010
I applied fermented rice husks soyabeans, yeast, sugar, yought into a pit latrine and the smell disappeared. Please tell me why.
There are 1 more (non-authoritative) comments on this page

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