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Encyclopedia > Fermentation
Fermentation in progress
Fermentation in progress

Fermentation typically refers to the conversion of sugar to alcohol using yeast. However, a more appropriate definition would be the chemical conversion of carbohydrates into alcohols or acids. Image File history File links Fermenting. ... Image File history File links Fermenting. ... Magnified crystals of refined sugar In general use, non-scientists take sugar to mean sucrose, also called table sugar or saccharose, a white crystalline solid disaccharide. ... In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which a hydroxyl group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom of an alkyl or substituted alkyl group. ... Yeasts are single-celled (unicellular) fungi, a few species of which are commonly used to leaven bread, ferment alcoholic beverages, and even drive experimental fuel cells. ...


The process is often used to produce wine and beer, but fermentation is also employed in preservation to create lactic acid in sour foods such as pickled cucumbers, kimchi and yogurt. The science of fermentation is known as zymology. Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of fruit, typically grapes though a number of other fruits are also quite popular - such as plum, elderberry and blackcurrant. ... A selection of bottled beers A selection of cask beers Beer is the worlds oldest and most popular alcoholic beverage, selling more than 133 billion litres (35,000 million gallons) a year. ... Lactic acid, also known as milk acid or 2-hydroxypropanoic acid, is a chemical compound that plays a role in several biochemical processes. ... A jar of pickled cucumbers. ... Kimchi, also known as gimchi or kimchee is a traditional Korean dish of fermented chile peppers and vegetables, usually based on Chinese cabbage. ... Yoghurt or yogurt, or less commonly yoghourt, joghurt or yogourt (see spelling differences), is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. ...

Contents


History

See also: History of beer and Brewing

Since fruits ferment naturally, fermentation precedes human history. Since prehistoric times, however, humans have been taking control of the fermentation process. The earliest evidence of winemaking dates from 5400 B.C., in Iran near western Azerbaijan Province, south of where the city of Orumieh is today. 7000 year old jars of wine have been excavated in the Zagros Mountains, which are now on display at the University of Pennsylvania [1]. There is strong evidence that people were fermenting beverages in Babylon circa 5000 BC, ancient Egypt circa 3000 BC, pre-Hispanic Mexico circa 2000 BC, and Sudan circa 1500 BC. There is also evidence of leavened bread in ancient Egypt circa 1500 BC and of milk fermentation in Babylon circa 3000 BC. The Chinese were probably the first to develop vegetable fermentation. Alulu Tablet - a receipt for best beer from 2050 BC in the ancient Kingdom of Ur Beer is one of the oldest beverages humans have produced, dating back to at least the 5th millennium BC and recorded in the written history of Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. ... A 16th century brewer A 21st century brewer This article concerns the production of alcoholic beverages. ... Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of fruit, typically grapes though a number of other fruits are also quite popular - such as plum, elderberry and blackcurrant. ... The Zagros Mountains are Irans second largest range in terms of area covered. ... The University of Pennsylvania (Penn is the moniker used by the university itself [2]) is a private, nonsectarian research university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... , Babylon is the Greek variant of Akkadian Babilu (bāb-ilû, meaning Gateway of ... (6th millennium BC – 5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – other millennia) Events 4713 BC – The epoch (origin) of the Julian Period described by Joseph Justus Scaliger occurred on January 1, the astronomical Julian day number zero. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... (31st century BC - 30th century BC - 29th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2925 - 2776 BC - First Dynasty wars in Egypt 2900 BC - Beginning of the Early Dynastic Period I in Mesopotamia. ... (Redirected from 2000 BC) (21st century BC - 20th century BC - 19th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 2064 - 1986 BC -- Twin Dynasty wars in Egypt 2000 BC -- Farmers and herders travel south from Ethiopia and settle in Kenya. ... (Redirected from 1500 BC) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1550s BC 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC - 1500s BC - 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC Events and Trends Stonehenge built in Wiltshire, England The element Mercury has been... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... (Redirected from 1500 BC) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1550s BC 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC - 1500s BC - 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC Events and Trends Stonehenge built in Wiltshire, England The element Mercury has been... (31st century BC - 30th century BC - 29th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2925 - 2776 BC - First Dynasty wars in Egypt 2900 BC - Beginning of the Early Dynastic Period I in Mesopotamia. ...


Biochemistry

Fermentation is a process that is important in anaerobic conditions when there is no oxidative phosphorylation to maintain the production of ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) by glycolysis. During fermentation pyruvate is metabolised to various different compounds. Homolactic fermentation is the production of lactic acid from pyruvate; alcoholic fermentation is the conversion of pyruvate into ethanol and carbon dioxide; and heterolactic fermentation is the production of lactic acid as well as other acids and alcohols. Anaerobic exercise is complementary to aerobic exercise. ... Oxidative phosphorylation is a biochemical process in cells. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide primarily known in biochemistry as the molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ... Glycolysis is a series of biochemical reactions by which a molecule of glucose (Glc) is oxidized to two molecules of pyruvic acid (Pyr). ... Lactic acid, also known as milk acid or 2-hydroxypropanoic acid, is a chemical compound that plays a role in several biochemical processes. ... Pyruvate (CH3COCOO−) is the ionized form of pyruvic acid. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical compound, one of the alcohols that is most often found in alcoholic beverages. ... Carbon dioxide is an atmospheric gas comprised of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ...


Typical examples of fermentation products are ethanol, lactic acid, and hydrogen. However, more exotic compounds can be produced by fermentation, such as butyric acid and acetone. Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical compound, one of the alcohols that is most often found in alcoholic beverages. ... Lactic acid, also known as milk acid or 2-hydroxypropanoic acid, is a chemical compound that plays a role in several biochemical processes. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Butyric acid, IUPAC name n-Butanoic acid, or normal butyric acid, is a carboxylic acid with structural formula CH3CH2CH2-COOH. It is notably found in rancid butter, parmesan cheese, vomit, and the smell of foul, stale, unwashed, rancid human bare feet, and has an unpleasant odor and acrid taste, with... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , , , Flash point -20 °C Autoignition temperature 465 °C RTECS number AL31500000 Supplementary data page Structure & properties n, εr, etc. ...


Although the final step of fermentation (conversion of pyruvate to fermentation end-products) does not produce energy, it is critical for an anaerobic cell since it regenerates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), which is required for glycolysis. This is important for normal cellular function, as glycolysis is the only source of ATP in anaerobic conditions.


Fermentation products contain chemical energy (they are not fully oxidized) but are considered waste products since they cannot be metabolised further without the use of oxygen (or other more highly-oxidized electron acceptors). A consequence is that the production of ATP by fermentation is less efficient than oxidative phosphorylation, where pyruvate is fully oxidised to carbon dioxide. Fermentation produces two ATP molecules per molecule of glucose compared to approximately 36 by aerobic respiration. Even in vertebrates, however, it is used as an effective means of energy production during short, intense periods of exertion, where the transport of oxygen to the muscles is insufficient to maintain aerobic metabolism. While fermentation is helpful during short, intense periods of exertion, it is not sustained over extended periods in complex aerobic organisms. In humans, for example, lactic acid fermentation provides energy for a period ranging from 30 seconds to 2 minutes. The speed at which ATP is produced is about 100 times that of oxidative phosphorylation. The pH in the cytoplasm quickly drops when lactic acid accumulates in the muscle, eventually inhibiting enzymes involved in glycolysis. Oxidative phosphorylation is a biochemical process in cells. ... Cytoplasm is like jelly-like material that fills cells. ... Lactic acid, also known as milk acid or 2-hydroxypropanoic acid, is a chemical compound that plays a role in several biochemical processes. ...


Products

Products produced by fermentation are actually waste products produced during the reduction of pyruvate to regenerate NAD+ in the absence of oxygen.


When yeast ferments, it breaks down the glucose (C6H12O6) into exactly two molecules of ethanol (C2H6O) and two molecules of carbon dioxide (CO2). Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is one of the most important carbohydrates. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical compound, one of the alcohols that is most often found in alcoholic beverages. ... Carbon dioxide is an atmospheric gas comprised of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ...

  • Ethanol fermentation (done by yeast and some types of bacteria) breaks the pyruvate down into ethanol and carbon dioxide. It is important in bread-making, brewing, and wine-making. When the ferment has a high concentration of pectin, minute quantities of methanol can be produced. Usually only one of the products is desired; in bread the alcohol is baked out, and in alcohol production the carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere.
  • Lactic acid fermentation breaks down the pyruvate into lactic acid. It occurs in the muscles of animals when they need energy faster than the blood can supply oxygen. Accumulation of lactic acid in human body will lead to muscle fatigue.It also occurs in some bacteria and some fungi. It is this type of bacteria that convert lactose into lactic acid in yogurt, giving it its sour taste.

The burning sensation in muscles during hard exercise used to be attributed to the production of lactic acid during a shift to anaerobic glycolysis, as oxygen is converted to carbon dioxide by aerobic glycolysis faster than the body can replenish it; but muscle soreness and stiffness after hard exercise is actually due to microtrauma of the muscle fibres. The body falls back on this less-efficient but faster method of producing ATP under low-oxygen conditions. This is thought to have been the primary means of energy production in earlier organisms before oxygen was at high concentration in the atmosphere and thus would represent a more ancient form of energy production in cells. The liver later gets rid of this excess lactate by transforming it back into an important glycolysis intermediate called pyruvate. Aerobic glycolysis is a method employed by muscle cells for the production of lower-intensity energy over a longer period of time. Ethanol fermentation is a form of anaerobic respiration used primarily by yeasts when oxygen is not present in sufficient quantity for normal cellular respiration, the cellular energy-producing system, to continue. ... Yeasts are single-celled (unicellular) fungi, a few species of which are commonly used to leaven bread, ferment alcoholic beverages, and even drive experimental fuel cells. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... European sweetbread (strucla) Four loaves French bread has a somewhat rigid crust Breads and Bread Rolls at a bakery Continental Italian Bread Tin Vienna Bread Bread in a traditional oven, in Portugal, with hot coal in front Pre-sliced bread has become more common in many countries Bread rolls Pain... A 16th century brewer A 21st century brewer This article concerns the production of alcoholic beverages. ... Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of fruit, typically grapes though a number of other fruits are also quite popular - such as plum, elderberry and blackcurrant. ... Pectin is a heterosaccharide derived from the cell wall of plants. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol or wood alcohol, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a very faint odor. ... Lactic acid fermentation is a form of anaerobic respiration that occurs in animal cells in the absence of oxygen. ... Lactic acid, also known as milk acid or 2-hydroxypropanoic acid, is a chemical compound that plays a role in several biochemical processes. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Lactic acid, also known as milk acid or 2-hydroxypropanoic acid, is a chemical compound that plays a role in several biochemical processes. ... Fatigue may refer to: Fatigue (physical) - tiredness in humans Fatigue (material) - failure by repeated stress in materials Fatigues (uniform) - military uniform (BDU or ACU) Chronic Fatigue Syndrome - a medical condition Battle fatigue - also known as Post-traumatic stress disorder Readers fatigue - a side-effect of parsing poorly formatted textual... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Lactose is a disaccharide that makes up around 2-8% of the solids in milk. ... Yoghurt Yoghurt or yogurt, less commonly yoghourt or yogourt, is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. ... Lactic acid, also known as milk acid or 2-hydroxypropanoic acid, is a chemical compound that plays a role in several biochemical processes. ... Carbon dioxide is an atmospheric gas comprised of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... This article or section should be merged with aerobic metabolism. ... gay ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle A muscle fiber (American usage) or muscle fibre (British usage) (also technically known as a myocyte) is a single cell of a muscle. ... The liver is the largest internal organ of the human body. ... Pyruvate (CH3COCOO−) is the ionized form of pyruvic acid. ... This article or section should be merged with aerobic metabolism. ...


Bacteria generally produce acids. Vinegar (acetic acid) is the direct result of bacterial metabolism (Bacteria need oxygen to convert the alcohol to acetic acid). In milk, the acid coagulates the casein, producing curds. In pickling, the acid preserves the food from pathogenic and putrefactive bacteria. Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound best recognized for giving vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell. ... Casein is the predominant phosphoprotein found in fresh milk. ...


Uses

The primary benefit of fermentation is the conversion, e.g., converting juice into wine, grains into beer, and carbohydrates into carbon dioxide to leaven bread. Juice is a fluid naturally contained in animal or plant tissue. ... Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of fruit, typically grapes though a number of other fruits are also quite popular - such as plum, elderberry and blackcurrant. ... A selection of bottled beers A selection of cask beers Beer is the worlds oldest and most popular alcoholic beverage, selling more than 133 billion litres (35,000 million gallons) a year. ... Carbohydrates are chemical compounds that contain oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon atoms. ... Carbon dioxide is an atmospheric gas comprised of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... European sweetbread (strucla) Four loaves French bread has a somewhat rigid crust Breads and Bread Rolls at a bakery Continental Italian Bread Tin Vienna Bread Bread in a traditional oven, in Portugal, with hot coal in front Pre-sliced bread has become more common in many countries Bread rolls Pain...


According to Steinkraus (1995), food fermentation serves five main purposes:

  1. Enrichment of the diet through development of a diversity of flavors, aromas, and textures in food substrates
  2. Preservation of substantial amounts of food through lactic acid, alcoholic, acetic acid, and alkaline fermentations
  3. Biological enrichment of food substrates with protein, essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, and vitamins
  4. Detoxification during food-fermentation processing
  5. A decrease in cooking times and fuel requirements

Fermentation has some uses exclusive to foods. Fermentation can produce important nutrients or eliminate antinutrients. Food can be preserved by fermentation, since fermentation uses up food energy and can make conditions unsuitable for undesirable microorganisms. For example, in pickling the acid produced by the dominant bacteria inhibit the growth of all other microorganisms. Depending on the type of fermentation, some products (e.g., fusel alcohol) can be harmful to people's health. Lactic acid, also known as milk acid or 2-hydroxypropanoic acid, is a chemical compound that plays a role in several biochemical processes. ... Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound best recognized for giving vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell. ... An amino acid residue is what is left of an amino acid once a molecule of water has been lost (an H+ from the nitrogenous side and an OH- from the carboxylic side) in the formation of a peptide bond. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ... Nutrients and the body A nutrient is any element or compound necessary for or contributing to an organisms metabolism, growth, or other functioning. ... Cucumbers gathered for pickling. ... Freeze distillation is a metaphorical term for a process of enriching a solution by partially freezing it and removing frozen material that is poorer in the dissolved material than is the liquid portion left behind. ... Fusel alcohols, also sometimes called fusel oils, are higher order (more than two carbons) alcohols formed by fermentation and present in cider, mead, beer, wine, and spirits to varying degrees. ...


In alchemy, fermentation is often the same as putrefaction, meaning to allow the substance to naturally rot or decompose. For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... Putrefaction is the decomposition of proteins, especially by anaerobic microorganisms. ... The aviation term ROT stands for rate one turn. ... Rotting fruit Decomposition is a phenomenon common in the sciences of biology and chemistry. ...


Fermented foods, by region

In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which a hydroxyl group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom of an alkyl or substituted alkyl group. ... Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of fruit, typically grapes though a number of other fruits are also quite popular - such as plum, elderberry and blackcurrant. ... Vinegar is often infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... For the Italian political alliance see Olive Tree, and the color, olive (color). ... Yoghurt Yoghurt or yogurt, less commonly yoghourt or yogourt, is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Belacan (also spelled belachan, blachang, balachong) is a Malay condiment prepared from fermented krill. ... Burong mangga is a filipino food. ... Doenjang (Korean: 된장; pronounced DWEN-jahng) is a traditional Korean fermented soy bean paste similar to miso, or to Greek hummus. ... Kimchi, also known as gimchi or kimchee is a traditional Korean dish of fermented chile peppers and vegetables, usually based on Chinese cabbage. ... Miang Hawwa, as she appears in Xenogears Miang is an antagonist in the 1998 Squaresoft Co. ... Nata de Coco, a high fiber, zero fat Philippino dessert. ... Natto eaten on top of rice is commonly stirred before consumption Nattō ) is a traditional Japanese food product made from fermented soybeans, popular especially at breakfast. ... Prahok is a type of type fermented fish paste (usually of mud fish) that can be used in Cambodian cuisine as a seasoning or a condiment (usually the later). ... Sake barrels at Itsukushima Shrine Sake (Japanese: 酒; pronounced IPA: ) is a Japanese alcoholic beverage, brewed mainly from rice. ... Soy sauce (US) or soya sauce is a fermented sauce made from soybeans (soya beans), roasted grain, water and salt originating in China. ... Stinky tofu is often served deep-fried with chili sauce. ... Takuan (or takuan-zuke) is a traditional Japanese pickle made from daikon radish. ... Tempeh is a fermented food typically made from soybeans, most popular in Indonesia and other parts of Southeast Asia. ... A bowl of zha cai cut into thick strings Zhà cài (Chinese: 榨菜; literally pressed vegetable) is a type of preserved, or pickled mustard originating from the Sichuan region of China. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Kumis (called airag by the Mongolians, but not to be confused with either arak or arrack), is a traditional drink of the people of Central Asia. ... Kefir (alternately kephir, kewra, talai, mudu kekiya, matsoun, matsoni, waterkefir, milkkefir) is a fermented milk drink originating in the Caucasus. ... Achar (also written as Achaar) is the Hindi word for the pickle. ... In Indian cuisine, a mixed pickle consists of various pickled fruits and vegetables (invariably including chilli peppers) suspended in vegetable oil. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Africa is the worlds second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia. ... Garri is a popular West African food made from cassava tubers. ... Species See text. ... This meal, consisting of injera and several kinds of wat (stew), is typical of Ethiopian and Eritrean cuisine. ... Vegetable oil or vegoil is fat extracted from plant sources. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the New World or Western hemisphere consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the curdled milk of cows, goats, sheep, buffalo or other mammals. ... Cucumbers gathered for pickling. ... Sauerkraut and sausage on a plate is finely sliced white cabbage fermented by various lactic acid bacteria including Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus and Pediococcus. ... For other uses of the word see: Lupin (disambiguation) Species over 150 recognised species, including: Lupinus albus Lupinus angustifolius Lupinus arboreus Lupinus luteus Lupinus mutabilis Lupinus nootkatensis Lupinus polyphyllus Lupinus x regalis Lupinus texensis Lupin, often spelled lupine in the US, is the common name for members of the genus... Vegetable oil or vegoil is fat extracted from plant sources. ... Chocolate most commonly comes in dark, milk, and white varieties, with cocoa solids contributing to the brown coloration. ... For other uses, see vanilla (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Wiktionary has a definition of: Torshi Torshi is a fermented food, common in the Middle East, that comprises cucumber, cauliflower, carrots, cabbage, etc. ... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the curdled milk of cows, goats, sheep, buffalo or other mammals. ... Sauerkraut and sausage on a plate is finely sliced white cabbage fermented by various lactic acid bacteria including Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus and Pediococcus. ... Polish twaróg Quark is a type of fresh acid-set cheese of Central European origin. ... Kefir (alternately kephir, kewra, talai, mudu kekiya, matsoun, matsoni, waterkefir, milkkefir) is a fermented milk drink originating in the Caucasus. ... Fil is the common Swedish word for several kinds of fermented soured milk very common for breakfast or lunch in the Nordic Countries. ...

Fermentation vs. putrefaction/rancidification

There are a number of animal-based foods from different parts of the world that are described as being "fermented." However, the term is erroneous when applied to such foods because fermentation properly means the decomposition of carbohydrates, and since animal tissues are composed of proteins and lipids, and contain at most only traces of carbohydrates, the operative processes in the transformation undergone by these foods are actually putrefaction and rancidification. A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Figure 1: Basic lipid structure. ... Putrefaction is the decomposition of proteins, especially by anaerobic microorganisms. ... Rancidification is the decomposition of fats and other lipids by hydrolysis and/or oxidation. ...


The difference is more than technical since the end products of these processes are quite different from those of fermentation, and also because putrefied/rancidified foods are often dangerous for human consumption. For instance, Alaska, despite its small population witnesses more cases of botulism than any other U.S. state [2]. This is caused by the traditional Eskimo practice of allowing animal products such as whole fish, fish heads, walrus, sea lion and whale flippers, beaver tails, seal oil, birds, etc., to decompose for an extended period of time before being consumed raw. The risk is exacerbated when a plastic container is used for this purpose instead of the old-fashioned method, a grass-lined hole, as the botulinum bacteria thrive in the anaerobic conditions created by the former method. Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,854 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... Botulism (from Latin botulus, sausage) is a rare but serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin, botulin, that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ... It has been suggested that Esquimaux race be merged into this article or section. ... Binomial name Odobenus rosmarus (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies Walruses (from Dutch: wal meaning shore, and r(e)us meaning giant) are large semi-aquatic mammals that live in the cold Arctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere. ... Genera Eumetopias Zalophus Otaria Neophoca Phocarctos A sea lion is any of several marine mammals of the family Otariidae. ... Whales are the largest species of exclusively aquatic mammals, members of the order Cetacea, which also includes dolphins and porpoises. ... Species C. canadensis C. fiber Beavers are semi-aquatic rodents native to North America and Europe. ... Binomial name Clostridium botulinum van Ermengem, 1896 Clostridium botulinum is a bacterium that produces the toxin botulin, the causative agent in botulism. ...


Other putrefied/rancidified foods include fish sauce from Southeast Asia, Icelandic hákarl, fermented Baltic herring and certain speciality sausages from Sweden, and Limburger cheese. Most putrefied/rancified foods are considered to have an exceptionally foul odor, but if the process of decomposition is allowed to reach completion, the smell is greatly diminished, as with some varieties of fish sauce. Fish sauce is a condiment derived from fish that have been allowed to ferment. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Hákarl or Greenlandic Shark is a food from Iceland. ... Surströmming (sour herring) is a Swedish delicacy consisting of fermented Baltic herring. ... Categories: Food and drink stubs | Belgian cheeses ...


In its strictest sense, fermentation (formerly called zymosis) is the anaerobic metabolic breakdown of a nutrient molecule, such as glucose, without net oxidation. Fermentation does not release all the available energy in a molecule; it merely allows glycolysis (a process that yields two ATP per glucose) to continue by replenishing reduced coenzymes. Depending on which organism it is taking place in, fermentation may yield lactate, acetic acid, ethanol, or other reduced metabolites. Yeast produces ethanol and CO2; human muscle (under anaerobic conditions) produces lactic acid. Glycolysis is a series of biochemical reactions by which a molecule of glucose (Glc) is oxidized to two molecules of pyruvic acid (Pyr). ... A coenzyme (a. ... Lactic acid, also known as milk acid or 2-hydroxypropanoic acid, is a chemical compound that plays a role in several biochemical processes. ... Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound best recognized for giving vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical compound, one of the alcohols that is most often found in alcoholic beverages. ... Redox reactions include all chemical processes in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... A metabolite is the product of metabolism. ...


Fermentation is also used much more broadly to refer to the bulk growth of microorganisms on a growth medium. No distinction is made between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism when the word is used in this sense. E. coli magnified 10,000 times. ... A growth medium is an object in which microorganisms or cells in experience growth. ... Cellular respiration is the process in which the chemical bonds of energy-rich molecules such as glucose are converted into energy usable for life processes. ... Glycolysis is a series of biochemical reactions by which a molecule of glucose (Glc) is oxidized to two molecules of pyruvic acid (Pyr). ...


Fermentation usually implies that the action of the microorganisms is desirable. Occasionally wines are enhanced through the process of cofermentation. When fermentation stops prior to complete conversion of sugar to alcohol, a stuck fermentation is said to have occurred. A stuck fermentation is a fermentation of wine or beer which has stopped before completion; i. ...


Reaction

The reaction differs according to the sugar being used in the process of anaerobic respiration, below, the sugar will be glucose (C6H12O6) the simplest sugar. Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is one of the most important carbohydrates. ...


Symbol Equation

C6H12O6 → 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + 2 ATP (Energy Released:118 kJ mol−1)

Word Equation

Sugar (glucose) → Alcohol + Carbon Dioxide + Energy (ATP)

Zymology

Zymology is the science term for fermentation. It deals with the biochemical processes involved in fermentation, with yeast selection and physiology, and with the practical issues of brewing. Zymology is occasionally known as zymurgy. Yeasts are single-celled (unicellular) fungi, a few species of which are commonly used to leaven bread, ferment alcoholic beverages, and even drive experimental fuel cells. ... Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ... A 16th century brewer A 21st century brewer This article concerns the production of alcoholic beverages. ...


Fermentation

Fermentation can be simply defined, in this context, as the conversion of sugar molecules into ethanol and carbon dioxide by yeast. Magnified crystals of refined sugar In general use, non-scientists take sugar to mean sucrose, also called table sugar or saccharose, a white crystalline solid disaccharide. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical compound, one of the alcohols that is most often found in alcoholic beverages. ... Carbon dioxide is an atmospheric gas comprised of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... Yeasts are single-celled (unicellular) fungi, a few species of which are commonly used to leaven bread, ferment alcoholic beverages, and even drive experimental fuel cells. ...


C6H12O6 => 2CO2 + 2C2H5OH


History

French chemist Louis Pasteur was the first zymologist, when in 1857 he connected yeast to fermentation. Pasteur originally defined fermentation as respiration without air. Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French microbiologist and chemist. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Pasteur performed careful research and concluded, "I am of the opinion that alcoholic fermentation never occurs without simultaneous organization, development and multiplication of cells.... If asked, in what consists the chemical act whereby the sugar is decomposed ... I am completely ignorant of it.".


The German Eduard Buchner, winner of the 1907 Nobel Prize in chemistry, later determined that fermentation was actually caused by a yeast secretion that he termed zymase. Eduard Buchner (May 20, 1860 -- August 12, 1917) was a German chemist and zymologist, the winner of the 1907 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on fermentation. ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Sir Edward Appletons medal Photographs of Nobel Prize Medals. ... Zymase is a enzyme complex that catalyze glycolysis, the fermentation of sugar into ethanol and carbon dioxide. ...


The research efforts undertaken by the Danish Carlsberg scientists greatly accelerated the gain of knowledge about yeast and brewing. The Carlsberg scientists are generally acknowledged with jump-starting the entire field of molecular biology. Carlsberg A/S headquartered in Valby, Denmark is one of the largest breweries in the world, present in about 50 countries. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ...


See also

Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... A fermentation lock allows carbon dioxide released by the beer to escape the fermenter, while not allowing air to enter the fermenter, thus avoiding possible bacterial contamination. ...

References

  • Steinkraus, K. H., Ed. (1995). Handbook of Indigenous Fermented Foods. New York, Marcel Dekker, Inc.
  • The 1811 Household Cyclopedia

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Fermentation (0 words)
Ferment a) a living organism (as a yeast) that causes fermentation by virtue of its enzymes.
All bread was "sourdough" until bakers' yeast was developed to produce fast rising (short fermentation).
Long fermentation is the secret to flavor in sourdough baking.
Fermentation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1742 words)
Fermentation is a process that is important in anaerobic conditions when there is no oxidative phosphorylation to maintain the production of ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) by glycolysis.
In alchemy, fermentation is often the same as putrefaction, meaning to allow the substance to naturally rot or decompose.
Fermentation does not release all the available energy in a molecule; it merely allows glycolysis (a process that yields two ATP per glucose) to continue by replenishing reduced coenzymes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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