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Encyclopedia > Fergus of Galloway

Fergus of Galloway was King, or Lord, of Galloway from an unknown date (probably in the 1110s), until his death in 1161. He was the founder of that "sub-kingdom," the ressurector of the Bishopric of Whithorn, the patron of new abbeys (e.g. Dundrennan Abbey), and much else besides. He became a legend after his death, although his actual life is clouded in mystery. The Lords of Galloway ruled Galloway from about 1138 to 1234. ... Centuries: 11th century - 12th century - 13th century Decades: 1060s 1070s 1080s 1090s 1100s - 1110s - 1120s 1130s 1140s 1150s 1160s Years: 1110 1111 1112 1113 1114 1115 1116 1117 1118 1119 Events and Trends 1111 Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Paschal II 1112 The people of Laon... Events Bartholomew Iscanus becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... Whithorn is a small burgh in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, about ten miles south of Wigtown. ... Dundrennan Abbey, in Dundrennan, Scotland, near to Kirkcudbright, was a Cistercian monastery, established in 1142 by Fergus of Galloway, King David I of Scotland, and monks from Rievaulx Abbey. ...

Contents


Origins of Fergus

Fergus of Galloway first appears in the historical sources in 1136. His origins, though, and his parentage, are something of a mystery. Over the years, Fergus’ origins have been the subject of much discussion, and even more fanciful fictional elaboration by historical writers. Events Completion of the Saint Denis Basilica in Paris Peter Abelard writes the Historia Calamitatum, detailing his relationship with Heloise People of Novgorod rebel against the hereditary prince Vsevolod and depose him Births Amalric I of Jerusalem William of Newburgh, English historian (died 1198) Deaths November 15 - Margrave Leopold III...


One theory is that Fergus was descended from a great pedigree of Gall-Gaidhel kings, who might have been known as Clann Dubgaill, claiming descent from a certain Dubgall. Adding believability to this view is the fact that the chief branch of descendents of Somairle mac Gilla Brigte took the name MacDougall, while the cognate name MacDouall was popular in Galloway. However, since the Argyll name comes only from after Fergus' time, this theory cannot be accepted. A pedigree is a list of ancestors (usually implying distinguished), a list of ancestors of the same breed (usually in the case of animals), the purity of a breed, individual, or strain, or a document proving any of these things. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Macdougalls of Lore Mac means son of while the term clan comes from the Gaelic word for children. ...


A similar theory traces Fergus from a certain man called "Gilli," a Gall-Gaidhel "Jarl" of the Western Isles. The reasoning in this case is that the Roman de Fergus, an early 13th century French language Arthurian romance, names its eponymous hero's father as Soumilloit (Somairle). The argument is that latter was descended from the Jarl Gilli, and therefore that both Somairles had Jarl Gilli as a common ancestor. Likewise yet another theory identifies Fergus' father with the obscure Sumarlidi Hauldr, a character in the Orkneyinga Saga. The Outer Hebrides or Western Isles (Scottish Gaelic: Na h-Eileanan Siar), also traditionally known as the Outer Isles, comprise an island chain off the west coast of Scotland. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... King Arthur is an important figure in the mythology of Britain. ... The Orkneyinga saga (also called the History of the Earls of Orkney) is an unique historical narrative of the history of the Orkney Islands from their capture by the Norwegian king in the 9th century onwards until about 1200 AD. The saga was written around 1200 AD by an unknown...


Writers in the late 19th and early 20th centuries had advanced the idea that Fergus was the childhood companion of David I at the Anglo-Norman court of King Henry I of England. This idea was given credence by his marriage to the daughter of King Henry I, his good relationship with David, and his friendliness towards Anglo-Norman culture. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... David I, known as the Saint, (1084 - May 24, 1153), king of Scotland, the youngest son of Malcolm Canmore and of Saint Margaret (sister of Edgar Ætheling), was born in 1084. ... Henry I of England (c. ...


In reality such a relationship is pure fiction. Fergus was almost certainly a native Galwegian. The Roman de Fergus may not be entitled to general reliability in matters of historical correctness, but Soumilloit is unlikely to have been totally made up. Moreover, Somairle (anglicized either as Somerled or Sorley) is a thorough Gall-Gaidhel name, and makes perfect sense in the context. In the light of the absence of other evidence, we have to accept that Fergus' father probably bore the name Somairle.


Other than that, we simply cannot say anything about Fergus' origins for sure.


Origins of the Galloway Kingdom

Contrary to some popular conceptions, there is no evidence that Galloway was ever part of the Kingdom of Strathclyde. Thus Galloway (west of the Nith at least) lay outside of the traditional area claimed by Kingdom of Alba, Strathclyde's successor state in the area. Galloway, often defined as all of the area to the south and west of the Clyde and west of the River Annan, lay outside of traditional Scottish territory. Though it formed part of the world of the northern mainland of Britain, Galloway was just as much a part of the world of the Irish Sea; part of that "Hiberno-Norse" world of the Gall-Gaidhel lords of the Isle of Man, Dublin and the Hebrides. Strathclyde (Welsh: Ystrad Clud) was one of the kingdoms of ancient Scotland in the post-Roman period. ... The succession of states theory asserts that all possessions and territory held by a state are automatically transferred to the successor state, the state which succeeds it. ... Clyde may refer to: The River Clyde and Firth of Clyde in Scotland. ... The River Annan flows from Moffat, in South West Scotland, past the town of Lockerbie, and to the sea in the fishing town of Annan. ... Dublin (Irish: Baile Átha Cliath), is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Ireland, located near the midpoint of Irelands east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey and at the centre of the Dublin Region. ... The Hebrides comprise a wide-spread and diverse archipelago off the west coast of Scotland, and in geological terms are composed of the oldest rocks in the British Isles and Ireland. ...


For instance, the ex-King of Dublin and Man, Echmarcach mac Ragnaill, had the title Rex Innarenn ("King of Rhinns") attributed to him on his death in 1065. The western section of Galloway had been firmly attached to the Isle of Man, and Norse and Gaelic-Norse settlement names from the 10th and 11th centuries are spread all along the coastal lands of south-western "Scotland" and north-western "England." Echmarcach mac Ragnaill was the Gall-Gaidhel King of the Isles, Dublin (1036-1038 & 1046-1052), and much of Galloway. ... The Rhinns of Galloway is a hammer-head peninsula in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland. ... Events December 28 - Westminster Abbey is consecrated. ... ( 9th century - 10th century - 11th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... (10th century - 11th century - 12th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ...


In the late 11th century, the Norwegian King Magnus III Berrføtt ("Barelegs") led a campaign of subjugation in the Irish Sea world. In 1097 he had sent his vassal Ingimundr to take control of the Kingdom(s) of Man and the Isles. However, when this man was killed, Magnus himself launched the first of his two invasions, the campaigns of 1098-1099 and of 1102-1103. In the former campaign he took control of the Western Isles of Scotland, and deposed King Lagmann of Man. (Incidentally, this campaign also brought him to Wales, where he killed the Earl of Chester and the Earl of Shrewsbury, who were at war with the Prince of Gwynedd). In this campaign, Magnus almost certainly brought Galloway under his suzerainty too. Magnus moreover gained recognition of these conquests from the then King of Alba, Etgair mac Maíl Coluim. (10th century - 11th century - 12th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Magnus Barefoot (1073-1103), son of Olav Kyrre, was king of Norway from 1093 until 1103. ... Events Edgar I deposes Donald III to become king of Scotland. ... Events First Crusade: end of the siege of Antioch. ... 1099 also refers to a United States tax form used for--among other things--independent contractors. ... Events Valencia is captured by the Almoravids. ... Events April 27 - Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, goes into exile after falling out with Henry I of England Amadeus III becomes Count of Savoy Bohemund I of Antioch is released from imprisonment among the Turks The Scandinavian city of Lund becomes a see within the Roman Catholic Church Births February... The Outer Hebrides or Western Isles (Scottish Gaelic: Na h-Eileanan Siar), also traditionally known as the Outer Isles, comprise an island chain off the west coast of Scotland. ... The Earldom of Chester is one of the few palatine earldoms in England. ... The Earl of Shrewsbury is the senior Earl on the Roll in the Peerage of England (the more senior Earldom of Arundel being held by the Duke of Norfolk). ... Gwynedd is an administrative county in Wales, named after the old Kingdom of Gwynedd. ... Alba is the ancient and modern Gaelic name (IPA: ) for the country of Scotland (also Alba in Irish, and in Old Gaelic Albu). ... Edgar of Scotland (Etgair mac Maíl Coluim) (1074 – January 8, 1107 ), was king of Scotland from 1097 to 1107. ...


On his second campaign, Magnus went to Man, and with a huge fleet attacked Dublin and attempted to bring the submission of Muircertach mac Toirrdelbach, the Ui Briain King of Munster. The campaign resulted in an alliance between the two kings, and the arranged marriage of Magnus' son Siguðr to Muircertach's daughter Bláthmin. The alliance mitigated the threat of Domnall mac Lochlainn, King of Ailech, bringing stability to the Irish Sea world, and security to Magnus' new Irish Sea "Empire." However, it all went wrong when Magnus was killed on his way back to Norway on a minor raid in Ulster. Much of Magnus' work lay in ruins. For other places with the same or similar names, and other uses of the word, see Munster (disambiguation). ... Sigurd I Magnusson (1089?-1130), nicknamed Sigurd Jorsalfar (Sigurd the Crusader) was king of Norway 1103-1130. ... Grianan of Aileach are the ruins of an Iron Age stone fortress in Donegal in the north-west of Ireland which was the seat of the Kingdom of Aileach (Aileach). ... Ulster (Irish: Cúige Uladh, IPA: ) is one of the four provinces of Ireland. ...


In the view of the main authority on medieval Galloway, Richard Oram, these events provide the key to understanding the origins of the Fergusian Kingdom of Galloway. It was this power vacuum, he suggests, that facilitated the creation of the Kingdom of Galloway,; the Kingdom which Fergus came to lead, and apparently created. The Roman infers that Fergus' father, Somairle, was a poor warrior who made it big by marriage to a noble woman, from whom Fergus inherited power. Perhaps then, Fergus' father was a self-made warrior who married into the House of Man; perhaps Fergus inherited and further consolidated his position, building the Kingdom out of the ruins left by the death of Magnus Barelegs.


Marriage & the Building of the Lordship

Fergus is known to have had in his lifetime two wives, the names of both being unknown. By these wives, though, three children are known:

  • Affraic

Gilla Brigte mac Fergusa of Galloway (????-1185), also known as Gillebrigte, Gilbridge, Gilbride, etc, and most famously known in French sources as Gilbert, was Lord of Galloway (from 1161 with Uchtred; 1174 alone, to 1185). ... Uchtred mac Fergusa (c. ...

Western Galloway and 1st Marriage

Fergus' likely power base was the area of Galloway between the rivers Dee and Cree. It has been suggested by Oram that he advanced his power in the west through marriage to an unknown heiress. The primary basis of this reasoning is that upon Fergus' death, Gilla Brigte got the western part. Gilla Brigte was the older son, but because he was not the product of marriage to Fergus' royal wife, he was regarded as the lesser. The fact that he got the west when he should have gotten nothing has led Oram to believe that he got the west because of his mother. The River Dee is a 50 mile (80 km) long river, which rises in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, and flowing to the Irish Sea in Kirkcudbright. ...


England and 2nd Marriage

Fergus certainly did marry an illegitimate daughter of Henri Beauclerc, King Henry I of England. Her name probably was Elizabeth Beauclerc (Henry recognized her), born about 1098. They were married about 1123. Names aside, the marriage seems to have been part of a forward policy of Henry I in the northwest of his dominions and the Irish Sea zone in general, which was engineered in the second decade of the 12th century. It was during this time that Fergus was calling himself rex Galwitensium (""King of Galloway""). However, while his father-in-law lived, Fergus - like his fellow sub-king David fils de Malcolm (otherwise known as King David I of Scotland), remained a faithful "vassal" to Henry. Henry I of England (c. ... Henry I of England (c. ... David I, known as the Saint, (1084 - May 24, 1153), king of Scotland, the youngest son of Malcolm Canmore and of Saint Margaret (sister of Edgar Ætheling), was born in 1084. ...


Marriage of Affraic to Man

As part of Fergus’ pretensions in the Irish Sea world, Fergus made himself the father-in-law of the Manx king by marrying off his daughter Affraic to King Óláfr I Gothfrithsson of Man (1114-1153). Óláfr was in many ways a client of the English and Scottish Kings, and so within this new Anglo-Celtic Irish Sea system, Fergus could establish a dominant position. This position lasted until the death of Óláfr in 1153 at the hands of his brother’s sons, who had been brought up in Dublin, and were waiting in the wings. Events January 7 - Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England, marries Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor Births Deaths Categories: 1114 ... Events January 6 - Henry of Anjou arrives in England. ...


Elevation of Whithorn


A related development was Fergus' resurrection of the Bishopric of Whithorn, an ancient Galwegian See first established by the expansionary Northumbrians under the juristiction of the Archbishop of York. The last Bishop of Whithorn, Heathored, had been noted in the year 833. Thereafter nothing is heard; and it is likely the Bishopric disappeared with Northumbrian power, a decline marked by the sack of York by the Danes in 867. In the following two and a half centuries, Galloway, if and where jurisdiction actually existed, seems to have been under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Man in the west, with Durham and Glasgow in the east. Whithorn is a small burgh in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, about ten miles south of Wigtown. ... See: Signing Exact English Visual perception Episcopal see Holy See This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Northumbria is primarily the name of an Anglian or Anglo-Saxon kingdom which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, and of the earldom which succeeded the kingdom. ... Arms of the Archbishop of York The Archbishop of York, Primate of England, is the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England, after the Archbishop of Canterbury. ... Events End of the reign of caliph Al-Mamun Nimmyo succeeds Junna as emperor of Japan Creation of Great Moravia Births Deaths October 10 - al-Mamun, Abbasid caliph of Baghdad Categories: 833 ... York is a city in northern England, at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss. ... Events September - Basil I becomes sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire. ...


In terms of the See's resurrection, we know that in late 1128 Pope Honorius II ordered the Bishop-elect of Whithorn to appear before the Archbishop of York. The would-be Bishop was a cleric called Gilla Aldan (Gilla Aldain), and the Archbishop was Thurstan. York had been coming under increasing pressure from the ambitions of Canterbury, and the northern English metropolitan had only two suffragans (Durham and Man). He needed three in fact to hold proper Archiepiscopal elections. It is likely that York and Fergus did a deal. The involvement of King David I can be discounted on the grounds of his anti-York policies, and his total inclination to appoint English or French clerics, and not Gaelic ones like Gilla Aldan. The deal ensured that Galwegian church would not undermine Fergus’ independence of both Man or Scotland, and secured an identity for the new Kingdom in the framework of northern Britain and the Isles. Events Pope Honorius II recognizes and confirms the Order of the Knights Templar. ... Pope Honorius II should not be confused with Antipope Honorius II, otherwise known as Peter Cadalus. ... Thurstan, or Turstin (d. ... Arms of the see of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior clergyman of the established Church of England and symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Arms of the Bishop of Durham The Bishop of Durham is the officer of the Church of England responsible for the diocese of Durham, one of the oldest in the country. ... David I, known as the Saint, (1084 - May 24, 1153), king of Scotland, the youngest son of Malcolm Canmore and of Saint Margaret (sister of Edgar Ætheling), was born in 1084. ...


A further point to be noted is that the sources record that the warrior-Bishop Wimund attacked another Bishop, an attack aimed to try and bring the other bishop under his control. Scholars such as Andrew MacDonald and Richard Oram agree that this Bishop was in fact Gilla Aldan of Whithorn. It is likely then that the elevation of Whithorn incurred the wrath of the Bishop of the Isles, indicating perhaps something of the status of the Galwegian church before Fergus’ reign. Wimund was an English bishop who became a sea-faring war-lord adventurer in the 1130s and 1140s. ...


Fergus & David I

On Henry's death in late 1135, Fergus’ relationship with the Kings of the English could not be maintained. David I of Scotland, ruler of much of Scotland and northern England, assumed a position of dominance. The balance of power swung firmly in David’s favor. It was no longer possible to maintain a position of real independence from the Scottish king. It is at this point Fergus comes into contemporary sources. In summer 1136, David I was in attendance at the consecration of Bishop John’s cathedral in Glasgow. Here was a big gathering of Scottish and Norman nobles. Fergus is recorded as having been in attendance too (with his son Uchtred), leading a list of southwestern Gaelic nobility. Events January - Byland Abbey founded Stephen of Blois succeeds King Henry I. Empress Maud, daughter of Henry I and widow of Henry V opposed Stephen and claims the throne as her own Owain Gwynedd of Wales defeats the Normans at Crug Mawr. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... Events Completion of the Saint Denis Basilica in Paris Peter Abelard writes the Historia Calamitatum, detailing his relationship with Heloise People of Novgorod rebel against the hereditary prince Vsevolod and depose him Births Amalric I of Jerusalem William of Newburgh, English historian (died 1198) Deaths November 15 - Margrave Leopold III... A cathedral is a Christian church building, specifically of a denomination with an episcopal hierarchy (such as the Roman Catholic Church or the Lutheran or Anglican churches), which serves as the central church of a bishopric. ... Glasgow (or Glaschu in Gaelic) is Scotlands largest city and unitary council, situated on the River Clyde in the countrys west central lowlands. ... The Gaels are an ethnic group in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man, whose language is one that is Gaelic (Goidelic). ... The Normans (adapted from the name Northmen or Norsemen) were a mixture of the indigenous Gauls of France and the Viking invaders under the leadership of Rollo (Gange Rolf). ...


The gathering also assisted David’s ambitions against the new and weak King of the English, Stephen. Galwegian contingents are recorded in several sources as being present during the subsequent campaign, and at the defeat of David at the Battle of the Standard in 1138. We cannot know for sure if Fergus was there, but the peace treaty made between David and Stephen in 1139 stipulated that one of Fergus’ sons (certainly Uchtred) be given as a hostage. Stephen (1096 – October 25, 1154), the last Norman King of England, reigned from 1135 to 1154, when he was succeeded by his cousin Henry II, the first of the Angevin or Plantagenet Kings. ... The Battle of the Standard took place on 22 August 1138 near Northallerton in Yorkshire. ... For other uses, see number 1138. ... Events Alphonso I (Afonso Henriques) becomes first king of Portugal Second Council of the Lateran Births Emperor Konoe of Japan Deaths Henry the Proud, Duke of Bavaria and Saxony Categories: 1139 ...


Fergus & Máel Coluim IV

In 1153, King David died. The personal relationship of superiority which David had enjoyed over Fergus was not meant to apply to the former’s successors. David was succeeded by the boy-king, Máel Coluim IV. Yet Fergus initially seems to have had a good relationship with the new King. In 1156, Fergus captured and handed over Máel Coluim’s rival Domnall mac Maíl Coluim, the Macheth pretender to the Kingdom of the Scots. Events January 6 - Henry of Anjou arrives in England. ... Malcolm IV (c. ... Events Establishment of the Carmelite Order Hogen Rebellion in Japan January 20 - According to legend, freeholder Lalli slays English crusader Bishop Henry with an axe on the ice of the lake Köyliönjärvi in Finland. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Scots (ethnic group). ...


Still, by the end of the decade Fergus and King Máel Coluim were not friends. In 1157, the boy-king’s position in southern Scotland was weakened, when he was forced by King Henry II to hand over Cumbria and Northumbria. It was probably this blow to Máel Coluim’s power that gave Fergus his chance to reassert his independence. The Chronicle of Holyrood reports that Máel Coluim led three campaigns against Fergus in 1160. The context was that Máel Coluim had been in France with his lord Henry II, and had just returned to Scotland. Many of the native Scottish magnates besieged Máel Coluim at Perth upon his return. However, Fergus was not one of them, and any connection between the so-called Revolt of the Earls and Fergus has no evidence to substantiate it. On the other hand, it is highly suggestive that this revolt occurred in exactly same year as the invasion of Galloway . Events Births September 8 - King Richard I of England (died 1199) Leopold V of Austria (died 1194) Hojo Masako, wife of Minamoto no Yoritomo (died 1225) Deaths August 21 - King Alfonso VII of Castile (born 1105) Agnes of Babenberg, daughter of Leopold III of Austria Sweyn III of Denmark Yury... Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, and as King of England (1154–1189) and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland, eastern Ireland, and western France. ... Events Erik den helige is succeeded by Karl Sverkersson. ... Perths location in Scotland Perth (Peairt in Scottish Gaelic) is a town in central Scotland. ...


Fergus and the Meic Fergusa

Fergus’ later years were mired by the squabbling of his two sons. Perhaps too, Fergus’ longevity was testing his sons’ patience. Walter Daniel reported that, in relation to the mid-1150s, Fergus was: Centuries: 11th century - 12th century - 13th century Decades: 1100s 1110s 1120s 1130s 1140s - 1150s - 1160s 1170s 1180s 1190s 1200s Years: 1150 1151 1152 1153 1154 1155 1156 1157 1158 1159 Events and Trends Peter Lombard writes his Sentences Eric the Saint, king of Sweden led the first Christian crusade to...


“… incensed against his sons, and the sons raging against the father and each other … The King of Scotland could not subdue, nor the bishop pacify their mutual hatreds, rancour and tyranny. Sons were against father, father against sons, brother against brother, daily polluting the unhappy little land with bloodshed.” (Walter Daniel, ‘‘Life of Ailred’’, 45-6; quoted in Oram, pp. 78-9)


Whether because of Gilla Brigte and Uchtred, or because of Máel Coluim’s campaigns, Fergus was forced into retirement, becoming a monk at Holyrood Abbey in 1160. He died the following year. Image:Holrodab. ...


Legend of Fergus


Fergus' descendents, when recounting their genealogy, invariably dated their lines back to Fergus. Fergus was one of the few secular Gaelic figures of the High Middle Ages to attain a legendary status in the wider world of Christendom. The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... This medieval map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ...


Roman de Fergus

Around the beginning of the 13th century, someone in Scotland composed in French an Arthurian romance dedicated to the Galwegian King. This is the so-called Roman de Fergus. The Roman de Fergus, as it happens, is the earliest piece of non-Celtic vernacular literature to emerge from Scotland. According to tradition, the author was a man called Guillaume le Clerc (William the Clerk). Certain scholars have hypothesized that it was written for the inauguration of Fergus' descendent, Alan mac Lochlainn (or perhaps more appropriately in this context, Alan fils de Roland). More recently, D.D.R. Owen, a St Andrews scholar of medieval French, has proposed that the author was William Malveisin. William was at one point a royal clerk, to King William I before becoming Bishop of Glasgow and St Andrews. The Roman gratifies Fergus' descendents by making him a Perceval-like knight of King Arthur. (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Alan FitzRoland (c. ... University of St Andrews The University of St Andrews was founded between 1410-1413 and is the oldest university in Scotland and the third oldest in the United Kingdom. ... William I (William the Lion, William Leo, William Dunkeld or William Canmore), (1142/1143 - December 4, 1214) reigned as King of Scotland from 1165 to 1214. ... Glasgow (or Glaschu in Gaelic) is Scotlands largest city and unitary council, situated on the River Clyde in the countrys west central lowlands. ... Named after Saint Andrew, the Royal Burgh of St Andrews is a coastal town in Fife, Scotland, and the home of golf. ... Percival or Perceval is one of King Arthurs legendary Knights of the Round Table. ... King Arthur is an important figure in the mythology of Great Britain, where he appears as the ideal of kingship in both war and peace. ...


The Roman circulated all over the Frankish world of northwestern Europe for centuries to come. It is a tribute to Fergus' legendary status as a monarch, and as the founding father of Galloway. Statue of Charlemagne (also called Karl der Große, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt, Germany. ... A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is the worlds second-smallest continent in terms of area, with an area of 10,600,000 km² (4,140,625 square miles), making it larger than Australia only. ...


References

  • Anderson, A.O., Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers: AD 500 to 1286, (London, 1908)
  • Guillaume le Clerc, Fergus of Galloway, tr. D.D.R. Owen, (London, 1991)
  • McDonald, R.A., Outlaws of Medieval Scotland: Challenges to the Canmore Kings, 1058-1266, (East Linton, 2003)
  • Oram, Richard, The Lordship of Galloway, (Edinburgh, 2000)
  • Owen, D.D.R., The Reign of William the Lion: Kingship and Culture, 1143-1214, (East Linton, 1997)
Preceded by:
New Creation
Lords of Galloway Succeeded by:
Uchtred of Galloway and Gilla Brigte of Galloway

  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Whithorn Priory (458 words)
The canons of Whithorn formed the chapter of the Diocese of Galloway, which was re-established about the same time, also by Fergus, the old succession of bishops having died out about 796.
The whole property of the priory was vested in the Crown by the annexation act of 1587, and was granted in 1606 by James VI to the occupant of the See of Galloway when he established Episcopalianism in Scotland in 1606.
It continued to belong to the bishopric until the revolution of 1688, at which date that see was the richest in the kingdom next to St. Andrews and Glasgow.
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