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Encyclopedia > Ferdowsi
Tomb of Ferdowsi in Tus
Tomb of Ferdowsi in Tus

Hakīm Abol-Qāsem Ferdowsī Tūsī (Persian: حکیم ابوالقاسم فردوسی توسی), more commonly transliterated as Ferdowsi, (9351020) was a highly revered Persian poet. He was the author of the Shāhnāmeh, the national epic of Persia (Iran). Categories: Iran geography stubs | Cities in Iran ... Farsi redirects here. ... Firdawsi, classical Persian poet and author of the Shahnameh Hrosvit, Latin language poet and dramatist from Saxony Categories: | ... Firdawsi Categories: | ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... Shâhnameh Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma (Persian: )(alternative spellings are Shahnama, Shahnameh, Shahname, Shah-Nama, etc. ... A national epic is an epic poem or similar work which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular nation; not necessarily a nation-state, but at least an ethnic or linguistic group with aspirations to independence or autonomy. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...

Contents

Life

Ferdowsi was born in 935 in a village near Tus, in Greater Khorasan (now part of the Iranian province Razavi Khorasan). Categories: Iran geography stubs | Cities in Iran ... Friday Mosque in Herat, Afghanistan, a city which was known in the past as the Pearl of Khorasan. ... Razavi Khorasan (in Persian: خراسان رضوی) is a province located in northeastern Iran. ...


His father was a wealthy land owner and he was a pious Muslim. [1][2]. His great epic, the Shāhnāmeh ("The Epic of Kings"), to which he devoted more than 35 years, was originally composed for presentation to the Samanid princes of Khorasan, who were the chief instigators of the revival of Iranian cultural traditions after the Arab conquest of the seventh century. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Shâhnameh Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma (Persian: )(alternative spellings are Shahnama, Shahnameh, Shahname, Shah-Nama, etc. ... The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ...

Front facade of the Ferdowsi's mausoleum in Toos. The thomb was made during the reign of Reza Shah Pahlavi by the national heritage association.
Front facade of the Ferdowsi's mausoleum in Toos. The thomb was made during the reign of Reza Shah Pahlavi by the national heritage association.

When he was just 23-years old, he found a “Shāhnāmeh” written by Abu-Mansour Almoammari; it was not, however, in poetic form. It consisted of older versions ordered by Abu-Mansour ibn Abdol-razzagh. The discovery would be a fateful moment in the life of the poet. Ferdowsi started his composition of the Shahnameh in the Samanid era in 977 A.D[3]. During Ferdowsi’s lifetime the Samanid dynasty was conquered by the Ghaznavid Empire. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (601 × 800 pixel, file size: 196 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Front facade of the mausoleum of Ferdowsi in Toos. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (601 × 800 pixel, file size: 196 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Front facade of the mausoleum of Ferdowsi in Toos. ... Shah Reza Pahlavi Reza Pahlavi (Persian: رضا پهلوی), (March 16, 1877–July 26, 1944), called Reza Shah the Great after his death, was Shah of Persia (later Iran) from December 15, 1925 to September 16, 1941. ... The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... The Samanid dynasty (819-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khuda. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ...


After 30 years of hard work, he finished the book and two or three years after that, Ferdowsi went to Ghazni, the Ghaznavid capital, to present it to the king. There are various stories in medieval texts describing the lack of interest shown by the new king, Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, in Ferdowsi and his lifework. According to historians, Mahmud had promised Ferdowsi a dinar for every distich written in the Shahnameh (60,000 dinars), but later retracted and presented him with dirhams (20,000 dirhams), which were at that time much less valuable than dinars (every 100 dirhams worth 1 dinar). Some think it was the jealousy of other poets working at the king’s court that led to this treachery; the incident encouraged Ferdowsi's enemies in the court. Ferdowsi rejected the money and, by some accounts, he gave it to a poor man who sold wine. Wandering for a time in Sistan and Mazandaran, he eventually returned to Tus, heartbroken and enraged. Ghazni (Persian: غزنی , ÄžaznÄ«) is a city in eastern Afghanistan, with an estimated population of 149,998 people. ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... Mazandaran (Persian: مازندران) is a province in northern Iran, bordering the Caspian (Mazandaran) Sea in the north. ...


He had left behind a poem for the King, stuck to the wall of the room he had worked in for all those years. It was a long and angry poem, more like a curse, and ended with the words:


"Heaven's vengeance will not forget. Shrink tyrant from my words of fire, and tremble at a poet's ire."


Ferdowsi is said to have died around 1020 in poverty at the age of 90, embittered by royal neglect, though fully confident of his work’s ultimate success and fame (clearly seen especially in last verses of his book). One tradition claims Mahmud re-sent the amount promised to Ferdowsi’s village, but when the messengers reached his house, he had died a few hours earlier. The gift was then given to his daughter, since his son had died before his father at the age of 37. However, his daughter refused to receive the sum, thus making Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh immortal. Events Hospice built in Jerusalem by Knights Hospitaller City of Saint-Germain-en-Laye founded Third Italian campaign of Henry II of Germany Canute the Great codifies the laws of England Births Harold II of England (approximate) Empress Agnes of Poitou, regent of the Holy Roman Empire (d. ...


Later the king ordered the money be used for repairing an inn in the way from Merv to Tus, named “Robat Chaheh” so that it may remain in remembrance of the poet. This inn now lies in ruins, but still exists. Merv (Russian: Мерв, from Persian: مرو, Marv, sometimes transliterated Marw or Mary; cf. ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Cities in Iran ...

Some say that Ferdowsi's daughter inherited her father's hard earned money, and she built a new and strong bridge with a beautiful stone caravanserai nearby for travellers to rest and trade and tell stories.[4]


Ferdowsi was buried at the yard of his own home, where his mausoleum now lies. It was not until Reza Shah Pahlavi's rule, in 1925, that a mausoleum was built for the great poet. St. ... Reza Shah, also Reza Shah the Great, Reza Shah Pahlavi and Reza Pahlavi (Persian: , Rez̤ā Pahlavī), (March 16, 1878 – July 26, 1944), was Shah of Iran[1] from December 15, 1925 until he was forced to abdicate after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in September 16, 1941 by British... St. ...


Ferdowsi and religion

[5] On the one hand, he was lenient as regards religion. As Nöldeke remarks, Ferdowsi remembered the religion of his forbears with respect, and, at the same time, nowhere did he show any signs of a deep Islamic faith. Indeed, to the contrary, here and there are moments in the Shahnameh which, even if they were present in his sources, should not strictly have been given currency by the pen of a committed Muslim[6]. On the other hand, however, he also showed a prejudice in favor of his own sect (i.e. Shi'ism) and, as is apparent from the exordium to the Shahnameh, considered his own sect to be the only true Islamic one. The explanation for this contradiction lies in the fact that during the first centuries of Islam, in Persia, Shi'ism went hand in hand with the national struggle in Khorasan, or very nearly so, such that the caliphate in Baghdad and its political supporters in Persia never made any serious distinction between the "Majūs" (Zoroastrians), "Zandīq" (Manicheans), "Qarmatīs" (Isma'ili Shi'ism), and "Rāfezīs" (Shias in general)[5] Theodor Nöldeke (March 2, 1836 - 1930), German Semitic scholar, was born at Harburg, and studied at Göttingen, Vienna, Leiden and Berlin. ... Friday Mosque in Herat, Afghanistan, a city which was known in the past as the Pearl of Khorasan. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... Manichaeism was one of the major ancient religions. ... The Ismaili (Arabic الإسماعيليون, Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmâiliyân) branch of Islam is the second largest Shia community, after the Twelvers who are dominant in Iran. ...


Books

Scenes from the Shāhnāmeh carved into reliefs at Tus, where Ferdowsi is buried.
Scenes from the Shāhnāmeh carved into reliefs at Tus, where Ferdowsi is buried.

His masterpiece, the Shāhnāmeh, is the most popular and influential national epics belonging to the Iranian people that at one time made up the greater Arian territories, named in Prophet Zarathustra's Gatha as Aeran Vaege, in Shahnameh as Aeran (Iran), and in Greek as Persian Empire. In this context we use "Persians" to denote what the Greeks viewed as the people of Aeran Vaege and the word Persia for all its territories. Thus the greatest achievement of Ferdowsi is to have all of the named fragments of the former Persian Empire, once again recite together "if there is no Aeran, may my body be vanquished, and in this land and nation no one remain alive, if everyone of us dies one by one, it is better than giving our country to the enemy." If there is a single document in the Persian literature that can reunite Persia and all of its nations, it is this document. Image File history File links Tus_shahnameh. ... Image File history File links Tus_shahnameh. ... Shâhnameh Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma (Persian: )(alternative spellings are Shahnama, Shahnameh, Shahname, Shah-Nama, etc. ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Cities in Iran ... Shâhnameh Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma (Persian: )(alternative spellings are Shahnama, Shahnameh, Shahname, Shah-Nama, etc. ... Iranian peoples are peoples who speak an Iranian language and/or belong to the Iranian stock. ...

The Shāhnāmeh, or the "Book of Kings," consists of the translation of an even older Pahlavi (Middle Persian) work. It has remained exceptionally popular among Persians for over a thousand years. It tells the history of old Persia before the Arab conquest of the region. This tale, all written in poetic form and in Darī Persian, starts 7,000 years ago, narrating the story of Persian kings, Persian knights, Persian system of laws, Persian Religion, Persian victories and Persian tragedies. The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Farsi redirects here. ...


Illustrations, especially those of Master Mahmoud Farshchian, are historical and use the different themes for the stories. --Shanel 00:16, 15 September 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ...


According to popular legend, Ferdowsi was commissioned by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni to write a book about his valour and conquests. However, the poet, though dedicating the book to the King for an agreed fee of 30 horses loaded with gold coins, decided to tell the story of the Kings that had made the land of Persia into an Empire throughout the ages. This task was to take the poet some thirty years or more, during which he included the verse: For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ...

... I suffered during these thirty years, but I have revived the Iranians (Ajam) with the Persian language; I shall not die since I am alive again, as I have spread the seeds of this language ...

Upon the presentation of the Shāhnāmeh, Sultan Mahmud was furious for not being the subject of the book and finally betrayed the agreement by offering Ferdowsi thirty camels loaded with Silver; the offer was refused by the poet. Heartbroken and poor the poet returned to his home town of Tus, the Sultan eventually realising his error and the true value of the Shāhnāmeh sent the agreed fee to the poet yet, upon the arrival of the camels the Ferdowsi's coffin was being carried out through the exit gate of Tus to his grave.


Influence

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Verse to Mahmud of Ghazni

Ferdowsi is one of the undisputed giants of Persian literature. After Ferdowsi's Shāhnāmeh a number of other works similar in nature surfaced over the centuries within the cultural sphere of the Persian language. Without exception, all such works were based in style and method on Ferdowsi's Shāhnāmeh, but none of them could quite achieve the same degree of fame and popularity as Ferdowsi's masterpiece. Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...


Ferdowsi has a unique place in Persian history because of the strides he made in reviving and regenerating the Persian language and cultural traditions. His works are cited as a crucial component in the persistence of the Persian language, as those works allowed much of the tongue to remain codified and intact. In this respect, Ferdowsi surpasses Nezami, Khayyam, Asadi Tusi, and other seminal Persian literary figures in his impact on Persian culture and language. Many modern Iranians see him as the father of the modern Persian language. Nezami (1141–1209) Nezāmi-ye Ganjavī (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ;‎ 1141 – 1209), or Nezāmī (Persian: ), whose full name was Nizām ad-Dīn Abū Muhammad Ilyās ibn-Yusūf ibn-Zakī ibn-Muayyid, is considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian literature, who brought a colloquial... Mohammed Zahur Khayyam, better known as Khayyam is an indian music composer whose career spanned across 4 decades (1953 - 1990). ... Abu Mansur Ali ibn Ahmad Asadi Tusi (born: Tus, Iranian province of Khorasan - died: 1072 Tabriz, Iran) is arguably the second most important Persian poet of Iranian national epics, after Ferdowsi who also happens to come from the same town of Tus. ...


According to the Encyclopedia Britannica:The Persians regard Ferdowsi as the greatest of their poets. For nearly a thousand years they have continued to read and to listen to recitations from his masterwork, the Shah-nameh, in which the Persian national epic found its final and enduring form. Though written about 1,000 years ago, this work is as intelligible to the average, modern Iranian as the King James version of the Bible is to a modern English-speaker. The language, based as the poem is on a Pahlavi original, is pure Persian with only the slightest admixture of Arabic.[7]


References

  1. ^ http://www.iranian.com/Opinion/2004/June/MK/index.html
  2. ^ http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=980CE1D9143FF933A05757C0A9609C8B63&n=Top%2FFeatures%2FBooks%2FBook%20Reviews
  3. ^ Encyclopedia Iranica, [1], Ferdowsi, Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh
  4. ^ http://www.bl.uk/learning/cult/inside/corner/ferdowsilife/lifeferdowsi.html
  5. ^ a b Ferdowsi, in Encyclopaedia Iranica
  6. ^ Nöldeke, 1920, pp. 38-39
  7. ^ "Ferdowsi." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 4 June 2007 <http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9034029>
  • E.G. Browne. Literary History of Persia. (Four volumes, 2,256 pages, and twenty-five years in the writing). 1998. ISBN 0-7007-0406-X
  • Jan Rypka, History of Iranian Literature. Reidel Publishing Company. 1968 OCLC 460598 ISBN 90-277-0143-1

Encyclopædia Iranica is a project in Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian studies, to create an English language encyclopedia about Iran and Persia. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ...

See also

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edit Persian literature series
شاهنامه فردوسی
Shahnameh of Ferdowsi
Characters: Abteen | Arash | Afrāsiāb | Akvan-e Div | Bahman | Bizhan | Div-e Sepid | Esfandiār | Fereydun |Garshasp | Goodarz | Gordāfarid | Haoma | Homa | Hushang | Īraj | Jamasp | Jamshid | Kāveh | Kai Kavoos | Kai Khosrow | Kei Qobád |Kiumars | Luarsab | Manuchehr | Manizheh | Mehrab Kaboli | Nowzar |Pashang | Rakhsh | Rohām | Rostam | Rostam Farrokhzad | Rudābeh | Salm | Sām | Shaghād | Siāmak | Siāvash | Simurgh | Sohrāb |Sudabeh | Tahmineh | Tahmuras |Tur | Zāl | Zahhāk
Places: Alborz (Hara_Berezaiti) | Irān | Māzandarān | Samangān | Turān | Zābolestān | Kābul | Birjand | Ark of Bukhara
See also: Asadi Tusi | Derafsh Kaviani | Shahnameh | Bijan and Manijeh | Daqiqi | Sadeh | Kayanian | Jaam-e Jam
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Shâhnameh Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma (Persian: )(alternative spellings are Shahnama, Shahnameh, Shahname, Shah-Nama, etc. ... A Meeting of Some Iranian Poets: (L to R) Morteza Keyvan, Ahmad Shamlou, Nima Yooshij, Siavash Kasraie, and Hushang Ebtehaj. ... Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray. ... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of... Iranistics or Iranian studies is an area of study found in most of the important universities around the world. ... This is a list of mausoleums around the world. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Shâhnameh Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma (Persian: )(alternative spellings are Shahnama, Shahnameh, Shahname, Shah-Nama, etc. ... Statue of Arash in Borujerd Âraŝ, the Archer (Persian: Ä€raÅ¡-e KamāngÄ«r) is a heroic archer of the Persian mythology. ... Afrasiab, near Samarkand, Uzbekistan is both a historical city and its legendary founder. ... Akvan, meaning Evil Mind, is a Persian div with great powers and strength. ... Bijan and Manijeh (also Bizhan and Manizheh, Persian بيژن Ùˆ منيژه) is a love story in Ferdowsis Shahnameh (Shāh-Nāmeh, The Epic of Kings). ... Esfandiar or Esfandyar (in Persian: ) is an Iranian legendary hero. ... FereydÅ«n (فریدون), also pronounced FarÄ«dÅ«n, in medieval Persian FirÄ“dÅ«n, Middle Persian FrÄ“dōn, and Avestan ΘraÄ“taona is the name of a mythical king and hero who is an emblem of victory, justice and generosity in the Persian literature. ... Garshāsp (گرشاسپ) is the name of a monster-slaying hero in Persian mythology. ... Goodarz is a character in Shahnameh. ... Gurdāfarǐd (Persian: ) is one of the heroines in Shahnama (The Book of Kings or The Epic of Kings), an enormous poetic opus written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi around 1000 AD. She was a champion who fought against Sohrab (another Iranian hero who was the commander of Turanian... Haoma is the Avestan language name of a plant and its divinity, both of which play a role in Zoroastrian doctrine and in later Persian culture and mythology. ... Statues of two head Homa in Persepolis ruins, Iran A relief of Armenian tribute bearer carrying a metal vessel with Homa (griffin) handles. ... Hushang (in Persian: ), older Persian Hōšang, was the second Shāh to rule the world according to Ferdowsis Shāhnāma. ... Iraj (Persian: ) is a character in Persian epic Shahnameh. ... Jamshid (in Persian: ‎) is a common Persian male first name. ... Statue of Kaveh in Isfahan My name is Kaveh, I am a Persian-American and live in San Diego. ... Kai Kavoos is a character in Persian epic Shahnameh. ... Kai Khosrow is a character in Persian epic book, Shahnameh. ... Keyumars (کیومرث), Arabic transliteration KayÅ«marṯ, older Persian Kayōmart, was the first Shāh of the world according to the poet FirdausÄ«s Shāhnāma. ... ManÅ«chehr (in Persian: ), older Persian Manōčihr, Avestan Manuščiθra, is the name of the first of the legendary Shāhs who ruled Iran after the breakup of the world empire of ManÅ«chehrs great-grandfather, FereydÅ«n. ... Bijan and Manijeh is a classical love story in the Persian literature epic of Shahnameh. ... Poshng, King of Turan, was according to Ferusis epic the Shahnama, of the race of Tur (called his sire) and the father of Afrasiab. ... Rakhsh (in Persian: meaning luminous) is the stallion of main protagonist Rostam in the Persian national epic, Shahnameh of Ferdowsi. ... Roham or (Rohum,Rohaam) ( رﻭهام in Persian, means the guardian ) is a hero in Ferdosis Shahnama, He is son of Goodarz ( گودرز in Persian ) who defeated Baarmaan( بارمان in Persian ) in the battle of Davazdahrokh ( دوازده رخ in Persian ). He is from the city of Ardebil. ... Rostam Slaying the Dragon- A miniature Painting by Master Mahmoud Farshchian. ... Rostam Farrōkhzād (رستم فرّخزاد in Persian) was the commander of the Sāsānian Empires armed forced under the reign of Yazdgird III, r. ... Rudaba or Roodabeh (رودابه in Persia) was Daughter of Mehrab Kaboli. ... Salm is a character is Persian epic Shahnameh. ... Saam (سام) is a mythical hero of ancient Persia, and an important character in the Shahnameh epic. ... Shaghad was the brother of Rostam, the mighty Iranian hero of the Shahnameh, who killed Rostam by dropping him into a hole full of swords or other sharp things. ... Siāmak (Persian: ‎ , IPA: ), also transcribed as Siyamak, is a Persian given name, and a character (Kiumars son) in the Shahnameh. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Siavash. ... Sassanid silk twill textile of a Simorgh in a beaded surround, 6-7th c. ... For other uses, see Sohrab (disambiguation). ... Tahmineh is one of female characters of the epic of Shahnameh. ... Tahmuras or Tahmures (Persian: ), New Persian transliteration , older Persian Tahmurat, is the third Shāh of the world according to Ferdowsis Shāhnāma. ... Tur is a character in the Persian epic Shahnameh. ... ZÃ¥l (زال in Persian) was a mythical warrior of ancient Iran. ... Zahak, Zahhak, Zahak-e Tāzi or (Arab Zahak) also knwon as Bivar-Asp, which means [he who has] 10,000 horses in the Pahlavi (middle Persian) language, and Avestan Āži-Dahāk) is a mythical figure of ancient Persia (Iran). ... Here are the list of places represented/mentioned in the Persian epic poem Shāhnāma by Ferdowsi: This literature-related list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Harā BÉ™rÉ™zaitÄ« is the name given in the Avestan language to a legendary mountain or mountain range around which the world is structured. ... Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Unification  -  Unified by Cyrus the Great 559 BCE   -  Parthian (Arsacid) dynastic empire (first reunification) 248 BCE-224 CE   -  Sassanid dynastic empire 224–651 CE   -  Safavid dynasty... Mazandaran (Persian: مازندران) is a province in northern Iran, bordering the Caspian (Mazandaran) Sea in the north. ... Samangan (Persian: سمنگان) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... For other uses, see Turan (disambiguation). ... Zabulistan (Persian: ) or Zabolestan is a historical region in the border area of todays Iran and Afghanistan, around the city Zabol. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Birjand (Persian: Storm city) is the capital of South Khorasan province (formerly a subprovince named Birjand or Quhestan, a part of Khorasan province) in the east Iran, known for its saffron, barberry, rug and handmade carpet exports. ... Entrance to the Ark fortress. ... Abu Mansur Ali ibn Ahmad Asadi Tusi (born: Tus, Iranian province of Khorasan - died: 1072 Tabriz, Iran) is arguably the second most important Persian poet of Iranian national epics, after Ferdowsi who also happens to come from the same town of Tus. ... The Derafsh-e Kavian (DerafÅ¡-e Kāvīān, Middle Persian) was the legendary royal standard of the Sassanid kings. ... Shâhnameh Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma (Persian: )(alternative spellings are Shahnama, Shahnameh, Shahname, Shah-Nama, etc. ... Bijan and Manijeh (also Bizhan and Manizheh, Persian بيژن Ùˆ منيژه) is a love story in Ferdowsis Shahnameh (Shāh-Nāmeh, The Epic of Kings). ... Abu Mansur Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Daqiqi Balkhi (935/942-976/980[1]), (in Persian: ) sometimes referred to as Daqiqi (also Dakiki, Daghighi, Persian: دقیقی), was an early Persian (TājÄ«k) poet from Balkh[2], currently one of the cities of Afghanistan. ... Sadeh is an ancient Iranian tradition celebrated 50 days before nowrouz. ... The Cup of Jamshid (Cup of Djemscheed or Jaam-e Jam, in Persian: جام جم) is a cup of divination which, according to legend, was long possessed by the rulers of ancient Persia. ... Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... The Denkard is the largest encyclopedia of Zoroastrianism written in 9th century. ... The Jamasp Nameh (var: Jāmāsp Nāmag, Jāmāsp Nāmeh, Story of Jamasp) is a Middle Persian book of revelations. ... The Book of Arda Viraf is a Zoroastrian religious text which describes the dream-journey of a devout Zoroastrian through the next world. ... The Kârnâmag î Ardashîr î Babagân or Book of the Deeds of Ardashir, Son of Babag, is a mythological Persian Phalavi tale written sometime during the Sassanid dynasty. ... Category: ... Category: ... The Pazend or Pazand is one of the writing systems used for the Middle Persian language. ... Rudaki depicted as a blind poet, here on this Iranian stamp. ... Abu Mansur Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Daqiqi Balkhi (935/942-976/980[1]), (in Persian: ) sometimes referred to as Daqiqi (also Dakiki, Daghighi, Persian: دقیقی), was an early Persian (TājÄ«k) poet from Balkh[2], currently one of the cities of Afghanistan. ... Shâhnameh Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma (Persian: )(alternative spellings are Shahnama, Shahnameh, Shahname, Shah-Nama, etc. ... Abu Shakur Balkhi (b. ... Rabea Balkhi (Persian: ), also called as Rabiah bint Kaab Quzdari or Ghozdary (in Persian: رابعه قزداري) , or just as Rabeah was most likely the first poetess in the History of Persian Poetry. ... Abusaeid Abolkheyr(966-1046) (In Persian ابوسعید ابوالخیر هجری قمری 440-357) also known as Sheikh Abusaeid , was a famous Persian Sufi who contributed extensively to the evolution of Sufi thought. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... Baba Tahirs Mausoleum Baba Tahir was a Persian poet who lived in the 11th century. ... Abul Qasim Hasan Unsuri (d. ... Abu Nazar Abdul Aziz ibn Mansur Asjadi was a 10-11th century royal poet of Ghaznavid Persia. ... Abul Hasan Abu Ishaq Kisai Marvazi was a 10th century poet of Persia. ... Ayyuqi was a 10th century poet of Persia. ... 20th century Artistic rendition of Nasir Khusraw from the USSR Abu Mo’in Hamid ad-Din Nasir ibn Khusraw al-Qubadiani or Nasir Khusraw Qubadyani [also spelled Khusrow] (1004 - 1088 CE) (Persian: ) was a Persian poet, philosopher, Ismaili scholar and a traveler. ... Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-GhazzālÄ« (1058-1111) (Persian: ), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). ... Abu Ismaïl Abdullah ibn Abi-Mansour Mohammad or Khwajah Abdullah Ansari (1006-1088) (Persian: خوجه عبدالله انصاری) was a famous Persian poet and Sufi. ... Abu Mansur Qatran Adudi ( 1009 - 1072) was a royal Persian poet. ... Abu Ali al-Hasan al-Tusi Nizam al-Mulk (نظام الملك، ابو علي الحسن الطوسي in Arabic; 1018 - 14 October 1092) was a celebrated Persian vizier of the Seljuk Turks. ... Masud-i Sad-i Salmān was an 11th century Persian poet of Ghaznavid empire. ... For other people, places or with similar names of Khayam, see Khayyam (disambiguation). ... Fakhruddin Asad Gurgani (in Persian: ) was an 11th century poet of Persia (Iran). ... Data Durbar, Hujwiris shrine in Lahore, Pakistan Abul Hassan Ali Ibn Usman al-Jullabi al-Hajweri al-Ghaznawi or Abul Hassan Ali Hajweri (Arabic: علی بن عثمان الجلابی الهجویری الغزنوی ) (sometimes spelled Hujwiri), also known as Data Ganj Bakhsh (Persian/Urdu: داتا گنج بخش ) or Data Sahib, was a Persian Sufi and scholar during the 11th century. ... Abu Najm Abu Ahmad ibn Qaus Manuchehri (Persian: منوچهری) was a royal poet of the 11th century in Persia. ... Ayn-al-Quzāt HamadānÄ« (1098–1131), Persian: , was a Persian jurisconsult, mystic, philosopher and mathematician who was executed at the age of 33. ... Shahab al-Din Yahya as-Suhrawardi (from the Arabicشهاب الدين يحيى سهروردى, also known as Sohrevardi) (born 1153 in North-West-Iran; died 1191 in Aleppo) was a persian philosopher and Sufi, founder of School of Illumination, one of the most important islamic doctrine in Philosophy. ... Uthman Mukhtari was an 11th and 12th century poet of Ghaznavid Persia. ... Abul Faraj Runi was an 11th century poet of Persia. ... Shihabuddin Sharaful-udaba Sabir known as Adib Sabir was a 12th century royal poet of Persia. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Amir Abdollah Muhammad Muizzi (also written Muezzi) was an 11th century and 12th century poet of Persia. ... Shihabuddin Amaq (d. ... Farid al-Din Attar (b. ... Khaqani (1120-1190) (Persian: خاقانی) was a Persian poet. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Nezami (1141–1209) Nezāmi-ye GanjavÄ« (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ;‎ 1141 – 1209), or NezāmÄ« (Persian: ), whose full name was Nizām ad-DÄ«n AbÅ« Muhammad Ilyās ibn-YusÅ«f ibn-ZakÄ« ibn-Muayyid, is considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian literature, who brought a colloquial... Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (1149–1209) was a well-known Persian theologian and philosopher from Ray. ... For the missionary, see Shams Tabraiz (missionary). ... For other uses, see Muhammad Nasir-al-din. ... Mahsati Ganjavi was a 12th century Persian-language poetess. ... Mahmud Shabistari is one of the most celebrated Persian Sufi poets. ... SafÄ«na-yi Tabriz (The Vessel of Tabriz or The Treasury of Tabriz, Persian: ) is an important encyclopedic manuscript from 14th century Ilkhanid Iran compiled by Abul Majd Muhammad b. ... Abul Hasan YamÄ«n al-DÄ«n Khusrow (Persian: , Devanagari: अबुल हसन यमीनुददीन ख़ुसरो) (1253-1325 CE), better known as AmÄ«r Khusrow DehlawÄ«, was the greatest Persian-writing poet of medieval India one of the iconic figures in the cultural history of the Indian subcontinent. ... Sheikh Sa‘di (in Persian: , full name in English: Muslih-ud-Din Mushrif-ibn-Abdullah) (1184 - 1283/1291?) is one of the major Persian poets of the medieval period. ... Bostan (pronounced Bustān) is a book of combined poetry and prose by Perisan writer and legend Saadi, completed in 1257CE. It is the first work of Sadi, and its title means the fruit orchard. ... Gulestan is a landmark literary work in Persian literature. ... Bahram-e-Pazhdo (Bahram the son of Pazhdo) was a Persian poet of the 13th century and was the father of Zartosht-e-Bahram (mid 13th century). ... Zartosht Bahram e Pazhdo, was a Persian Zoroastrian poet and the son of Bahram-e-Pazhdo. ... Rumi redirects here. ... Homam-e Tabrizi (Persian: همام تبریزی) or Homamiddin ibni Ala-e Tabrizi was an Iranian poet. ... Khwaju Kermani (1280-1352) was a famous poet and Sufi mystic from Persia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Shah Nur ad-Din Nimatullah Vali. ... Hafez, detail of an illumination in a Persian manuscript of the Divan of Hafez, 18th century. ... Fazlallah Astarabadi was the founder of the Hurufi movement. ... Imadeddin Nasimi (1369-1417) was born in Shamakhy, Azerbaijan. ... Illustration from Jamis Rose Garden of the Pious, dated 1553. ... Fuzûlî (1483?–1556) Fuzûlî (فضولی) was the pen name (Ottoman Turkish: mahlas; ﻡﺨﻠﺺ) of the poet Muhammad ibn Suleyman (محمد بن سليمان) (c. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Mirza Abdol-Qader Bidel Dehlavi (in Persian: ابوالمعالي ميرزا عبدالقادر بيدل دهلوي) was a Persian poet and arguably the greatest Persian poet of the land of India. ... Ahmad Kasravi Tabrizi (b. ... Mohammad TaqÄ« Bahār Mohammad-TaqÄ« Bahār (MTB) (محمد تقی بهار in Persian) (December 8, 1886 - April 22, 1951), widely known as Malek o-Å o`arā (ملک‌ الشعراء), is considered as the greatest Twentieth Century Iranian (Persian) poet and scholar, who was also a politician, journalist, professor of literature and historian. ... Sadegh (or Sadeq) Hedayat (in Persian: صادق هدایت; February 17, 1903, Tehran — 4 April 1951, Paris, France) was Irans foremost modern writer of prose fiction and short stories. ... Forough Farrokhzad Forough Farrokhzad (Persian: فروغ فرخزاد) (January 5, 1935 — February 13, 1967) was an Iranian poetess and film director. ... Ahmad Shamlou (Persian: ‎ ) (December 12, 1925 — July 24, 2000) was a Persian poet, writer, and journalist. ... Khalilollah Khalili on the cover of Deewaan-e Khalilullah Khalili Khalilullāh KhalÄ«lÄ« (1908-1987; Persian: ‎ ; alternative spellings: Khalilollah, Khalil Ullah) was Afghanistans foremost 20th Century poet as well as a noted historian, university professor, diplomat and royal confidant. ... Seyyed Mohammad Hossein Behjat-Tabrizi (Persian: سید محمدحسین بهجت تبریزی)‎ (1906-September 18, 1988), chiefly known by his pen name as Shahriar (or Shahryar / Shahriyar شهریار), was an Iranian Azeri poet, writing in Persian and Azerbaijani. ... Layeq Shir-Ali (born 1940)(Tajiki/Persian: Лоиқ Шералӣ/لایق شیرعلی) was a Tajik poet, Iranologist and one of the most cellebrated Persian literary figures of Tajikistan and central Asia. ... Sir Muhammad Iqbāl (Urdu/Persian: ‎ ) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938) was an Indian Muslim poet, philosopher and politician, whose poetry in Persian and Urdu is regarded as among the greatest in modern times. ... Parvin Etesami is one of Irans greatest poetesses. ... Mehdi Akhavan-Sales (also -Saless) (مهدی اخ&#امید) was a prominent Persian poet. ... Ebrahim Poordavood (February 9 1885 - November 17 1968)),(also written as pourdavoud , Poordavoud) was born in Rasht. ... Mirzadeh Eshghi was an emotional political poet. ... Allameh Tabatabaei (1892-1981) is one of the most prominent thinkers of contemporary Shia Islam. ... Dr. Javad Nurbakhsh is the present master of the Nimatullahi Sufi Order. ... Gholam Hossein Saedi (January,1935 –- November,1985) was an Iranian socialist novelist and playwright best known for the screenplay of the famous Iranian movie Gaav. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ferdowsi - definition of Ferdowsi in Encyclopedia (358 words)
Ferdowsi was born in the Iranian province of Khorasan in a village near Tus, in 935.
During Ferdowsi's lifetime this dynasty was conquered by the Ghaznavid Empire, and there are various stories in medieval texts describing the lack of interest shown by the new ruler of Khorasan, Sultan Mahmud of Ghaznavid, in Ferdowsi and his lifework.
Ferdowsi is one of the undisputed giants of Persian literature.
Shahnameh - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1566 words)
Ferdowsi's epic is probably based mainly on an earlier prose version which itself was a compilation of old Iranian stories and historical facts and fables.
Ferdowsi did not expect his reader to pass over historical events indifferently, but asked him to think carefully, to see the grounds for the rise and fall of individuals and nations; and to learn from the past in order to improve the present, and to better shape the future.
The singular message that the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi strives to convey is the idea that the history of Iranzamin was a complete and immutable whole: it started with Gayumarth, the first man, and ended with his fiftieth scion and successor, Yazdegerd III, six thousand years of history of Iran.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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