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Encyclopedia > Ferdinand Marcos
His Excellency
 Ferdinand Edralin Marcos

Official Malacañang Portrait of Marcos since 1986 Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Official portrait of Philippine president Ferdinand Marcos. ...


10th President of the Philippines
6th President of the 3rd Republic
1st President of the 4th Republic
In office
December 30, 1966 – February 25, 1986
Vice President(s) Fernando Lopez (1965-1972)
Arturo Tolentino (1986)
Preceded by Diosdado Macapagal
Succeeded by Corazon Aquino

In office
June 12, 1978 – June 30, 1981
Succeeded by Cesar Virata

Assemblyman
In office
June 12, 1978 – June 30, 1981

Born September 11, 1917(1917-09-11)
Flag of the Philippines Sarrat, Ilocos Norte, Philippines
Died September 28, 1989 (aged 72)
Flag of the United States Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
Political party Liberal Party (1946-1965)
Nacionalista Party (1965-1978)
Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (1978-1986)
Spouse Imelda Romualdez
Religion Roman Catholic (formerly Aglipayan)
Signature Ferdinand Marcos's signature

Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralín Marcos (September 11, 1917September 28, 1989) was President of the Philippines from 1966 to 1986. He was a lawyer, member of the Philippine House of Representatives (1949-1959) and a member of the Philippine Senate (1959-1965). During World War II he was the leader of the so-called "Ang Maharlika" guerilla force in northern Luzon. In 1963 he became Senate President. As Philippine president and strongman, his greatest achievement was in the fields of infrastructure development and international diplomacy. However, his administration was marred by massive government corruption, despotism, nepotism, political repression and human rights violations. In 1986 he was removed from power by a massive show of People Power after it was revealed he had invested hundreds of millions of dollars in the United States. The President of the Philippines is the head of state and government of the Republic of the Philippines. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Fernando Lopez (April 13, 1904—May 26, 1993) was a Filipino statesman and a Nacionalista. ... Arturo M. Tolentino Arturo M. Tolentino (September 19, 1910 – August 2, 2004) was a prominent political figure in the Philippines. ... For the airport, see Diosdado Macapagal International Airport For the boulevard in Metro Manila, see Diosdado Macapagal Boulevard Diosdado Pangan Macapagal (September 28, 1910 – April 21, 1997) was a Filipino politician who served as the 9th President of the Philippines. ... Maria Corazon Sumulong Cojuangco Aquino (born January 25, 1933), widely known as Cory Aquino, was President of the Philippines from 1986 to 1992. ... The Prime Minister of the Philippines was the official position of the head of the government of the Philippines. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Former Philippine Prime Minister Cesar E.A. Virata Cesar Emilio Aguinaldo Virata (b. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Sarrat is a 4th class municipality in the province of Ilocos Norte, Philippines. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Ilocos Norte Region: Ilocos Region (Region I) Capital: Laoag City Founded: — Population: 2000 census—514,241 (48th largest) Density—151 per km² (27th lowest) Area: 3,399. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For the city and county of Honolulu, see City & County of Honolulu. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Liberal Party (Filipino: Partido Liberal) is a liberal party in the Philippines, founded in 1945 by a breakaway from the Nacionalista Party. ... The Nacionalista Party is the oldest political party in the Philippines today responsible for leading the country throughout the majority of the 20th century since 1907. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Other countries Politics Portal      The Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (New Society Movement) is a political party in the... Imelda Trinidad Romuáldez-Marcos (born July 2, 1929 in Manila) is a former First Lady and influential political figure in the Philippines. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Marcos_Sig. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... The President of the Philippines is the head of state and government of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Map of the Philippines showing the island groups of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Look up nepotism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The EDSA Revolution, also referred to as the People Power Revolution and the Philippine Revolution of 1986, was a mostly nonviolent mass demonstration in the Philippines. ...

Contents

Early life

Marcos was born on September 11, 1917 in Sarrat, a small town in Ilocos Norte. Named by his parents, Mariano Marcos and Josefa Edralin, after King Ferdinand of Spain, Marcos was a champion debater, boxer, swimmer and wrestler while in the University of the Philippines. is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Sarrat is a 4th class municipality in the province of Ilocos Norte, Philippines. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Ilocos Norte Region: Ilocos Region (Region I) Capital: Laoag City Founded: — Population: 2000 census—514,241 (48th largest) Density—151 per km² (27th lowest) Area: 3,399. ... Mariano Marcos was lawyer and politician in Ilocos Norte, Philippines. ... Ferdinand VII (October 14, 1784 - September 29, 1833) was King of Spain from 1813 to 1833. ... The Oblation UP Diliman, the flagship campus of the U.P. System UP Baguio UP Extension Program in Pampanga Temporary Campus UP Los Baños UP Manila This article is about the University of the Philippines System. ...


As a young law student of the University of the Philippines, Marcos was indicted and convicted of the murder of Julio Nalundasan, the man who twice defeated his father for a National Assembly seat. While in detention, he studied for and passed the bar examination with one of the highest scores in history. He appealed his conviction and argued his case before the Supreme Court of the Philippines. Impressed by his legal defense, the court unanimously acquitted him.[1] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Other countries Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the Philippines (Filipino: Kataas-taasang Hukuman ng Pilipinas) is the...


When the Second World War broke out, Marcos was called to arms in defense of the Philippines against the Japanese. He was a combat intelligence officer of the 21st Infantry division. He fought in the three-month Battle of Bataan in 1942, and was one of the victims of the Bataan Death March, a Japanese war crime in which thousands of prisoners of war were forcibly transported after being defeated. He was released later. Though he was captured once more at Fort Santiago, he escaped and joined the guerilla movements against the Japanese. He claimed to have been one of the guerilla leaders in Luzon and that his greatest exploit was the Battle of Besang Pass, though the veracity of his claims had been widely questioned. However, genuine photos taken right after the war showed Marcos with decorations on his chest: a Distinguished Service Cross, a Bronze Star and a Purple Heart [18]. Subsequent claims to other awards proved to be a point of contention among historians. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Combatants  United States  Philippines  Empire of Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright IV George M. Parker Edward P. King Vicente Lim Alfredo M. Santos Masaharu Homma Susumu Morioka Kineo Kitajima Kameichiro Nagano Strength 30,000 U.S. troops 120,000 Filipino troops 75,000 Japanese troops Casualties 10,000... Note on correct pronunciation: Filipino (Tagalog) speakers pronounce Bataan as (phonetically) Bata-An. In English, the name is rendered Baaa-Tan or Bat-tan. The Bataan Death March (also known as The Death March of Bataan) took place in the Philippines in 1942 and was later accounted as a Japanese... The front entrance of Fuerza de Santiago towering 40 metres high Fuerza de Santiago is a defence fortress built for Spanish conquistador, Miguel López de Legazpi. ... Map of the Philippines showing the island groups of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. ...


Early political career

After the end of the war and the establishment of the Republic, President Manuel A. Roxas appointed Marcos as special technical assistant. Later, Marcos ran for Representative of the 2nd district of Ilocos Norte under the Liberal Party – the administration party. During the campaign he told his constituents “Elect me a Congressman now and I pledge you an Ilocano President in 20 years.” He was elected thrice as Congressman. In 1959 he was catapulted to the Senate with the highest number of votes. He immediately became its Minority Floor Leader. In 1963, after a tumultuous rigodon in the Senate, he was elected its President despite being in the minority party Manuel Acuña Roxas (January 1, 1892 – April 15, 1948) was the first president of the independent Republic of the Philippines. ... The Liberal Party (Filipino: Partido Liberal) is a liberal party in the Philippines, founded in 1945 by a breakaway from the Nacionalista Party. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ...


President Diosdado Macapagal, who had promised not to run for reelection in 1965 to support Marcos’ candidacy for the presidency, went back on this promise, causing Marcos to resign from the Liberal Party. With the support of his wife Imelda Romualdez Marcos[2], he joined the Nacionalista Party and became its standard-bearer with Senator Fernando Lopez as his running mate. For the airport, see Diosdado Macapagal International Airport For the boulevard in Metro Manila, see Diosdado Macapagal Boulevard Diosdado Pangan Macapagal (September 28, 1910 – April 21, 1997) was a Filipino politician who served as the 9th President of the Philippines. ... Imelda Romualdez Marcos (born July 2, 1929) in Tacloban City, was the former First Lady and a political figure in the Philippines. ... The Nacionalista Party logo with party motto, Ang Bayan Higit sa Lahat (Nation, Above All). ...


Presidency

First term (1965-1969)

…The Filipino, it seems, has lost his soul, his dignity, and his courage.

We have come upon a phase of our history when ideals are only a veneer for greed and power, (in public and private affairs) when devotion to duty and dedication to a public trust are to be weighted at all times against private advantages and personal gain, and when loyalties can be traded.

…Our government is in the iron grip of venality, its treasury is barren, its resources are wasted, its civil service is slothful and indifferent, its armed forces demoralized and its councils sterile.,

We are in crisis. You know that the government treasury is empty. Only by severe self-denial will there be hope for recovery within the next year.[3]

To rally the people, he vowed to fulfill the nation’s “mandate for greatness:”

This nation can be great again. This I have said over and over. It is my articles of faith, and Divine Providence has willed that you and I can now translate this faith into deeds.[4]

In his first State of the Nation Address (SONA), President Marcos revealed his plans for economic development and good government. President Marcos wanted the immediate construction of roads, bridges and public works which includes 16,000 kilometers of feeder roads, some 30,000 lineal meters of permanent bridges, a generator with an electric power capacity of one million kilowatts (1,000,000 kW), water services to eight regions and 38 localities.


He also urged the revitalization of the Judiciary, the national defense posture and the fight against smuggling, criminality, and graft and corruption in the government.


To accomplish his goals “President Marcos mobilized the manpower and resources of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) for action to complement civilian agencies in such activities as infrastructure construction; economic planning and program execution; regional and industrial site planning and development; community development and others.”[5] The President, likewise, hired technocrats and highly educated persons to form part of the Cabinet and staff.[6]The employment of technocrats in key positions and the mobilization of the AFP for civic actions resulted in the increasing functional integration of civilian and military elites.[7] It was during his first term that the North Diversion Road (now, North Luzon Expressway) was constructed with the help of the AFP engineering construction battalion.[8] SM City Pampanga in San Fernando City, Pampanga along Exit 65-San Fernando Exit (click for larger resolution). ...


Aside from infrastructure development, the following were some of the notable achievements of the first four years of the Marcos administration:


1. Successful drive against smuggling.

In 1966, more than 100 important smugglers were arrested; in three years 1966-68 the arrests totaled 5,000. Military men involved in smuggling were forced to retire.[9]

2. Greater production of rice by promoting the cultivation of IR-8 hybrid rice. In 1968 the Philippines became self-sufficient in rice, the first time in history since the American period. In addition, the Philippines exported rice worth US$7 million.


3. Land reform was given an impetus during the first term of President Marcos. 3,739 hectares of lands in Central Luzon were distributed to the farmers.


4. In the field of foreign relations, the Philippines hosted the summit of seven heads of state (the United States, South Vietnam, South Korea, Thailand, Australia, New Zealand and the Philippines) to discuss the worsening problem in Vietnam and the containment of communism in the region.


Likewise, President Marcos initiated, together with the other four heads of state of Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore), the formation of a regional organization to combat the communist threat in the region – the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).


5. Government finances were stabilized by higher revenue collections and loans from treasury bonds, foreign lending institutions and foreign governments.


6. Peace and order substantially improved in most provinces however situations in Manila and some provinces continued to deteriorate until the imposition of martial law in 1972.


Second term (1969-1972)

In 1969, President Marcos was reelected for an unprecedented second term because of his impressive performance or, as his critics claimed, because of massive vote-buying and electoral frauds.


The second term proved to be a daunting challenge to the President: an economic crisis brought by external and internal forces; a restive and radicalized studentry demanding reforms in the educational system; rising tide of criminality and subversion by the re-organized Communist movement; and secessionism in the South.


Economic situation - Overspending in the 1969 elections led to higher inflation and the devaluation of the Philippine peso. Further, the decision of the oil-producing Arab countries to cut back oil production, in response to Western military aid to Israel in the Arab-Israeli conflict, resulted in higher fuel prices worldwide. In addition, the frequent visits of natural calamities brought havoc to infrastructures and agricultural crops and livestock. The combined external and internal economic forces led to uncontrolled increase in the prices of prime commodities. A restive studentry– The last years of the 1960s and the first two years of the 1970s witnessed the radicalization of student population. Students in various colleges and universities held massive rallies and demonstrations to express their frustrations and resentments. On January 30, 1970, demonstrators numbering about 50,000 students and laborers stormed the Malacañang Palace, burning part of the Medical building, crashing through Gate 4 with a fire truck that had been forcibly commandeered by some laborers and students...The Metropolitan Command (Metrocom) of the Philippine Constabulary (PC) repulsed them, pushing them towards Mendiola Bridge, where in an exchange of gunfire, hours later, four persons were killed and scores from both sides injured. Tear gas grenades finally dispersed the crowd. ”[10]. The event was known today as the First Quarter Storm.


Violent students protests however did not stop. In October 1970, a series of violence occurred in numerous campuses in the Greater Manila Area: “an explosion of pillboxes in at least two schools. The University of the Philippines was not spared when 18,000 students boycotted their classes to demand academic and non-academic reforms in the State University resulting in the ‘occupation’ of the office of the President of the University by student leaders. Other schools which were scenes of violent student demonstrations were San Sebastian College, University of the East, Letran College, Mapua Institute of Technology, University of Sto. Tomas and Feati University. Student demonstrators even succeeded in “occupying the office of the Secretary of Justice Vicente Abad Santos for at least seven hours.”[11] The President described the brief “communization” of the University of the Philippines and the violent demonstrations of the Left-leaning students as an “act of insurrection."


The re-emergence of the Communist movement – The re-emergence of the Communist movement and the threats it poised to the Philippine Republic may be best narrated by the Supreme Court in Lansang vs. Garcia on December 11, 1970, excerpts:

In the language of the Report on Central Luzon, submitted, on September 4, 1971, by the Senate Ad Hoc Committee of Seven – copy of which Report was filed in these cases by the petitioners herein –

“The years following 1963 saw the successive emergence in the country of several mass organizations, notably the Lapiang Manggagawa (now the Socialist Party of the Philippines) among the workers; the Malayang Samahan ng Magsasaka (MASAKA) among the peasantry; the Kabataang Makabayan (KM) among the youth/students; and the Movement for the Advancement of Nationalism (MAN) among the intellectuals/professionals. The PKP has exerted all-out effort to infiltrate, influence, and utilize these organizations in promoting its radical brand of nationalism.

Meanwhile, the Communist leaders in the Philippines had been split into two (2) groups, one of which- composed mainly of young radicals, constituting the Maoist faction – reorganized the Communist party of the Philippines early in 1969 and established a New People’s Army. This faction adheres to the Maoist concept of the “Protracted People’s War” or “War of National Liberation.”

In the year 1969, the NPA had – according to the records of the Department of National Defense – conducted raids, resorted to kidnappings and taken part in other violent incidents numbering 230, in which it inflicted 404 casualties, and in turn, suffered 243 loses. In 1970, its record of violent incidents was about the same, but the NPA casualties more than doubled.

At any rate, two (2) facts are undeniable: (a) all Communists, whether they belong to the traditional group or to the Maoist faction, believe that force and violence are indispensable to the attainment of their main and ultimate objective, and act in accordance with such belief, although they may disagree on the means to be used at a given time and in a particular place; and (b) there is a New People’s Army, other, of course, than the armed forces of the Republic and antagonistic thereto. Such New People’s army is per se proof of the existence of rebellion, especially considering that its establishment was announced publicly by the reorganized CPP. Such announcement is in the nature of a public challenge to the duly constituted authorities and may be likened to a declaration of war, sufficient to establish a war status or a condition of belligerency, even before the actual commencement of hostilities.

We entertain, therefore, no doubts about the existence of sizeable group of men who have publicly risen in arms to overthrow the government and have thus been and still are engaged in rebellion against the Government of the Philippines.[12]

The Supreme Court ruling in Lansang vs. Garcia affirmed the basis of President Marcos’ issuance of Proclamation No. 889, which suspended the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus, on August 21, 1971 following the Plaza Miranda bombing. The 1971 Plaza Miranda bombing occurred during a political campaign rally of the Liberal Party at Plaza Miranda in the district of Quiapo, Manila in the Philippines on August 21, 1971. ...


On January 7, 1972, President Marcos restored the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus throughout the country.


Not long thereafter, the country was again faced with a massive resurgence of subversive activities which President Marcos described as a conspiracy of the Radical Left (the Communists) and the Radical Right (the oligarchs) to overthrow the Republic. Bombings were intensified, targeting public and private properties and residences of prominent personalities to sow terror to the populace, as shown by the following incidents: 1970 – “A bomb exploded at the Joint US Military Advisory Group Headquarters in Quezon City [27] in January, two Catholic schools and two government buildings in Calbayog City were blasted with dynamites in December; 1971- “Oil firms in the city (Manila) were the object of bombings resulting in death to at least two persons and injuries to others. [13] 1972 – In January a grenade was hurled at the ABS-CBN tower in Quezon City; a month later the United States (US) Embassy was bombed; in March, pillbox explosives were hurled at the gate of the Malacañang Palace and an explosion resulted in a fire in the Greater Manila Terminal Food Market in Taguig, Rizal, Arca Building and a branch of the Security Bank and Trust Company in España Street were bombed; in April, the US Embassy was again bombed and hand grenades in Cabugao, Ilocos Sur were thrown resulting in 13 casualties; In May, more explosions occurred in the US Embassy; In June a time bomb exploded in the Court of Industrial Relations; In July, the Philamlife Building in Ermita, Manila was bombed; In September a bomb blast in Carriedo Street in Quiapo, Manila resulted in one death and sixty (60) injuries; the Manila City Hall was bombed injuring two telephone operators, and two time bombs exploded in the Quezon City Hall which disrupted the plenary session of the Constitutional Convention (Con Con) and proceedings in a subversive case before the Court of First Instance.


Martial law and the New Society

Proclamation of martial law

The spate of bombings and subversive activities led President Marcos to declare that ‘there is throughout the land a state of anarchy and lawlessness, chaos and disorder, turmoil and destruction of a magnitude equivalent to an actual war between the forces of our duly constituted government and the New People’s Army and their satellite organizations…and that public order and safety and security of the nation demand that immediate, swift, decisive and effective action be taken to protect and insure the peace, order and security of the country and its population and to maintain the authority of the government.Proclamation No. 1081, Proclaiming a State of Martial Law in the Philippines. On September 21, 1972 President Marcos issued Presidential Proclamation No. 1081 placing the entire country under martial law but it was announced only two days later. In proclaiming martial law, President Marcos assured the public that “the proclamation of martial law is not a military takeover”[14]and that civilian government still functions.


"Initial measures" - In his first address to the nation after issuing Proclamation No. 1081, President Marcos said that martial law has two objectives: (1) to save the republic, and (2) to “reform the social, economic and political institutions in our country.”


In accordance with the two objectives, President Marcos issued general orders and letters of instruction to that effect:


General Order No. 1 – The President proclaimed that he should govern the nation and direct the operations of the Government, including all its agencies and instrumentalities, as Commander-in-Chief of all the armed forces of the Philippines;


General Order No. 2 – The President directed the Secretary of National Defense to arrest or cause the arrest and take into his custody the individuals named in the attached list and to hold them until otherwise so ordered by the President or by his duly designated representative, as well as to arrest or cause the arrest and take into his custody and to hold them otherwise ordered released by him or by his duly authorized representative such persons who may have committed crimes described in the Order;


General Order No.3 – The President ordered that all executive departments, bureaus, offices, agencies and instrumentalities of the National Government, government owned or controlled corporations, as well all governments of all the provinces, cities, municipalities and barrios should continue to function under their present officers and employees, until otherwise ordered by the President or by his duly designated representatives. The President further ordered that the Judiciary should continue to function in accordance with its present organization and personnel, and should try and decide in accordance with existing laws all criminal and civil cases, except certain cases enumerated in the Order.


General Order No. 4 – The President ordered that a curfew be maintained and enforced throughout the Philippines from twelve o’clock midnight until four o’clock in the morning.


General Order No. 5 – All rallies, demonstrations and other forms of group actions including strikes and picketing in vital industries such as in companies engaged in manufacture or processing as well as in production or processing of essential commodities or products for exports, and in companies engaged in banking of any kind, as well as in hospitals and in schools and colleges are prohibited.


General Order No. 6 – No person shall keep, possess or carry outside of his residence any firearm unless such person is duly authorized to keep, possess or carry any such firearm.


Letter of Instruction No. 1 – The President ordered the Press Secretary and the Secretary of National Defense to take over and control or cause the taking over and control of newspapers, magazines, radio and television facilities and all other media of communications for the duration of the national emergency.


Letter of Instruction No. 2 – The President ordered the Secretary of National Defense to take over the management, control and operation of the Manila Electric Company (Meralco), the Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company (PLDT), the National Waterworks and Sewerage Authority (Nawasa), the Philippine National Railways (PNR), the Philippine Airlines, Air Manila, Filipinas Orient Airways, and other public utilities.


Letter of Instruction No. 3 – The President ordered the Secretary of National Defense to take over the possession, control, operation of all privately owned aircraft and watercraft of whatever make bearing Philippine registry and to keep such under his custody for the duration of national emergency or until otherwise ordered by the President.


Letter of Instruction No. 4 – The President ordered the Secretary of Foreign Affairs not to issue travel papers such as passports and other like documents to any citizens of the Philippines except to those who are being sent abroad in the service of the Philippines.


Letter of Instruction No. 5 – The President ordered the Secretary of Justice and all subordinate officials under him not to issue any police or immigration clearance to any citizen of the Philippines who may wish to depart for other country.


Letter of Instruction No. 6 – The President ordered the Secretary of Finance and all subordinate officials under him not to issue any tax clearance to any citizen of the Philippines who may wish to depart for other country. Pursuant to General Order No. 1, the following were arrested and detained by the military: Representatives Roque Ablan, Jr.(Ilocos Norte), Rafael Aquino (Sorsogon) and Rolando Puzon; Senators Benigno Aquino, Jr., Jose W. Diokno and Ramon Mitra; Governors Rolando Puzon (Kalinga-Apayao) and Lino Bocalan (Cavite); former Senator Francisco “Soc” Rodrigo; Con Con delegates Napoleon Rama, Enrique Voltaire Garcia, II, Teofisto Guingona, Jr., Bren Guiao, Alejandro Lichauco, Jose Nolledo, Jose Concepcion, Jr., and Jose Mari Velez; journalists Joaquin ‘Chino” Roces, Maximo Soliven, Teodoro Locsin, Sr., Amando Doronilla, Renato Constantino, and Luis Mauricio. Others arrested are as follows: Hernando Abaya, Ang Nay Quang, Luis Beltran, Jorge Bocobo, IV, Ramon Chramico, Cipriano cid, Chua Giok Su @ Bob Chua, Herminio Caloma, Romeo Dizon, Armando Eufemio, Rolando Fadul, Rolando Feleo, Jose Fuentes @ Joey, Rosalinda Galang @ Roz, Go Eng Guan, Flora Lansang, Teodosio Lansang, Guillermo Ponce de Leon, Joel Rocamora, etc. Most of the arrested were members of the opposition “sympathetic to the rebels or supporting the rebel movement” and members of the communist movement. Benigno Aquino is the name of three generations of politicians from the Philippines: Benigno Aquino Sr. ... Jose N. Nolledo is a renowned lawyer, constitutional law expert, and author in the Philippines. ... Maximo V. Soliven ( September 4, 1929 - November 24, 2006) was a prominent Filipino journalist and newspaper publisher. ...


As a result of LOI No. 1, all newspapers, television and radio stations and other means of mass media were closed and placed under military control. Some of them were later permitted to reopen but under strict censorship.[37] On September 22, 1972, the President signed Letter of Authority No.1, authorizing the Press Secretary and the Secretary of National Defense to permit the operation of Radio Philippines Network (RPN), Kanlaon Broadcasting System (KBS), and the Daily Express, “it having been established that they have not participated in a conspiracy to seize political and state power in the Philippines and to take over the government by force and violence.


On March 16, 1967, the Philippine Congress passed Resolution No. 2 calling for a Constitutional Convention to change the Constitution. Election of the delegates to the Convention were held on November 20, 1970 pursuant to Republic Act No. 6132, otherwise known as the “1970 Constitutional Convention Act.” The Constitutional Convention formally began on June 1, 1971. Former President Carlos P. Garcia, a delegate from Bohol, was elected President. Unfortunately he died on June 14, 1971 and was succeeded by another former President, Diosadado Macapagal of Pampanga. On November 30, 1972, the President issued Presidential Decree No.73 setting the date of the plebiscite on January 15, 1973 for the ratification or rejection of the proposed Constitution. On January 7, 1973, however, the President issued General Order No. 20 postponing indefinitely the plebiscite scheduled on January 15.


On January 10-15, 1973 Plebiscite, the Citizen Assemblies voted for (1) ratification of the 1973 Constitution, (2) the suspension of the convening of the Interim National Assembly, (3) the continuation of martial law, and (4) moratorium on elections for a period of at least seven years. On January 17, 1973 the President issued Proclamation No. 1102 announcing that the proposed Constitution had been ratified by an overwhelming vote of the members of the Citizen Assemblies, organized by Marcos himself through Presidential Decree No. 86


Various legal petitions were filed with the Supreme Court assailing the validity of the ratification of the 1973 Constitution. On March 30, 1973, a divided Supreme Court ruled in Javellana vs. Executive Secretary (6 SCRA 1048) that “there is no further obstacle to the new Constitution being considered in force and effect.”


The 1973 Constitution would have established in the Philippines a parliamentary government, with the President as a ceremonial head of state and a Prime Minister as the head of government. This was not implemented as a result of the referendum-plebiscite held on January 10-15, 1972 through the Citizen Assemblies whereby an overwhelming majority rejected the convening of a National Assembly. From 1972 until the convening of the Interim Batasang Pambansa in 1978, the President exercised absolute legislative power.


1976 Amendments to the Constitution

On October 16-17, 1976 majority of barangay voters (Citizen Assemblies) approved that martial law should be continued and ratified the amendments to the Constitution proposed by President Marcos.[15]


The 1976 Amendments were: an Interim Batasang Pambansa (IBP) substituting for the Interim National Assembly, the President would also become the Prime Minister and he would continue to exercise legislative powers until martial law should have been lifted. The Sixth Amendment authorized the President to legislate:

Whenever in the judgment of the President there exists a grave emergency or a threat or imminence thereof, or whenever the Interim Batasang Pambansa or the regular National Assembly fails or is unable to act adequately on any matter for any reason that in his judgment requires immediate action, he may, in order to meet the exigency, issue the necessary decrees, orders or letters of instructions, which shall form part of the law of the land.

The Batasang Bayan

Main article: Batasang Bayan

The Interim Batasang Pambansa was not immediately convened. Instead, President Marcos created the Batasang Bayan through Presidential Decree No. 995 on September 21, 1976. The Batasang Bayan is a 128-member legislature that advised the President on important legislature measures it served as the transitory legislature until convening of the Interim Batasang Pambansa in 1978[16] The Batasang Bayan was one of two temporary legislative bodies before the convening of the Regular Batasang Pambansa in 1984. Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Other countries Politics Portal      Philippine International Convention Center was were the Batasang Bayan convened on September 21... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Other countries Politics Portal      Philippine International Convention Center was were the Batasang Bayan convened on September 21... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Interim Batasang Pambansa (English: Interim National Assembly) was the legislature of the Republic of the Philippines from 1978 to 1984. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Other countries Politics Portal      The Regular Batasang Pambansa or the Second Batasan was the meeting of the... This article is about the year. ...


First national election under martial law

On April 7, 1978, the first national election under martial law was held. The election for 165- members of the Interim Batasang Pambansa resulted to the massive victory of the administration coalition party, the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan ng Nagkakaisang Nacionalista, Liberal, at iba pa” or KBL. First Lady Imelda Marcos, KBL Chairman for NCR, won the highest number of votes in Metro Manila. Only 15 opposition candidates in other parts of the country won. Among them were: Francisco Tatad (former Secretary of Public Information to Pres. Marcos), Reuben Canoy (Mindanao Alliance), Homobono Adaza (MA), and Aquilino Pimentel, Jr. None of the members of Laban ng Bayan of former Senator Benigno Aquino, Jr. were elected. The Opposition denounced the massive votebuying and cheating in that elections. The opposition Liberal Party boycotted the elections as a futile exercise. Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Human rights Other countries Politics Portal      The Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (New Society Movement) is a political party in the... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


On April 21, 1978, the election of 14 sectoral representatives (agricultural, labor, and youth) was held.


On June 12, 1978 the Interim Batasang Pambansa was convened with Ferdinand E. Marcos as President-Prime Minister and Querube Makalintal as Speaker.


1980 and 1981 amendments to the Constitution

The 1973 Constitution was further amended in 1980 and 1981. In the 1980 Amendment, the retirement age of the members of the Judiciary was extended to 70 years. In the 1981 Amendments, the parliamentary system was modified: executive power was restored to the President; direct election of the President was restored; an Executive Committee composed of the Prime Minister and not more than fourteen members was created to “assist the President in the exercise of his powers and functions and in the performance of his duties as he may prescribe;” and the Prime Minister was a mere head of the Cabinet. Further, the amendments instituted electoral reforms and provided that a natural born citizen of the Philippines who has lost his citizenship may be a transferee of private land for use by him as his residence.


Lifting of martial law

After putting in force amendments to the Constitution and legislations securing his sweeping powers and with the Batasan under his control, President Marcos lifted martial law on January 17, 1981. However, the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus continued in the autonomous regions of Western Mindanao and Central Mindanao. The Opposition dubbed the lifting of martial law as a mere "face lifting" as a precondition to the visit of Pope John Paul II. Zamboanga Peninsula is both a peninsula and an administrative region on that peninsula in the Philippines. ... Central Mindanao was a region of the Philippines, located in central Mindanao, and was officially designated as Region XII. Prior to the creation of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, these provinces comprised the region: Lanao del Norte Lanao del Sur Maguindanao North Cotabato Sultan Kudarat With the creation of... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of...


1981 presidential election and the Fourth Republic

On June 16, 1981, six months after the lifting of martial law, the first presidential election in twelve years was held. As to be expected, President Marcos ran and won a massive victory over the other candidates – Alejo Santos of the Nacionalista Party (Roy Wing) and Cebu Assemblyman Bartolome Cabangbang of the Federal Party. The major opposition parties, Unido (United Democratic Opposition, a coalition of opposition parties, headed by Salvador Laurel) and Laban, boycotted the elections.


In an almost one-sided election, President Marcos won an overwhelming 88% of the votes, the highest in Philippine electoral history. The Nacionalista candidate Alejo Santos garnered only 8.6% of the votes and Cabangbang obtained less than 3%. Alejo Santos (July 11, 1911 — February 18, 1984) was a Filipino soldier and World War II hero who parlayed his fame into a political career. ...


On June 30, 1981, President Marcos was inaugurated in grandiose ceremonies and proclaimed the “birth of a new Republic.” The new Republic lasted only for less than five years. Economic and political crises led to its demise.


The Aquino assassination

The Manila Bulletin headline, August 22, 1983.
The Manila Bulletin headline, August 22, 1983.

After seven years of detention, President Marcos allowed former Senator Benigno S. Aquino, Jr. to leave the country for a coronary by-pass operation in the United States. Aquino agreed to the President’s request that he would not make any statements criticizing the Marcos regime. Before he left, Aquino told the First Lady: “I would like to express my profoundest gratitude for your concern …In the past, I’ve been most critical of the First Lady’s project… I take back all my harsh words – hoping I do not choke.” Image File history File links Download high resolution version (417x674, 81 KB)The headline that shocked the nation! File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (417x674, 81 KB)The headline that shocked the nation! File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Manila Bulletin, bills itself as The Nations Leading Newspaper in the Philippines. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


However, Aquino broke his promise and called on President Marcos to return the Philippines to democracy and end martial rule. He urged reconciliation between the government and opposition.


After three years of exile in the United States, Aquino decided to return. The First Lady tried to dissuade him but in vain.


On August 21, 1983, former Senator Aquino returned to the Philippines. He was shot dead at the tarmac of the Manila International Airport while in the custody of the Aviation Security Command (AVSECOM). The assassination stunned the whole nation, if not, the whole world. is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ...


In a mass show of sympathy and awe, about two million people attended the funeral of the late senator from Sto. Domingo Church to Manila Memorial Park.


Meanwhile, President Marcos immediately created a fact-finding commission, headed by Supreme Court Chief Justice Enrique Fernando, to investigate the Aquino assassination. However, the commission lasted only in two sittings due to intense public criticism. President Marcos issued on October 14, 1983, Presidential Decree No. 1886 creating an independent board of inquiry. The board was composed of former Court of Appeals Justice Ma. Corazon J. Agrava as chairman, Amando Dizon, Luciano Salazar, Dante Santos and Ernesto Herrera.


The Agrava Fact-Finding Board convened on November 3, 1983. But, before it could start its work. President Marcos charged the communists for the killing of Senator Aquino: “The decision to eliminate the former Senator, Marcos claimed, was made by none other than the general-secretary of the Philippine Communist Party, Rodolfo Salas. He was referring to his earlier claim that Aquino had befriended and subsequently betrayed his communist comrades. “ The Agrava Board conducted public hearings, and invited several persons who might shed light on the crimes, including AFP Chief of Staff Fabian Ver and First Lady Imelda R. Marcos.


After a year of thorough investigation – with 20,000 pages of testimony given by 193 witnesses, the Agrava Board submitted two reports to President Marcos – the Majority and Minority Reports. The Minority Report, submitted by Chairman Agrava alone, was submitted on October 23, 1984. It confirmed that the Aquino assassination was a military conspiracy but it cleared Gen. Ver. Many believed that President Marcos intimidated and pressured the members of the Board to persuade them not to indict Ver, Marcos’ first cousin and most trusted general. Excluding Chairman Agrava, the majority of the board submitted a separate report – the Majority Report – indicting several members of the Armed Forces including AFP Chief-of-Staff Gen. Fabian Ver, Gen. Luther Custodio and Gen. Prospero Olivas, head of AVSECOM.


Later, the 25 military personnel, including several generals and colonels, and one civilian were charged for the murder of Senator Aquino. President Marcos relieved Ver as AFP Chief and appointed his second-cousin, Gen. Fidel V. Ramos as acting AFP Chief. After a brief trial, the Sandiganbayan acquitted all the accused on December 2, 1985. Immediately after the decision, Marcos re-instated Ver. The Sandiganbayan ruling and the reinstatement of Ver were denounced by several sectors as a “mockery” of justice. PRESIDENT OF THE PHILIPPINES Fidel V. Ramos Fidel Valdez Ramos (born March 18, 1928), military hero of the 1986 People Power Revolution that toppled the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos, became the 12th President of the Republic of the Philippines on June 30, 1992. ...


The failed impeachment attempt

On August 13, 1985, fifty-six Assemblymen signed a resolution calling for the impeachment of President Marcos for graft and corruption, culpable violation of the Constitution, gross violation of his oath of office and other high crimes.


They cited the San Jose Mercury News exposé of the Marcoses’ multi-million dollar investment and property holdings in the United States. The properties allegedly amassed by the First Family were the Crown Building, Lindenmere Estate, and a number of residential apartments (in New Jersey and New York), a shopping center in New York, mansions (in London, Rome and Honolulu), the Helen Knudsen Estate in Hawaii and three condominiums in San Francisco, California.


The Assemblymen also included in the complaint the misuse and misapplication of funds “for the construction of the Film Center, where X-rated and pornographic films are exhibited, contrary to public morals and Filipino customs and traditions.”


The following day, the Committee on Justice, Human Rights and Good Government dismissed the impeachment complain for being insufficient in form and substance:

The resolution is no more than a hodge-podge of unsupported conclusions, distortion of law, exacerbated by ultra partisan considerations. It does not allege ultimate facts constituting an impeachable offense under the Constitution. In sum, the Committee finds that the complaint is not sufficient in form and substance to warrant its further consideration. It is not sufficient in form because the verification made by the affiants that the allegations in the resolution “are true and correct of our own knowledge” is transparently false. It taxes the ken of men to believe that the affiants individually could swear to the truth of allegations, relative to the transactions that allegedly transpired in foreign countries given the barrier of geography and the restrictions of their laws. More important, the resolution cannot be sufficient in substance because its careful assay shows that it is a mere charade of conclusions.

Cabinet and judicial appointments 1965-73

The Cabinet appointments of President Marcos can be divided into three periods: his first two constitutional terms (1965-1973), the New Society appointments from 1973-1978, and the change from departments to ministries from 1978 to the end of his government.

OFFICE NAME TERM
President Ferdinand E. Marcos 1965–1973
Vice-President Fernando Lopez 1965–1972
Secretary of Foreign Affairs Carlos P. Romulo
Secretary of Finance Eduardo Romualdez
Secretary of Justice Juan Ponce Enrile
Secretary of Agriculture and Natural Resources Fernando Lopez
Secretary of Public Works and Communications Manuel Syquio (acting)
Secretary of Education Onofre Corpuz
Secretary of Labor Blas Ople
Secretary of National Defense Ernesto Mata
Secretary of Health Amadeo Cruz
Secretary of Commerce and Industry Leonides Virata
Executive Secretary Rafael M. Salas
Secretary of General Services Salih Ututalum
Secretary of Social Welfare Gregorio Feliciano
Administrator of the Office of Economic Coordination Constancio Castañeda
Press Secretary Francisco Tatad
Chairman of the National Economic Council Marcelo Balatbat
Commissioner of the Budget Ernesto Mata
Commissioner on National Integration Mama Sinsuat
President, Presidential Arm on Community Development Ernesto Maceda
Governor, Land Authority Conrado Estrella
Presidential Anti-Crime Coordinator Alejo Santos
Director-General, Presidential Economic Staff Placido Mapa, Jr.
Chairman, Board of Investments Cesar Virata
Presidential Assistant on National Minorities Manuel Elizalde, Jr.
Commissioner of Civil Service Abelardo Subido

Marcos had a vision of a "Bagong Lipunan (New Society)"—similar to the "New Order" that was imposed in Indonesia under dictator Suharto. He used the martial law years to implement this vision. According to Marcos' book, "Notes on the New Society", it was a movement urging the poor and the privileged to work as one for the common goals of society, and to achieve the liberation of the Filipino people through self-realization. Marcos confiscated businesses owned by the oligarchy. More often than not, they were taken over by Marcos' family members and close personal friends, who used them as fronts to launder proceeds from institutionalized graft and corruption in the different national governmental agencies. In the end, some of Marcos' cronies used them as 'cash cows'. "Crony capitalism" was the term used to describe this phenomenon. This phenomenon was intended to have genuinely nationalistic motives by redistributing monopolies that were traditionally owned by Chinese and Mestizo oligarchs to Filipino businessmen. In practice, it led to graft and corruption via bribery, racketeering, and embezzlement. By waging an ideological war against the oligarchy, Marcos gained the support of the masses. Marcos also silenced the free press, making the state press the only legal one. He also seized privately owned lands and distributed them to farmers. By doing this, Marcos abolished the old oligarchy, only to create a new one in its place. Marcos, now free from day-to-day governance (which was left mostly to Enrile), also used his power to settle old scores against old rivals, such as the Lopezes, who were always opposed to the Marcos administration. Leading oppositionists such as Senators Benigno Aquino, Jr., Jose Diokno, Jovito Salonga and many others were imprisoned for months or years. This practice considerably alienated the support of the old social and economic elite and the media who criticized the Marcos administration endlessly. The President of the Philippines is the head of state and government of the Republic of the Philippines. ... The Vice President of the Philippines is the second highest executive official of the Philippine government. ... This article is about a journal. ... Carlos P. Rómulo (b. ... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General or Attorney-General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... Juan Ponce Enrile (born February 14, 1924) is a political figure in the Philippines. ... Fernando Lopez (April 13, 1904—May 26, 1993) was a Filipino statesman and a Nacionalista. ... ... The United States Secretary of Labor is the head of the United States Department of Labor. ... Blas F. Ople (February 3, 1927 – December 14, 2003) was a Filipino political figure. ... A large number of international organizations and other bodies use the title secretary general or secretary-general for their chief administrative officer. ... Rafael M. Salas, First head of the United Nations Population Fund from its inception in 1969 up to his death in 1987 (UNFPA). ... A press secretary is a senior advisor (usually to a politician) who provides advice on how to deal with the media and, using news management techniques, helps them to maintain a positive public image and avoid negative media coverage. ... Tatad. ... Alejo Santos (July 11, 1911 — February 18, 1984) was a Filipino soldier and World War II hero who parlayed his fame into a political career. ... Former Philippine Prime Minister Cesar E.A. Virata Cesar Emilio Aguinaldo Virata (b. ... The Roman civil service in action. ... Suharto GCB (born June 8, 1921) is a former Indonesian military and political leader. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military powers). ... Bribery is a crime implying a sum or gift given alters the behaviour of the person in ways not consistent with the duties of that person. ... Organized crime is crime carried out systematically by formal criminal organizations. ... Juan Ponce Enrile (born February 14, 1924) is a political figure in the Philippines. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Jovito R. Salonga also known as Ka Jovy Born poor in a remote barrio in Pasig, Rizal on June 22, 1920. ...


The declaration of martial law was initially very well received, given the social turmoil the Philippines was experiencing. The rest of the world was surprised at how the Filipinos accepted his self-imposed dictatorship. Soon after Marcos declared martial law, one American high-ranking official described the Philippines as a country composed "of 40 million cowards and one son of a bitch", otherwise, he reasoned they should have risen against the destroyer of their freedom.[17] Crime rates plunged dramatically after dusk curfews were implemented. The country would enjoy economic prosperity throughout the 1970s in the midst of growing dissent to his strong-willed rule towards the end of martial law. Political opponents were given the opportunity or forced to go into exile. As a result, thousands migrated to other countries, like the U.S. and Canada. Public dissent on the streets was not tolerated and leaders of such protests were promptly arrested, detained, tortured, or never heard from again. Communist leaders, as well as sympathizers, were forced to flee from the cities to the countrysides, where they multiplied. Lim Seng, a feared drug lord, was arrested and executed in Luneta in 1972. As martial law dragged on for the next nine years, human rights violations went unchecked, and graft and corruption by the military and the administration became widespread, as made manifest by the Rolex 12. Rolex 12 is the collective name of twelve of the closest and most powerful advisers of President Ferdinand Marcos during the martial law years in the Philippines from 1972 to 1981. ...


Over the years, Marcos' hand was strengthened by the support of the armed forces, whose size he tripled, to 230,000 troops, after declaring martial law in 1972. The forces included some first-rate units as well as thousands of unruly and ill-equipped personnel of the civilian home defense forces and other paramilitary organizations.


Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile, Chief of Staff of the Philippine Constabulary Fidel Ramos, and Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines Fabian Ver, were the chief administrators of martial law from 1972 to 1981, and the three remained President Marcos' closest advisors until he was ousted in 1986. Enrile and Ramos would later abandon Marcos' 'sinking ship' and seek protection behind the 1986 People Power revolution. The Catholic hierarchy and Manila's middle class were crucial to the success of the massive crusade. Juan Ponce Enrile (born February 14, 1924) is a political figure in the Philippines. ... The Philippine Constabulary (PC) was one of two national police forces of the Philippines and was organized in 1901 by the United States appointed administrative authority. ... PRESIDENT OF THE PHILIPPINES Fidel V. Ramos Fidel Valdez Ramos (born March 18, 1928), military hero of the 1986 People Power Revolution that toppled the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos, became the 12th President of the Republic of the Philippines on June 30, 1992. ... Seal of the Armed Forces of the Philippines Seal of the Philippine Army Seal of the Philippine Navy Seal of the Philippine Air Force Seal of the Philippine Marine Corps The Armed Forces of the Philippines or AFP (Filipino: Sandatahang Lakas ng Pilipinas; Spanish: Fuerzas Armadas Filipinas) originated in the... Fabian Ver (January 20, 1920 - November 21, 1998) born in Sarrat, Ilocos Norte, was a former General and the former Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines under President Ferdinand Marcos. ... Juan Ponce Enrile (born February 14, 1924) is a political figure in the Philippines. ... PRESIDENT OF THE PHILIPPINES Fidel V. Ramos Fidel Valdez Ramos (born March 18, 1928), military hero of the 1986 People Power Revolution that toppled the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos, became the 12th President of the Republic of the Philippines on June 30, 1992. ... The EDSA Revolution, also referred to as the People Power Revolution and the Philippine Revolution of 1986, was a mostly nonviolent mass demonstration in the Philippines. ...

Economy

Economic performance during the Marcos era was strong at times, but when looked at over his whole regime, it was not characterized by strong economic growth. Penn World Tables report real growth in GDP per capita averaged 3.5% from 1951 to 1965, while under the Marcos regime (1966 to 1986), annual average growth was only 1.4%. To help finance a number of economic development projects, such as infrastructure, the Marcos government engaged in borrowing money. Foreign capital was invited to invest in certain industrial projects. They were offered incentives including tax exemption privileges and the privilege of bringing out their profits in foreign currencies. One of the most important economic programs in the 1980s was the Kilusang Kabuhayan at Kaunlaran (Movement for Livelihood and Progress). This program was started in September 1981. Its aim was to promote the economic development of the barangays by encouraging the barangay residents to engage in their own livelihood projects. The government's efforts resulted in the increase of the nation's economic growth rate to an average of six percent to seven percent from 1970 to 1980.[citation needed] The rate was only less than 5% in the previous decade. The Gross National Product rose from P55 billion ($7.7 billion) in 1972 to P193 billion ($27 billion) in 1980.[citation needed] Tourism rose, contributing to the economy's growth. Most of these "tourists" were Filipino balikbayans (returnees) who came under the Ministry of Tourism's Balikbayan Program, launched in 1973.


Economic growth was largely financed, however, by U.S. economic aid and several loans made by the Marcos government. The country's foreign debts were less than US$1billion when Marcos assumed the presidency in 1965, and more than US$28billion when he left office in 1986. A sizable amount of these moneys went to Marcos family and friends in the form of behest loans. These loans were assumed by the government and still being serviced by taxpayers.[18] Today, more than half of the country's revenues are outlayed for the payments on the interests of loans alone.


Another major source of economic growth was the remittances of overseas Filipino workers. Thousands of Filipino workers, unable to find jobs locally, sought and found employment in the Middle East, Singapore and Hong Kong. These overseas Filipino workers not only helped ease the country's unemployment problem but also earned much-needed foreign exchange for the Philippines. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


The Philippine economy suffered a great decline after the Aquino assassination in August 1983. The wave of anti-Marcos demonstrations in the country that followed scared off tourists. The political troubles also hindered the entry of foreign investments, and foreign banks stopped granting loans to the Philippine government.


In an attempt to launch a national economic recovery program, Marcos negotiated with foreign creditors including the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), for a restructuring of the country's foreign debts – to give the Philippines more time to pay the loans. Marcos ordered a cut in government expenditures and used a portion of the savings to finance the Sariling Sikap (Self-Reliance), a livelihood program he established in 1984. Logo of the World Bank The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development is one of the five institutions consisting the World Bank Group. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... IMF redirects here. ...


However, the economy experienced negative economic growth beginning in 1984 and continued to decline despite the government's recovery efforts. The recovery program's failure was caused by civil unrest, rampant graft and corruption within the government and by Marcos' lack of credibility. Marcos himself diverted large sums of government money to his party's campaign funds. The unemployment rate ballooned from 6.30% in 1972 to 12.55% in 1985.

Downfall

See also: 1986 EDSA Revolution

During these years, his regime was marred by rampant corruption and political mismanagement by his relatives and cronies, which culminated with the assassination of Benigno Aquino, Jr. Critics considered Marcos as the quintessential kleptocrat, having looted billions of dollars from the Filipino treasury. Much of the lost sum has yet to be accounted for, but recent documents have revealed that it was actually Fidel Ramos who had diverted the money (source required to substantiate this). He was also a notorious nepotist, appointing family members and close friends to high positions in his cabinet. This practice led to even more widespread mishandling of government, especially during the 1980s when Marcos was mortally ill with lupus and was in and out of office. Perhaps the most prominent example is the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant, a multi-billion dollar project that turned out to be a white elephant which allegedly provided huge kickbacks to Marcos and his businessman-friend, Herminio Disini, who spearheaded the project. The reactor, which turned out to be based on old, costly designs and built on an earthquake fault, has still to produce a single watt of electricity. The Philippine government today is still paying interests on more than US$28 billion public debts incurred during his administration. It was reported that when Marcos fled, U.S. Customs agents discovered 24 suitcases of gold bricks and diamond jewelry hidden in diaper bags; in addition, certificates for gold bullion valued in the billions of dollars are allegedly among the personal properties he, his family, his cronies and business partners had surreptitiously taken with them when the Reagan administration provided them safe passage to Hawaii.[19][20] Combatants Civilians; Defected Troops Marcos Loyalist Troops Commanders Corazon Aquino Archbishop Jaime Cardinal Sin Vice Chief of Staff Fidel Ramos Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos Imelda Marcos Chief of Staff Fabian Ver Casualties None 1 “People Power” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (416x647, 476 KB) Summary After 20 years of Marcos dictatorship, its finally over! From the collection of Jon Voltaire B. Aquino http://i20. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (416x647, 476 KB) Summary After 20 years of Marcos dictatorship, its finally over! From the collection of Jon Voltaire B. Aquino http://i20. ... The Philippine Daily Inquirer logo. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Kleptocracy (sometimes Cleptocracy) (root: Klepto+cracy = rule by thieves) is a pejorative, informal term for a government that is primarily designed to sustain the personal wealth and political power of government officials and their cronies (collectively, kleptocrats). ... Look up nepotism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE or lupus) is a chronic autoimmune disease that can be fatal, though with recent medical advances, fatalities are becoming increasingly rare. ... For other uses, see White elephant (disambiguation). ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...


During his third term, Marcos's health deteriorated rapidly due to kidney ailments. He was absent for weeks at a time for treatment, with no one to assume command. Many people questioned whether he still had capacity to govern, due to his grave illness and the ballooning political unrest. With Marcos ailing, his equally powerful wife, Imelda, emerged as the government's main public figure. Marcos dismissed speculations of his ailing health--he used to be an avid golfer and fitness buff who liked showing off his physique. In light of these growing problems, the assassination of Aquino in 1983 would later prove to be the catalyst that led to his overthrow. Many Filipinos came to believe that Marcos, a shrewd political tactician, had no hand in the murder of Aquino but that he was involved in cover-up measures. However, the opposition blamed Marcos directly for the assassination while others blamed the military and his wife, Imelda. The 1985 acquittals of Gen. Fabian Ver as well as other high-ranking military officers for the crime were widely seen as a miscarriage of justice.


By 1984, his close personal ally, U.S. President Ronald Reagan, started distancing himself from the Marcos regime that he and previous American presidents had strongly supported even after Marcos declared martial law. The United States, which had provided hundreds of millions of dollars in aid, was crucial in buttressing Marcos' rule over the years.[21] During the Carter administration the relation with the U.S. soured somewhat when President Jimmy Carter targeted the Philippines in his human rights campaign. In 1981 Vice President George Bush seemed to signal a different approach when in his visit to Manila he told Marcos, "We love your adherence to democratic principles and to democratic processes."[22] This article is about the year. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ...


In the face of escalating public discontent and under pressure from foreign allies, Marcos called a snap presidential election for 1986, with more than a year left in his term. He selected Arturo Tolentino as his running mate. The opposition united behind Aquino's widow, Corazon and her running mate, Salvador Laurel. Arturo M. Tolentino Arturo M. Tolentino (September 19, 1910 – August 2, 2004) was a prominent political figure in the Philippines. ... Maria Corazon Sumulong Cojuangco Aquino (born January 25, 1933), widely known as Cory Aquino, was President of the Philippines from 1986 to 1992. ... Salvador Doy Laurel in a portrait for the Philippine Centennial Commission Salvador Doy Hidalgo Laurel (November 18, 1928–January 27, 2004), was vice-president of the Philippines from 1986 to 1992 under Corazon Aquino. ...


The final tally of the National Movement for Free Elections, an accredited poll watcher, showed Aquino winning by almost 800,000 votes. However, the government tally showed Marcos winning by almost 1.6 million votes. This appearance of blatant fraud by Marcos led the Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines and the United States Senate to condemn the elections. Both Marcos and Aquino traded accusations of vote-rigging. Popular sentiment in Metro Manila sided with Aquino, leading to a massive, multisectoral congregation of protesters, and the gradual defection of the military to Aquino led by Defense Secretary Juan Ponce Enrile and Acting Chief of Staff Fidel V. Ramos. It must be noted that prior to his defection, Enrile's arrest warrant, having been charged for graft and corruption, was about to be served.[citation needed] The "People Power movement" drove Marcos into exile, and installed Corazon Aquino as the new president. At the height of the revolution, Enrile revealed that his ambush was faked in order for Marcos to have a pretext for imposing martial law. However, Marcos maintained that he was the duly-elected and proclaimed President of the Philippines for a fourth term. Marcos' wife was found to have over 2500 pairs of shoes in her closet. The National Citizens Movement for Free Elections or NAMFREL is an officially accredited election watchdog in the Philippines. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... The EDSA Revolution, also referred to as the People Power Revolution and the Philippine Revolution of 1986, was a mostly nonviolent mass demonstration in the Philippines. ...


The Marcos family and their associates went into exile in Hawaii and were later indicted for embezzlement in the United States. Marcos died in Honolulu on September 28, 1989 of kidney, heart and lung ailments. He was interred in a private mausoleum at Byodo-In Temple on the island of Oahu, visited daily by the Marcos family, political allies and friends. The late strongman's remains are currently interred inside a refrigerated crypt in Ilocos Norte, where his son, Ferdinand, Jr., and eldest daughter, Imee, have since become the local governor and representative, respectively. A Mount Rushmore-esque bust of Ferdinand Marcos, commissioned by Tourism Minister Jose Aspiras, was carved into a hillside in Benguet. It was subsequently destroyed by suspects that include left-wing activists, members of a local tribe who have been displaced by its construction, and looters hunting for the Marcos legendary hidden treasure.[23] Imelda Marcos was acquitted of embezzlement by a U.S. court in 1990, but is still facing a few hundred additional graft charges in Philippine courts in 2006. This article is about the U.S. State. ... Honolulu as seen from the International Space Station Honolulu is the largest city and the capital of the U.S. state of Hawai‘i. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... This article or section should be merged with Byodoin Byodo-In Temple in Hawaii is a replica of the historic Byodoin Temple of Uji in Kyoto prefecture of Japan, established in 1052. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Ilocos Norte Region: Ilocos Region (Region I) Capital: Laoag City Founded: — Population: 2000 census—514,241 (48th largest) Density—151 per km² (27th lowest) Area: 3,399. ... Ferdinand Bong-Bong Romualdez Marcos, Jr. ... Imee Marcos aka Maria Imelda Josefa Romualdez Marcos (born November 12, 1955) is the eldest daughter of Ferdinand Edralin Marcos, the former President of the Philippines (1965 - 1986) and former First Lady Imelda Romualdez Marcos. ... For the 1960s rock band, see Mount Rushmore (band). ... World map of the Corruption Perceptions Index by Transparency International, which measures the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians. High numbers (green) indicate relatively less corruption, whereas lower numbers (red) indicate relatively more corruption. ...


In 1995 some 10,000 Filipinos won a U.S. class-action lawsuit filed against the Marcos estate. The charges were filed by victims or their surviving relatives for torture, execution and disappearances.[24] Human rights groups place the number of victims of extrajudicial killings under martial law at 1500 and Karapatan (a local human rights group's) records show 759 involuntarily disappeared (their bodies never found). While military historian Alfred McCoy in his book "Closer than Brothers: Manhood at the Philippine Military Academy" and in his speech "Dark Legacy" cite 3,257 extrajudicial killings, 35,000 torture victims, and 70,000 incarcerated during the Marcos years.[25][26] The newspaper "Bulatlat" place the number of victims of arbitrary arrest and detention at 120,000.[27]

Legacy

Prior to Marcos, Philippine presidents had followed the path of "traditional politics" by using their position to help along friends and allies before stepping down for the next "player." Marcos essentially destroyed this setup through military rule, which allowed him to rewrite the rules of the game so they favored the Marcoses and their allies.


His practice of using the politics of patronage in his desire to be the "amo" or godfather of not just the people, but the judiciary, legislature and administrative branches of the government ensured his downfall, no matter how Marcos justified it according to his own philosophy of the "politics of achievement". This practice entailed bribery, racketeering, and embezzlement to gain the support of the aforementioned sectors. The 14 years of his dictatorship, according to critics, have warped the legislative, judiciary and the military.[28][29]


Another allegation was that his family and cronies looted so much wealth from the country that to this day investigators have difficulty determining precisely how many billions of dollars have been salted away. The Swiss government has also returned US$684 million in allegedly ill-gotten Marcos wealth.[30][31][32]


According to staunch Marcos critic Jovito Salonga, author of the book "Presidential Plunder: the Quest for the Marcos Ill-Gotten Wealth," monopolies in several vital industries have been created and placed under the control of Marcos cronies, such as coconut (under Eduardo Cojuangco, Jr. and Juan Ponce Enrile), tobacco (under Lucio Tan), banana (under Antonio Floirendo), manufacturing (under Herminio Disini and Ricardo Silverio), and sugar (under Roberto Benedicto). The Marcos and Romualdez families became owners, directly or indirectly, of the nation's largest corporations, such as the Philippine Long Distance Company (PLDT), the Philippine Airlines (PAL), Meralco (a national electric company), Fortune Tobacco, the San Miguel Corporation (Asia's largest beer and bottling company), numerous newspapers, radio and TV broadcasting companies, several banks, real estate properties in New York, California and Hawaii. It was no exaggeration when Imelda Marcos declared in an interview, that her family "own practically everything in the Philippines."[33] The Aquino government also accused them of skimming off foreign aid and international assistance. This is a clear example of the aforementioned "crony capitalism" that Marcos introduced during the New Society. Jovito R. Salonga also known as Ka Jovy Born poor in a remote barrio in Pasig, Rizal on June 22, 1920. ... Eduardo Murphy Danding Cojuangco, Jr. ... Juan Ponce Enrile (born February 14, 1924) is a political figure in the Philippines. ... Lucio Tan (born July 17, 1934) is a prominent Filipino business magnate. ...


His apologists claim Marcos was a good president gone bad and that he was a man of rare gifts--a brilliant lawyer, a shrewd politician and keen legal analyst with a ruthless streak and a flair for leadership. Having been in power for more than 20 years, Marcos also had the very rare opportunity to lead the Philippines toward prosperity, with massive infrastructure he put in place as well as an economy on the rise.


However, he put these talents to work by building a regime that he apparently intended to perpetuate as a dynasty. A former aide of Marcos said that "Nobody will ever know what a remarkable president he could have made. That's the saddest part". Among the many documents he left behind in the Palace, after he fled in 1986, was one appointing his wife as his successor.


Opponents state that the evidence suggests that he used the communist threat as a pretext for seizing power. However, the communist insurgency was at its peak during the late 1960s to early 1970s when it was found out that the People's Republic of China was shipping arms to support the communist cause in the Philippines after the interception of a vessel containing loads of firearms. After he was overthrown, former Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile stated that certain incidents had been contrived to justify the imposition of Martial Law,[34][35] such as Enrile's ambush. Juan Ponce Enrile (born February 14, 1924) is a political figure in the Philippines. ...


The Martial Law dictatorship may have helped boost the communist insurgency's strength and numbers, but not to the point that could have led to the overthrow of the elected government. Marcos' regime was crucial in the United States' fight against communism and its influences, with Marcos himself being a staunch anti-communist. Marcos however had an ironically mild streak to his "strongman" image, and as much as possible avoided bloodshed and confrontation.[citation needed]


His most ardent supporters claim Marcos was serious about Martial Law and had genuine concern for reforming the society as evidenced by his actions during the period, up until his cronies, whom he entirely trusted, had firmly entrenched themselves in the government. By then, they say he was too ill and too dependent on them to do something about it. The same has been said about his relationship with his wife Imelda, who became the government's main public figure in light of his illness, by then wielding perhaps more power than Marcos himself.


It is important to note that many laws written by Marcos are still in force and in effect. Out of thousands of proclamations, decrees and executive orders, only a few were repealed, revoked, modified or amended.[36] Few credit Marcos for promoting Filipino culture and nationalism. His 21 years in power with the help of U.S. massive economic aid and foreign loans enabled Marcos to build more schools, hospitals and infrastructure than any of his predecessors combined.[37] Due to his iron rule, he was able to impose order and reduce crime by strict implementation of the law. The relative economic success that the Philippines enjoyed during the initial part of his presidency is hard to dispel. Many of Marcos' accomplishments were overlooked after the so-called "People Power" EDSA Revolution, but the Marcos era definitely had accomplishments in its own right. The EDSA Revolution, also referred to as the People Power Revolution and the Philippine Revolution of 1986, was a mostly nonviolent mass demonstration in the Philippines. ...


A journalist said that "The Marcoses were the best of us, and they were the worst of us. That's why we say we hate them so much."


Writer Manuel L. Quezon III states that "In the end, as Marcos’ health and grip on power weakened, he came to validate what is said to be the fundamental weakness of all strong man regimes: as the saying goes, nothing grows under the shade of a great tree. Marcos could not -- would not -- provide for a successor; and it was on the fundamental question of what should come after Marcos that his regime began to crumble, and fell...that he himself, with his virtues (and he had many: love of country, love of learning, discipline, loyalty) and his defects (confusing form with substance, ignoring how the means power is acquired is as important as how you use it, tolerance of his supporters’ mistakes, and his using armed force to compensate for some political weaknesses) are as much about our society’s strengths and weaknesses, as they were about his own[19]."


According to Transparency International, Marcos is the second most corrupt head of government ever, after Suharto.[38] Even so, according to a recent survey, some Filipinos prefer Marcos' rule due to the shape of the country in administrations succeeding his.[39] Many admire his autocratic, strong-arm rule, saying that his style of leadership is sorely missed and needed in the post-EDSA Philippines where too much democracy has ruined the body politic, with fractious standoffs in Congress, endless so-called "People Power" demonstrations, deadlocks in the Senate and movie actors as well as traditional politicians being elected into public office. A few are nostalgic for the Marcos era, where the government was well-organized and laws were strictly followed by civilians, leading to a relatively disciplined populace. Transparency International (TI) is an international organisation addressing corruption, including, but not limited to, political corruption. ... Suharto GCB (born June 8, 1921) is a former Indonesian military and political leader. ...


On the other hand, many despise his regime, his silencing the free press, his curtailing of civil liberties such as the right to peaceably assemble, his dictatorial control, the imprisonment, torture, murder and disappearance of thousands of his oppositionists, and his supposed shameless plunder of the nation's treasury. It is quite evident that the EDSA Revolution left the Philippine society polarized. Nostalgia remains high in parts of the populace for the Marcos era due to the downward spiral the Philippines fell into after his departure. It can be said that his public image has been significantly rehabilitated after worsening political and economic problems that have hounded his successors. The irony is that these economic troubles are largely due to the country's massive debts incurred during his administration. The Marcos Era's legacy, polarizing as it is, remains deeply embedded in the Philippines today. The EDSA Revolution, also referred to as the People Power Revolution and the Philippine Revolution of 1986, was a mostly nonviolent mass demonstration in the Philippines. ...

Writings

  • Today's Revolution: Democracy (1971)
  • Marcos' Notes for the Cancun Summit, 1981 (1981)
  • Progress and Martial Law (1981)
  • The New Philippine Republic: A Third World Approach to Democracy (1982)
  • An Ideology for Filipinos (1983)
  • Toward a New Partnership: The Filipino Ideology (1983)

References

  • Salonga, Jovito (2001). Presidential Plunder: The Quest for Marcos Ill-gotten Wealth. Regina Pub. Co., Manila
  • Bonner, Raymond (1987). Waltzing with a Dictator: The Marcoses and the Making of American Policy. Times Books, New York ISBN 0-8129-1326-4
  • Aquino, Belinda, editor (1982). Cronies and Enemies: the Current Philippine Scene. University of Hawaii
  • Marcos, Ferdinand (1973). Notes on the New Society of the Philippines. 
  • Library of Congress: Country Studies: Philippines. The Inheritance from Marcos

Notes

  1. ^ Justice Jose P. Laurel penned the ponencia (in People vs. Mariano Marcos, et. al, 70 Phil. 468) and was concurred by chief justice Avanceña and justices Imperial, Diaz, and Horilleno.
  2. ^ In 1954, Marcos met then Ms. Imelda Romualdez, the Rose of Tacloban and Muse of Manila, and after a whirlwind 11-day courtship, they were married in a civil ceremony in Baguio. They had 3 children: Imee Marcos (Ilocos Norte congresswoman), Ferdinand "Bongbong" Marcos, Jr. (Ilocos Norte governor), Irene Marcos (socialite) and one adopted daughter, Aimee Marcos (entrepreneur and musician).
  3. ^ “Mandate for Greatness,” First Inaugural Speech of President Ferdinand E. Marcos, 30 December 1965.
  4. ^ Ibid.
  5. ^ Manuel A. Caoili. “The Philippine Congress and the Political Order”, Philippine Journal of Public Administration, Vol.XXX no. 1 (January, 1986), p. 21.
  6. ^ To name a few: Carlos P. Romulo, Secretary of Education (later Secretary of Foreign Affairs); Rafael Salas, Executive Secretary; Jose Yulo, Secretary of Justice; Marcelo Balatbat, Secretary of Commerce; Cesar Virata, Secretary of Finance; Jose Aspiras, Press Secretary; Paulino Garcia, Secretary of Health; Narciso Ramos, Secretary of Foreign Affairs; Claudio Teehankee, Undersecretary of Justice; Onofre Corpuz , Undersecretary (later, Secretary) of Education; Juan Ponce Enrile, Undersecretary of Finance (later Secretary of National Defense); Fernando Campos, Undersecretary of Commerce; Romeo Edu, Commissioner on Land Transportation; Teotino Aguilar, Undersecretary of General Services; Benjamin del Rosario, General Manager of the Government Service Insurance System; Blas Ople, Social Security Commissioner (later, Secretary of Labor and Employment); Col. Salvador Villa, Chairman of the Philippine National Railways; former Press Secretary Jose Nabu, Presidential Assistant on Housing; and Jose Zulueta, Presidential Consultant on Local Government.
  7. ^ Manuel Caoili, op. cit
  8. ^ The North Diversion Road initially went from Balintawak to Tabang, Guiguinto, Bulacan
  9. ^ Hartzell Spence, Marcos of the Philippines (Cleveland: The World Publishing Company, 1969),p. 359.
  10. ^ Ferdinand E. Marcos, Today’s Revolution: Democracy (Manila, 1971), p. v
  11. ^ Aquino vs. Enrile, 59 SCRA 183, Concurring Opinion of Justice Cecilia Muñoz Palma citing issues of the Manila Times on October 1,3,4,5,8,13,23 and 24, 1970.
  12. ^ Lansang vs. Garcia, 42 SCRA 449. The ponencia was penned by Chief Justice Roberto Concepcion and concurred by Justices J.B.L. Reyes, Makalintal, Zaldivar, Teehankee, Barredo, Villamor and Makasiar. Justices Castro and Barredo concurred fully in a separate opinion.
  13. ^ Manila Times, 23 January 1971
  14. ^ “First Address to the Nation Under Martial Law,” Radio-TV Address of President Marcos, 23 September 1972
  15. ^ In Sanidad vs. Comelec, L-44640, October 12, 1976 the Supreme Court ruled that on the basis of absolute necessity both the constituent power (the power to formulate a Constitution or to propose amendments or revision to the Constitution and to ratify such proposal, which is exclusively vested to the National Assembly, the Constitutional Convention, and the electorate) and legislative powers of the legislature may be exercised by the Chief Executive.
  16. ^ The Batasang Bayan was temporarily provided in the 1973 Constitution after the rejection of the convening of the Interim National Assembly in the referendum-plebiscite of October 16-17, 1976. Its constitutionality was approved by the Supreme Court.
  17. ^ [1]
  18. ^ [2]
  19. ^ Ferdinand E. Marcos. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved on 2007-11-19.
  20. ^ [3]
  21. ^ [4]
  22. ^ [5]
  23. ^ Philippines blast wrecks Marcos bust. BBC News (29 December 2002). Retrieved on 2007-11-19.
  24. ^ Hrvoje Hranjski (12 September 2006). No hero's resting place as Imelda Marcos finds site for husband's grave. The Scotsman. Retrieved on 2007-11-19.
  25. ^ [6]
  26. ^ Alexander Martin Remollino. "Marcos Kin, Allies Still within Corridors of Power", Bulatalat, September 17, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-11-19. 
  27. ^ Benjie Oliveros. "The Specter of Martial Law", Bulatalat, September 17, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-11-19. 
  28. ^ [7]
  29. ^ [8]
  30. ^ [9]
  31. ^ [10]
  32. ^ [11]
  33. ^ [12]
  34. ^ [13]
  35. ^ [14]
  36. ^ [15]
  37. ^ Lacsamana, Philippine History and Government, p. 189
  38. ^ [16]
  39. ^ [17]

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Preceded by
Pedro A. Albano
Representative, 2nd District of Ilocos Norte
1949–1959
Succeeded by
Simeon M. Valdez
Preceded by
Eulogio Rodriguez
President of the Senate of the Philippines
1963–1965
Succeeded by
Arturo M. Tolentino
Preceded by
Diosdado Macapagal
President of the Philippines
1965–1986
Succeeded by
Corazon Aquino
Preceded by
New Created
Presiding Officer of the Batasang Bayan
September 23, 1976 – October 30, 1978
Succeeded by
Abolished
Preceded by
Restored
Last to held the position is Pedro Paterno
Prime Minister of the Philippines
June 12, 1978 – July 27, 1981
Succeeded by
Cesar Virata
Persondata
NAME Marcos, Ferdinand Edralín
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION President of the Philippines (1965-1986)
DATE OF BIRTH September 11, 1917
PLACE OF BIRTH Sarrat, Ilocos Norte, Philippines
DATE OF DEATH September 28, 1989
PLACE OF DEATH Honolulu, Hawaii, United States

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ferdinand Marcos - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4660 words)
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralín Marcos (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was the tenth president of the Philippines, serving from 1965 to 1986.
Ferdinand Marcos was born in Sarrat, Ilocos Norte to Mariano Marcos, a lawyer who was an assemblyman for Ilocos Norte, and Josefa Quetulio Edralín, a teacher.
The Conjugal Dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos and Imelda Marcos.
Ferdinand Marcos - MSN Encarta (803 words)
Ferdinand Marcos (1917-1989), president-dictator of the Republic of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986.
Ferdinand Edralin Marcos was born in Sarrat, in the province of Ilocos Norte in northwestern Luzon Island.
Marcos later claimed to have been a leader of the guerrilla resistance against the Japanese occupation of the Philippines, a claim that he capitalized on throughout his political career.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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