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Encyclopedia > Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor
Emperor Ferdinand II
Emperor Ferdinand II

Ferdinand II (July 9, 1578February 15, 1637), of the House of Habsburg, reigned as Holy Roman Emperor from 1620-1637. He was also the Archduke of Styria (Inner Austria) from 1617-1619 and again from 1620-1637, as well as King of Hungary from 1618-1625. A devout Catholic, his recognition as King of Bohemia and suppression of Protestantism precipitated the early events of the Thirty Years' War. The duration of his reign was occupied by confessional and military concerns. Download high resolution version (348x641, 43 KB)Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II with his court midget [1] The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus... Download high resolution version (348x641, 43 KB)Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II with his court midget [1] The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus... July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 175 days remaining. ... Events January 31 - Battle of Gemblours - Spanish forces under Don John of Austria and Alexander Farnese defeat the Dutch. ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events February 3 - Tulipmania collapses in Netherlands by government order February 15 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor December 17 - Shimabara Rebellion erupts in Japan Pierre de Fermat makes a marginal claim to have proof of what would become known as Fermats last theorem. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Coat of arms of the Dukes of Styria, crowned with the ducal hat, today state coat The Duchy of Styria (German: Herzogtum Steiermark, Slovenian Å tajerska) was a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in 1806, and a crownland of Austria-Hungary until its dissolution in 1918. ... Inner Austria (German Innerösterreich) is a term used from the late 14th to the 16th century referring to Styria, Carinthia, Carniola and assorted smaller Habsburg possessions in bordering the area. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Protestantism is one of three main groups currently within Christianity. ... Combatants Anti-Imperialists (Protestants): Sweden Bohemia Denmark Dutch Republic France Scotland England and smaller German states Imperialists (Catholics): Catholic League Holy Roman Empire Spain Austria Bavaria, and smaller German states Commanders Frederick V Gustav II Adolf † Cardinal Richelieu Christian IV of Denmark Johann Georg I of Saxony Johann Tzerclaes, count...

Contents

Biography

Early years

Born in Graz to Charles II of Austria (1540-1590) and Maria Anna of Bavaria (1551-1608), Ferdinand was provided with a strict Jesuit education culminating in his years at the University of Ingolstadt. After completing his studies in 1595, he acceded to his hereditary lands (where his older cousin Archduke Maximilian III of Austria had acted as his regent 1593-95) and made a pilgrimage to Loreto and Rome. Shortly afterwards, he began to suppress the practice of non-Catholic faiths within his territory. The Grazer Schloßberg Clock Tower Graz [graːts] (Slovenian: Gradec IPA: /gra. ... Archduke Charles II of Inner Austria ( Vienna June 3, 1540 – July 10, 1590 in Graz) was an Archduke of Austria and Regent of Inner Austria from the House of Habsburg from 1564. ... Maria Anna of Bavaria (1551-1608) was daughter of Albert V, Duke of Bavaria. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... The University of Ingolstadt was founded in 1472 by Louis the Rich, duke of Bavaria at the time. ... Maximilian III of Austria Maximilian III, Archduke of Further Austria, also known as Maximilian der Deutschmeister (born October 12, 1558 in Wiener Neustadt; died November 2, 1618 in Vienna) was the third son of Emperor Maximilian II and Maria of Spain. ... Loreto is the Italian word for laurel-wood. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 8th century BC Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1,285 km²  (496. ...


King of Bohemia

In 1617, Ferdinand was elected King of Bohemia by the Bohemian Diet. He also secured support from the Spanish Habsburgs for his claim to succeed the childless Emperor Matthias on the throne, granting them future rule over Alsace and Imperial fiefs in Italy. Ferdinand's staunch Catholicism led to infringements on the religious freedoms of non-Catholics. Among other things, the king did not respect the religious freedoms granted in the Majestät (or "Majestic Letter") signed by the earlier emperor Rudolf II to end the Brothers' War, which had granted freedom of worship to nobles and the inhabitants of cities. Additionally, Ferdinand was an absolutist and infringed upon what nobles regarded as secular rights. Given the relatively large number of Protestants within the kingdom, including many among the noble classes, the new king soon became unpopular and some dissidents participated in the ensuing Bohemian Revolt. On May 22, 1618, two royal (Catholic) officials in Prague were thrown out a castle window by Bohemian Protestants (the Defenestration of Prague). Though the officials were uninjured, such actions did not fall within the realm of standard protocol, and the clear offense against the royal dignity led to a hardening of attitudes and full rebellion. The Lands of the Bohemian Crown (Czech Země koruny české, Latin Corona regni Bohemiae) (e. ... In politics, a Diet is a formal deliberative assembly. ... During the reign of Emperor Charles V (Carlos I of Spain), who ascended the thrones of the kingdoms of Spain after the death of his grandfather Ferdinand, Habsburg Spain controlled territory ranging from Philippines to the Netherlands, and was, for a time, Europes greatest power. ... Holy Roman Emperor Matthias Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor (1612-1619) was born in Vienna on February 24, 1557 and died in Vienna on March 20, 1619. ... Location Administration Capital Strasbourg Regional President Adrien Zeller (UMP) (since 1996) Départements Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2005 est. ... Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II Rudolph IIs personal imperial crown, later crown of the Austrian Empire Rudolf II Habsburg was an emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, king of Bohemia, and king of Hungary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... May 22 is the 142nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (143rd in leap years). ... Events March 8 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion (he soon rejects the idea after some initial calculations were made but on May 15 confirms the discovery). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Two incidents in the history of Bohemia are known as the Defenestrations of Prague. ...


The nobility revolted against Ferdinand and replaced him with the Protestant Elector Frederick V of the Palatinate, known as the "Winter King." The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... Frederick is also called the Winter King of Bohemia because he reigned for less than three winter months in 1620 after he was installed by a rebellious Protestant faction. ... A palatinate is a territory administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign, but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crowns overlordship. ...


Holy Roman Emperor

Emperor Matthias died in Vienna in March 1619. As earlier agreed, Ferdinand succeeded him on the throne. Supported by the Catholic League, which included the rulers of Poland, Spain, and Bavaria, Ferdinand sought to reclaim his Bohemian possessions and stamp out the Protestant rebellion. On November 8, 1620, Catholic forces engaged those supporting the Protestant Frederick, who had taken the Bohemian kingship, at the Battle of White Mountain. After only two hours of fighting, the Catholics emerged victorious. The now-deposed Frederick fled to the Netherlands and Duke Maximilian I of Bavaria, the leader of the Catholic League, moved to confiscate his lands in the Palatinate. The restored Ferdinand set about strengthening the Catholic church in Bohemia, reduced the authority of the Diet, and forcibly converted Austrian and Bohemian Protestants. Inhabitants according to official census figures: 1800 to 2005 Vienna in 1858 Vienna (German: Wien ) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... This article is about the 17th century German union. ... The Free State of Bavaria  (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... Events September 6 - English emigrants on the Mayflower depart from Plymouth, England for the future New England and arrive at the end of the year. ... The Battle of White Mountain, November 8, 1620 (Bílá hora is the name of White Mountain in Czech) was an early battle in the Thirty Years War in which an army of 20,000 Bohemians and mercenaries under Christian of Anhalt were routed by 25,000 men of the... Not to be confused with King Maximilian I of Bavaria (1756-1825), prince-elector of Bavaria (as Maximilian IV Joseph). ...


By 1625, despite receiving subsidies from the Spanish and the Pope, Ferdinand was strapped for cash and looking for a means to raise his own army. His solution was to charge the Bohemian soldier and "military entrepreneur" Albrecht von Wallenstein with raising and commanding an Imperial army. Wallenstein accepted the position with the proviso that the management (and possession) of the army's funds were solely his, as was the right to take and distribute loot and ransoms taken in the course of operations. Quickly raising at least 30,000 men (he would later command at least 100,000), and fighting alongside the Catholic League army under the Count of Tilly, Wallenstein defeated Protestant forces in Silesia, Anhalt, and Denmark. Albrecht von Wallenstein Albrecht Wenzel Eusebius von Wallenstein (also Waldstein, Czech: Albrecht Václav Eusebius z Valdštejna), September 24, 1583 – February 25, 1634) was a Bohemian soldier and politician who gave his services (an army of 30,000 to 100,000 men) during the Danish Period of the Thirty... Count Tilly on a portrait by van Dyck Johan Tzerclaes, Count of Tilly (February, 1559 – April 30, 1632) was a general in Bavarian and later imperial service during the Thirty Years War, upon whom Ferdinand II depended (since Wallenstein was a threat). ... Prussian Silesia, 1871, outlined in yellow; Silesia at the close of the Seven Years War in 1763, outlined in cyan (areas now in the Czech Republic were Austrian-ruled at that time) Silesia (Czech: ; German: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Ślonsk / Ślónsk) is a historical region in central Europe. ... Anhalt is a historical region of Germany, which is now included in the state of Saxony-Anhalt. ...


With his forces scoring important victories against the Protestants, Ferdinand crowned his religious policies by issuing his Edict of Restitution (1629), which was designed to restore all ecclesiastical properties which had been secularized since the Peace of Passau in 1552. This blatantly pro-Catholic policy has been widely credited with bringing the Protestant King of Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus, into the war against Ferdinand. This article needs cleanup. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Stub ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Despite the succeses of Wallenstein, many of Ferdinand's advisors saw a genuine political threat in the general, citing his growing influence, his increasing number of estates and titles, as well as his extortionate methods of raising funds for his army. Ferdinand responded by dismissing Wallenstein in 1630. With the loss of his commander, he was once again forced to rely on the Catholic League army under Tilly, who was unable to stem the Swedish advance and was killed in 1632. As a result, Ferdinand recalled Wallenstein from retirement.


In the spring of 1632, Wallenstein raised a fresh army in a matter of weeks and drove the Protestant army out of Bohemia. In November came the great Battle of Lützen, at which the Catholics were defeated, but Gustavus Adolphus was killed. Wallenstein withdrew to winter quarters in Bohemia. Although he had lost strategically and been forced out of Saxony, the Protestants had suffered much greater casualties. The Battle of Lützen was one of the most decisive battles of the Thirty Years War. ...


The campaigning of 1633 was indecisive, partly because Wallenstein was negotiating with the enemy, thinking that the army would be loyal to him, rather than Ferdinand, and follow him if he switched sides. In early 1634, he was openly accused of treason and assassinated at Eger, probably at Ferdinand's instigation. Cheb (German: ( )) is a city in the Karlovy Vary Region of the Czech Republic, with 33,256 inhabitants. ...


Despite the loss of Wallenstein, Imperial forces took Regensburg and won a victory at the Battle of Nördlingen. Swedish strength was greatly weakened, but France entered the war on the side of the Protestants out of fear of Habsburg domination. Although the country was Catholic, France feared both the Germans and the Spanish, so Cardinal Richelieu convinced King Louis XIII of France to ally himself with the Dutch and the Swedes. Regensburg (English formerly Ratisbon, Latin Ratisbona) is a city (population 129,175 in 2005) in Bavaria, south-east Germany, located at the confluence of the Danube and Regen rivers, at the northernmost bend in the Danube. ... Combatants Sweden Saxony Holy Roman Empire Spain Commanders Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Gustav Horn Cardinal-Infante of Spain Ferdinand of Hungary Matthias Gallas Strength 16,300 infantry 9,300 cavalry 54 guns 20,000 infantry 13,000 cavalry 32 guns Casualties 13,000–15,000 dead or wounded 3,500... Cardinal Richelieu was the French chief minister from 1624 until his death. ... Louis XIII (September 27, 1601 – May 14, 1643), called the Just (French: le Juste), was King of France from 1610 to 1643. ...


The French were highly dissatisfied with the terms of the Peace of Prague concluded in 1635, the last important act of Ferdinand. Therefore, although a treaty was signed, peace did not come. At Ferdinand's death in 1637, his son Ferdinand III inherited an embattled empire. The Peace of Prague of 30 May 1635 was a treaty between the Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, and most of the Protestant states of the Empire. ... Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor (July 13, 1608 – April 2, 1657), ruled February 15, 1637 – 1657. ...


Ancestors

Ferdinand's ancestors in three generations
Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor Father:
Charles II of Austria
Father's father:
Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
Father's father's father:
Philip I of Castile
Father's father's mother:
Joanna of Castile
Father's mother:
Anna of Bohemia and Hungary
Father's mother's father:
Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary
Father's mother's mother:
Anne de Foix
Mother:
Maria Anna of Bavaria
Mother's father:
Albert V, Duke of Bavaria
Mother's father's father:
William IV, Duke of Bavaria
Mother's father's mother:
Marie of Baden-Sponheim
Mother's mother:
Anna of Austria
Mother's mother's father:
Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
Mother's mother's mother:
Anna of Bohemia and Hungary

Archduke Charles II of Inner Austria ( Vienna June 3, 1540 – July 10, 1590 in Graz) was an Archduke of Austria and Regent of Inner Austria from the House of Habsburg from 1564. ... Ferdinand I Habsburg Ferdinand I (10 March 1503–25 July 1564), Holy Roman Emperor (1556–1564), was born in Madrid, the son of Juana the Mad, Queen of Castile (1479–1555), and Philip I the Handsome, King of Castile (1478–1506), who was heir to Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I... Philip and his wife Joanna of Castile Philip the Handsome (July 22, 1478 – September 25, 1506), (Felipe el Hermoso - Philipp der Schöne) was the son of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I. Through his mother Mary of Burgundy he inherited the greater part of the Burgundian state and through... Joanna of Castile Joanna (Spanish: Juana) (November 6, 1479 – April 11, 1555), called the Mad (la Loca), queen of Castile and mother of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, was the second daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, king and queen of Spain, and was born at Toledo on November... Anna Jagellonica of Bohemia and Hungary (July 23, 1503 - January 27, 1547) was queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Queen-consort of the Romans and heiress of Bohemia and Hungary. ... Ladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary Ladislaus Jagellion (Czech: Vladislav Jagellonský, Hungarian: ), (Polish:WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagielloÅ„czyk, was the King of Bohemia from 1471 and the King of Hungary from 1490 until his death in 1516. ... Anne de Foix (1484 – 26 July 1506) was the Queen consort of Hungary and Bohemia. ... Maria Anna of Bavaria (1551-1608) was daughter of Albert V, Duke of Bavaria. ... Albert V, Duke of Bavaria (29 February 1528 - 24 October 1579), (German: ), was Duke of Bavaria from 1550 until his death. ... Image:WilhelmIV4bav. ... Anna of Austria could be a reference to either Anna of Austria (1573-1598), Queen Consort of Sigismund III of Poland Anna of Austria (1601-1666) (or Anne), Queen Consort of Louis XIII of France and mother of (and regent for) Louis XIV of France. ... Ferdinand I Habsburg Ferdinand I (10 March 1503–25 July 1564), Holy Roman Emperor (1556–1564), was born in Madrid, the son of Juana the Mad, Queen of Castile (1479–1555), and Philip I the Handsome, King of Castile (1478–1506), who was heir to Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I... Anna Jagellonica of Bohemia and Hungary (July 23, 1503 - January 27, 1547) was queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Queen-consort of the Romans and heiress of Bohemia and Hungary. ...

Marriages and issue

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Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor

In 1600, Ferdinand married Maria Anna of Bavaria (1574-1616), daughter of Duke William V of Bavaria. They had seven children: Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Maria Anna of Bavaria (8 December 1574 - 8 March 1616) was daughter of William V, Duke of Bavaria. ... William V, Duke of Bavaria. ...

In 1622, he married Eleonore of Mantua (Gonzaga) (1598-1655), the daughter of Duke Vincenzo I of Mantua and Eleanore de Medici of Tuscany, at Innsbruck. November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... December 28 is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 3 days remaining. ... Events May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason. ... Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor (July 13, 1608 – April 2, 1657), ruled February 15, 1637 – 1657. ... July 13 is the 194th day (195th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 171 days remaining. ... Events March 18 - Sissinios formally crowned Emperor of Ethiopia May 14 - Protestant Union founded in Auhausen. ... April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... Events January 8 - Miles Sindercombe, would-be-assassin of Oliver Cromwell, and his group are captured in London February - Admiral Robert Blake defeats the Spanish West Indian Fleet in a battle over the seizure of Jamaica. ... Maria Anna of Austria (13 January 1610-25 September 1665) (also known as Maria Anna von Bayern, Maria Anna von Habsburg, Maria-Anna Kurfrstin). ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1665 (MDCLXV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Cecilia Renata, Queen of Poland. ... July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... Events June 23 - Henry Hudsons crew maroons him, his son and 7 others in a boat November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ... March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (84th in leap years). ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... Reign in Poland November 8, 1632 – May 20, 1648. ... Archduke Leopold-William of Habsburg (Wiener Neustadt January 5, 1614 -Vienna November 20, 1662), was a Governor of the Spanish Netherlands, a military commander and a patron of the arts. ... Portrait of Eleonora Gonzaga. ... Vincenzo I of Gonzaga (1562-1612), son of Guglielmo I, was ruler of the Duchy of Mantua from 1587 to 1612. ... The Duchy of Mantua was an Italian state that was ruled by the Gonzaga family from 1328 to 1708. ... Innsbruck is a city in western Austria, and the capital of the federal state of Tyrol. ...




Preceded by:
Charles II
Archduke of Inner Austria
1590-1637
Succeeded by:
Ferdinand III
Preceded by:
Mathias
Holy Roman Emperor
Also King of Germany

1619-1637
King of Hungary
1619-1637
King of Bohemia
1619-1637

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1120 words)
Emperor Ferdinand II Ferdinand II (July 9, 1578 – February 15, 1637), of the House of Habsburg, reigned as Holy Roman Emperor from 1620-1637.
Born in Graz to Charles II of Austria (1540-1590) and Maria Anna of Bavaria (1551-1608), Ferdinand was provided with a strict Jesuit education culminating in his years at the University of Ingolstadt.
In 1600, Ferdinand married Maria Anna of Bavaria (1574-1616), daughter of Duke William V of Bavaria.
Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (957 words)
Ferdinand I (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564), Holy Roman Emperor (1556–1564), was born in Madrid, the son of Juana the Mad, Queen of Castile (1479–1555), and Philip I the Handsome, King of Castile (1478–1506), who was heir to Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I of Habsburg.
Ferdinand was the younger brother of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, who entrusted him with the government of the Habsburg hereditary lands (roughly modern-day Austria and Slovenia).
He was initially supported by King Sigismund II Augustus of Poland and Lithuania, his mother's brother, but in 1549 a treaty was signed between the Habsburgs and the Polish ruler as a result of which Poland became neutral in the conflict, Sigismund Augustus marrying Elisabeth von Habsburg, Ferdinand's daughter.
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