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Encyclopedia > Feodor III of Russia

Feodor (Theodore) III of Russia (In Russian: Фёдор III Алексеевич) (June 9, 1661 - May 7, 1682) was the Tsar of all Russia, during whose short reign (1676-82) the Polish cultural influence in the Kremlin was paramount. June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... 1661 (MDCLXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (128th in leap years). ... Events March 11 – Chelsea hospital for soldiers is founded in England May 6 - Louis XIV of France moves his court to Versailles. ... Monomakhs Cap symbol of Russian autocracy, the crown of Russian grand princes and tsars Czar and tzar redirect here. ... The Moscow Kremlin, as seen from the Balchug. ...


Feodor was born in Moscow, the eldest surviving son of Tsar Alexis and Maria Miloslavskaya. In 1676, at the age of fifteen, he succeeded his father on the throne. He was endowed with a fine intellect and a noble disposition; he had received an excellent education at the hands of Simeon Polotsky, the most learned Slavonic monk of the day, knew Polish, and even possessed the unusual accomplishment of Latin; but, horribly disfigured and half paralyzed by a mysterious disease, supposed to be scurvy, he had been a hopeless invalid from the day of his birth. He spent most of the time with young nobles, Yazykov and Likhachov, who would later introduce the Russian court to Polish ceremonies, dress, and language. Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich (Russian: Алексей Михайлович) (March 9, 1629 (O.S.) - January 29, 1676 (O.S.)) was a Tsar of Russia during some of the most eventful decades of the mid-17th century. ... Maria Miloslavskaya Maria Ilyinichna Miloslavskaya (Russian: , 1625-1669) was the first wife of tzar Alexis I of Russia and mother of the tzars Feodor III of Russia and Ivan V of Russia, as well as regent princess Sophia Alekseyevna. ... Simeon of Polotsk (Old Church Slavonic: Сѵміѡн Полацкій; born probably Samuil Yemelyanovich Petrovskiy-Sitnianovich, December 12, 1629, Polotsk - August 25, 1680, Moscow) was a prominent Belarusian and Russian churchman, poet and enlighter, an adherent of Western linguistic influence. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Scurvy (N.Lat. ...


On July 28, 1680 he married a Ukrainian noblewoman Agatha Gruszewska and assumed the sceptre. His native energy, though crippled, was not crushed by his terrible disabilities; and he soon showed that he was as thorough and devoted a reformer as a man incompetent to lead armies and obliged to issue his orders from his litter, or his bed-chamber, could possibly be. The atmosphere of the court ceased to be oppressive; the light of a new liberalism shone in the highest places; and the severity of the penal laws was considerably mitigated. He founded the academy of sciences in the Zaikonospassky monastery, where everything not expressly forbidden by the Orthodox church, including Slavonic, Greek, Latin and Polish, was to be taught by competent professors. July 28 is the 209th day (210th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 156 days remaining. ... Events First Portuguese governor was appointed to Macau The Swedish city Karlskrona was founded as the Royal Swedish Navy relocated there. ... Slavic Greek Latin Academy (Славяно-греко-латинская академия in Russian) was the first higher education establishment in Moscow, Russia. ... Saviour Cathedral in 1883. ... The Russian Orthodox Church (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with... Page from the Spiridon Psalter in Church Slavonic. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...

Burning Pedigree Books in Feodor III's reign, 1682
Burning Pedigree Books in Feodor III's reign, 1682

The chief difference between the Feodorean and the later Petrine reforms was that while the former were primarily, though not exclusively, for the benefit of the church, the latter were primarily for the benefit of the state. The most notable reform of Feodor III, however, was the abolition, at the suggestion of Vasily Galitzine, of "place priority," which had paralyzed the whole civil and military administration of Muscovy for generations. Henceforth all appointments to the civil and military services were to be determined by merit and the will of the sovereign, while pedigree (nobility) books were to be destroyed. Feodor's consort, Agatha, shared his progressive views. She was the first to advocate beard-shaving. On her death (4th of July 1681) Feodor married Martha Apraksina. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1026x773, 341 KB) Burning books of Nobility during w:Feodor III of Russia regorms 1682 old litograph scanned from Nikolai Tolstoi The Tolstoys:tweny four generations of Russian history File links The following pages link to this file: Feodor III of... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1026x773, 341 KB) Burning books of Nobility during w:Feodor III of Russia regorms 1682 old litograph scanned from Nikolai Tolstoi The Tolstoys:tweny four generations of Russian history File links The following pages link to this file: Feodor III of... Events March 11 – Chelsea hospital for soldiers is founded in England May 6 - Louis XIV of France moves his court to Versailles. ... Peter I permitted the Galitzines to take an emblem of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania as their coat of arms Galitzine, more correctly Golitsyn (Russian: Голицын), is one of the largest and noblest princely houses of Russia. ... In Russian history, Mestnichesvo (Russian: Местничество - Mestnichestvo) was a feudal hierarchical system in Russia from 15th till the 17th century. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ...


Fyodor died on May 7, 1682, without issue. The news of his death sparked the Moscow Uprising of 1682. May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (128th in leap years). ... Events March 11 – Chelsea hospital for soldiers is founded in England May 6 - Louis XIV of France moves his court to Versailles. ... A scene from the uprising: Natalia Naryshkina shows Ivan V to the Streltsy in order to prove that he is alive and well, while the Patriarch attempts to calm the crowd. ...


References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
Preceded by
Alexis I
Tsar of Russia
1676–1682
Succeeded by
Peter I and Ivan V

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