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Encyclopedia > Fenugreek

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Genus: Trigonella
Species: T. foenum-graecum
Binomial name
Trigonella foenum-graecum

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) or menthya (Kannada)or Venthayam (Tamil) belongs to the family Fabaceae. Fenugreek is used both as a herb (the leaves) and as a spice (the seed). It is cultivated worldwide as a semi-arid crop. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1448x2388, 724 KB) Name Trigonella foenum-graecum Family Fabaceae Original book source: Prof. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class of flowering plants. ... Families Fabaceae (legumes) Quillajaceae Polygalaceae (milkwort family) Surianaceae The Fabales are an order of flowering plants, included in the rosid group of dicotyledons. ... Subfamilies Faboideae Caesalpinioideae Mimosoideae References GRIN-CA 2002-09-01 The name Fabaceae belongs to either of two families, depending on viewpoint. ... Species See text Trigonella is a large genus from the family Fabaceae. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ... Look up Tamil in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Herb (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Fenugreek, also called methi, is a crop plant grown as a potherb and for the spice made from its seeds. ...

The name fenugreek or foenum-graecum is from Latin for "Greek hay". Zohary and Hopf note that it is not yet certain which wild strain of the genus Trigonella gave rise to the domesticated fenugreek but believe it was brought into cultivation in the Near East. Charred fenugreek seeds have been recovered from Tell Halal, Iraq, (radiocarbon dating to 4000 BC) and Bronze Age levels of Lachish, as well as desiccated seeds from the tomb of Tutankhamen.[1] Cato the Elder lists fenugreek with clover and vetch as crops grown to feed cattle (De Agri Cultura, 27). For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Radiocarbon dating is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring isotope carbon-14 (14C) to determine the age of carbonaceous materials up to about 60,000 years. ... Lachish was a town located in the Shephelah, or maritime plain of Palestine (Joshua 10:3, 5; 12:11). ... Tutankhamun (alternate transcription Tutankhamen), named Tutankhaten early in his life, was Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt (1334 BC/1333 BC - 1323 BC), during the period known as the New Kingdom. ... Marcus Porcius Cato (Latin: M·PORCIVS·M·F·CATO[1]) (234 BC, Tusculum–149 BC) was a Roman statesman, surnamed the Censor (Censorius), Sapiens, Priscus, or the Elder (Major), to distinguish him from Cato the Younger (his great-grandson). ... For other uses, see Clover (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Vicia sativa Vetch or tare is a nitrogen fixing leguminous plant. ... De Agri Cultura (On Farming or On Agriculture), written around 150 BC by Cato the Elder, is the first surviving work of Latin prose. ...

The rhombic yellow to amber colored fenugreek seed, commonly called Methi, is frequently used in the preparation of pickles, curry powders and pastes, and is often encountered in the cuisine of the Indian subcontinent. The young leaves and sprouts of fenugreek are eaten as greens, and the fresh or dried leaves are used to flavor other dishes. The dried leaves (called kasuri methi) have a bitter taste and a strong characteristic smell. Cuisine (from French cuisine, cooking; culinary art; kitchen; ultimately from Latin coquere, to cook) is a specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a specific culture. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mixed bean sprouts Sprouting is the practice of soaking, draining, then rinsing at regular intervals seeds until they germinate and begin to sprout. ... Leaf vegetables, also called greens or leafy greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots. ...

In India, fenugreek seeds are mixed with yogurt and used as a conditioner for hair. It is also one of the ingredients in the making of khakhra, a type of bread. It is used in injera/taita, a type of bread unique to Ethiopian and Eritrean cuisine. The word for fenugreek in Amharic is abesh, and the seed is reportedly also often used in Ethiopia as a natural herbal medicine in the treatment of diabetes. It is also sometimes used as an ingredient in the production of clarified butter (Amharic: qibé, Ethiopian and Eritrean Tigrinya: tesme), which is similar to Indian ghee. In Turkey, fenugreek gives its name, çemen, to a hot paste used in pastirma. The same paste is used in Egypt for the same purpose. The Arabic word hulba حلبة (Helba in Egypt) for the seed resembles its Mandarin Chinese counterpart hu lu ba. In Yemen it is the main condiment and an ingredient added to the national dish called saltah. Fenugreek, or Şambélilé in Persian, is also one of four herbs used for the Iranian recipe Ghormeh Sabzi. Yoghurt Yoghurt or yogurt, less commonly yoghourt or yogourt, is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... This meal, consisting of injera and several kinds of wat or tsebhi (stew), is typical of Ethiopian and Eritrean cuisine. ... This meal is typical of Eritrean and Ethiopian cuisine. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Tigrinya (Geez ትግርኛ tigriññā, also spelled Tigrigna) is a Semitic language spoken by the Tigray-Tigrinya people in central Eritrea (there referred to as the Tigrinya people), where it is one of the main working languages (Eritrea does not have official languages), and in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia (whose... Ghee in a jar Ghee (Hindi घी, Urdu Ú¯Ú¾ÛŒ, Punjabi ਘੋ, Kashmiri ग्याव/گیاو - from Sanskrit घृत sprinkled; also known in Arabic as سمن, samn, meaning ghee or fat) is a class of clarified butter that originates in the Indian subcontinent, and continues to be important in Indian cuisine as well as Egyptian cuisine. ... Pastırma is a kind of Turkish deli meat which is comparable with bacon. ... Arabic redirects here. ... This article is on all of the Northern Chinese dialects. ... Saltah is one of the main dishes widely eaten in Yemen and it is mainly served for lunch. ... Farsi redirects here. ... This article is about culinary recipes. ... Ghormeh Sabzi is an Iranian stew. ...

In Egypt, fenugreek seeds are prepared as tea, by being boiled then sweetened. This is a popular winter drink server in coffee shops.

Fenugreek seeds are a rich source of the polysaccharide galactomannan. They are also a source of saponins such as diosgenin, yamogenin, gitogenin, tigogenin, and neotigogens. Other bioactive constituents of fenugreek include mucilage, volatile oils, and alkaloids such as choline and trigonelline. Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... Galactomannans are polysaccharides consisting of a mannose backbone with galactose side groups (more specifically, a (1-4)-linked beta-D-mannopyranose backbone with branchpoints from their 6-positions linked to alpha-D-galactose, i. ...

A side effect of consuming even small amounts of fenugreek (even as just an infusion in water) is a maple syrup or curry smell in the eater's sweat and urine, which is caused by the potent aroma compound sotolone. Fenugreek is frequently used in the production of flavoring for artificial syrups. The taste of toasted fenugreek is additionally based on substituted pyrazines, as is cumin. By itself, it has a somewhat bitter taste. Bottled maple syrup produced in Quebec. ... This article is about the dish. ... Aroma redirects here. ... Perspiration (also called sweating or sometimes transpiration) is the production and evaporation of a fluid, consisting primarily of water as well as a smaller amount of sodium chloride (the main constituent of table salt), that is excreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals. ... This article is about the urine of animals generally. ... An aroma compound, also known as odorant, aroma, fragrance, flavor, is a chemical compound that has a smell or odor. ... Sotolon, also known as sotolone and fenugreek lactone, is an extremely powerful aroma compound with the typical smell of fenugreek and maple syrup. ... Flavouring (or flavoring) is a product which is added to food in order to change or augment its taste. ... Substitution in the context of organic chemistry has the general meaning of replacing an atom, a functional group, or a substituent in a molecule. ... Pyrazine is a symmetrical molecule. ... Geerah redirects here. ... Human taste sensory organs, called taste buds or gustatory calyculi, and concentrated on the upper surface of the tongue, appear to be receptive to relatively few chemical species as tastes. ...

Dried fenugreek seed
Dried fenugreek seed

Fenugreek is mainly used as a digestive aid. Fenugreek seed is widely used as a galactagogue (milk producing agent) by nursing mothers to increase inadequate breast milk supply. It can be found in capsule form in many health food stores.[2] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (870x738, 466 KB) Summary Fenugreek (Methi) seeds for cooking or planting (Shailesh Humbad, http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (870x738, 466 KB) Summary Fenugreek (Methi) seeds for cooking or planting (Shailesh Humbad, http://www. ... A galactagogue is a substance, typically a herb, that increases lactation. ... It has been suggested that the section Benefits for the infant from the article Breastfeeding be merged into this article or section. ...

Supplements of fenugreek seeds were shown to lower serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein in human patients and experimental models of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia (Basch et al., 2003). Several human intervention trials demonstrated that the antidiabetic effects of fenugreek seeds ameliorate most metabolic symptoms associated with type-1 and type-2 diabetes in both humans and relevant animal models (Basch et al., 2003; Srinivas, 2005). Fenugreek is currently available commercially in encapsulated forms and is being prescribed as dietary supplements for the control of hypercholesterolemia and diabetes by practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine. Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... Example of an unsaturated fat triglyceride. ... A lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly that contains both proteins and lipids. ... Hypercholesterolemia (literally: high blood cholesterol) is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood [1]. It is not a disease but a metabolic derangement that can be secondary to many diseases and can contribute to many forms of disease, most notably cardiovascular disease. ... In medicine, hypertriglyceridemia (or Hypertriglyceridaemia) denotes high (hyper-) blood levels (-emia) of triglycerides, the most abundant fatty molecule in most organisms. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... See diabetes mellitus for further general information on diabetes. ...

Fenugreek seeds close-up
Fenugreek seeds close-up

In recent research, fenugreek seeds were experimentally shown to protect against cancers of the breast (Amin et al., 2005) and colon (Raju et al., 2006). The hepatoprotective properties of fenugreek seeds have also been reported in experimental models (Raju and Bird, 2006; Kaviarasan et al., 2006; Thirunavukarrasu et al., 2003). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (1204 × 801 pixel, file size: 420 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fenugreek ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (1204 × 801 pixel, file size: 420 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fenugreek ... For other uses, see Breast (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Large intestine. ...

For other uses, see Herb (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Angelica archangelica L. Garden Angelica (Angelica archangelica) is a biennial plant from the umbelliferous family Apiaceae. ... For other uses, see Basil (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. Synonyms Ocimum sanctum L. Ocimum tenuifolium (known as Holy basil in English, and Tulasi in Sanskrit), is a well known aromatic plant in the family Lamiaceae. ... Thai Basil is a cultivar of basil and is a major ingredient in many Thai dishes. ... bay leaves Bay leaf in Greek Daphni (plural bay leaves) is the aromatic leaf of several species of the Laurel family (Lauraceae). ... Boldo (Peumus boldus Molina) is a plant native to the coastal region of Chile. ... Binomial name Borago officinalis L. Borage (Borago officinalis), also known as starflower, is an annual herb native to central and eastern Europe. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... Binomial name Anthriscus cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. ... Binomial name Allium schoenoprasum L. Chives (Allium schoenoprasum), is the smallest species of the onion family[1] Alliaceae, native to Europe, Asia and North America[2]. They are referred to only in the plural, because they grow in clumps rather than as individual plants. ... For other uses, see Coriander (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel The Curry Tree or Curry-leaf Tree (Murraya koenigii; syn. ... For other uses, see Dill (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. Epazote, Wormseed, Jesuits Tea, Mexican Tea, or Herba Sancti Mariæ (Chenopodium ambrosioides) is an herb native to Central America, South America, and southern Mexico. ... Binomial name L. Eryngium foetidum (also known as Bhandhanya, Chandon benit, Culantro, Culantro Coyote, (Fitweed, Long coriander, Mexican coriander, Wild coriander, Recao, Shado beni (English-speaking Caribbean), Spiritweed, (Ngò gai (Vietnam), Sawtooth), )Saw-leaf herb, or Cilantro cimarron) is a tropical perennial and annual herb in the family Apiaceae. ... Binomial name Piper auritum Kunth Hoja santa (Piper auritum, synonymous with Piper sanctum[1]) is an aromatic herb with a heart shaped leaf which grows in tropic Mesoamerica. ... Genera See text. ... Species See text Hyssop (Hyssopus) is a genus of about 10-12 species of herbaceous or semi-woody plants in the family Lamiaceae, native from the Mediterranean east to central Asia. ... Binomial name Lavandula officinalis Mill. ... Binomial name Melissa officinalis Linnaeus Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), not to be confused with bee balm, Monarda species, is a perennial herb in the mint family Lamiaceae, native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. ... Species About 55, see text Cymbopogon (lemon grass, lemongrass, citronella grass or fever grass) is a genus of about 55 species of grasses, native to warm temperate and tropical regions of the Old World. ... Binomial name Aloysia triphylla (LHér. ... Binomial name Limnophila aromatica (Lam. ... Binomial name Levisticum officinale L. Koch. ... Binomial name L. Marjoram (Origanum majorana, Lamiaceae) is a somewhat cold-sensitive perennial herb or undershrub with sweet pine and citrus flavours. ... “Mint” redirects here. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Origanum vulgare L. Oregano or Pot Marjoram (Origanum vulgare) is a species of Origanum, native to Europe, the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. ... This article is about the herb. ... Perilla is a genus of annual herb that is a member of the mint family, Lamiaceae. ... For other uses, see Rosemary (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Ruta graveolens L. The Common Rue (Ruta graveolens), also known as Herb-of-grace, is a species of rue grown as a herb. ... Binomial name L. Sage leaves - first variety Sage leaves - second variety Common sage (Salvia officinalis) is a small evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. ... Species About 30, see text Satureja is a genus of aromatic plants of the family Lamiaceae, related to rosemary and thyme. ... Binomial name Rumex acetosa L. The common sorrel, or spinach dock, Ambada bhaji is a perennial herb, which grows abundantly in meadows in most parts of Europe and is cultivated as a leaf vegetable. ... Species About 150 species, including: Stevia eupatoria Stevia ovata Stevia plummerae Stevia rebaudiana Stevia salicifolia Stevia serrata Stevia is a genus of about 150 species of herbs and shrubs in the sunflower family (Asteraceae), native to subtropical and tropical South America and Central America. ... This article is about the herb; for the Freedom Call CD see Taragon. ... Species About 350 species, including: Thymus adamovicii Thymus altaicus Thymus amurensis Thymus bracteosus Thymus broussonetii Thymus caespititius Thymus camphoratus Thymus capitatus Thymus capitellatus Thymus camphoratus Thymus carnosus Thymus cephalotus Thymus cherlerioides Thymus ciliatus Thymus cilicicus Thymus cimicinus Thymus comosus Thymus comptus Thymus curtus Thymus disjunctus Thymus doerfleri Thymus glabrescens Thymus... Binomial name Persicaria odorata Lour. ... Binomial name Galium odoratum (L.) Scop. ... The term Grains of Selim refers to the seeds of a shrubby tree, Xylopia aethiopica, found in Africa. ... Ajwain seeds Ajwain (also known as carom seeds or bishops weed), is an uncommon spice except in certain areas of Asia. ... The Aleppo Pepper is a variety of Capsicum annuum named after the town Aleppo in northern Syria. ... Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... Species About 35 species, including: Mangifera altissima Mangifera applanata Mangifera caesia Mangifera camptosperma Mangifera casturi Mangifera decandra Mangifera foetida Mangifera gedebe Mangifera griffithii Mangifera indica Mangifera kemanga Mangifera laurina Mangifera longipes Mangifera macrocarpa Mangifera mekongensis Mangifera odorata Mangifera pajang Mangifera pentandra Mangifera persiciformis Mangifera quadrifida Mangifera siamensis Mangifera similis Mangifera... This article is about the Pimpinella species, but the name anise is frequently applied to Fennel. ... Binomial name (Linn. ... Binomial name L. Asafoetida (Ferula assafoetida, family Apiaceae), alternative spelling asafetida (also known as devils dung, stinking gum, asant, food of the gods, hing, and giant fennel) is a species of Ferula native to Iran. ... Binomial name Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Sieb. ... Categories: | | | | ... This article is about the herbs. ... Binomial name Amomum subulatum Roxb. ... Binomial name Cinnamomum aromaticum Nees Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum, synonym ), also called Chinese cinnamon, is an evergreen tree native to southern China and mainland Southeast Asia west to Myanmar. ... A large red cayenne The Cayenne is a hot red chili pepper used to flavor dishes, and for medicinal purposes. ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... For other uses, see Chili. ... Binomial name J.Presl Cassia (Chinese cinnamon) is also commonly called (and sometimes sold as) cinnamon. ... Binomial name (L.) Merrill & Perry A single dried clove flower bud Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum, syn. ... For other uses, see Coriander (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Piper cubeba L. Cubeb (Piper cubeba), or tailed pepper, is a plant in genus Piper, cultivated for its fruit and essential oil. ... Geerah redirects here. ... Binomial name Bunium persicum (Boiss. ... For other uses, see Dill (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ... Binomial name (L.) Mansf. ... Binomial name Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd. ... This article lacks an appropriate taxobox. ... Binomial name L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ... For other uses, see Ginger (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. ... Binomial name P.G. Gaertn. ... Juniper berries, here still attached to a branch, are actually modified conifer cones. ... Binomial name L. Liquorice or licorice (see spelling differences) (IPA: , or ) is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, from which a sweet flavour can be extracted. ... For other uses, see Nutmeg (disambiguation). ... Mahlab, Mahleb, or Mahlepi, is an aromatic spice from the puverized pit of the black cherry, Cerasus mahaleb or (Prunus mahaleb). ... Malabathrum, also known as Malabar leaf is the name used in classical and medieval texts for the leaf of the plant Cinnamomum tamala. ... Binomial name Brassica nigra L. Black mustard (Brassica nigra) is an annual weedy plant cultivated for its seeds, which are commonly used as a spice. ... Binomial name Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. ... Binomial name Sinapis alba White mustard (Sinapis alba) is a plant of the family Cruciferae. ... Species About 80 species, see text. ... Binomial name L. Nigella sativa is an annual flowering plant, native to southwest Asia. ... For other uses, see Nutmeg (disambiguation). ... Capsicum fruit which comes in various shapes and colours can be used to make paprika. ... Binomial name L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Binomial name L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Binomial name Piper longum L. Long pepper (Piper longum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Binomial name Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi Brazilian Pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius; also known as Aroeira or Florida Holly) is a sprawling shrub or small tree 7-10 m tall, native to subtropical and tropical South America, in southeastern Brazil, northern Argentina and Paraguay. ... Binomial name Schinus molle Raddi Peruvian Pepper (Schinus molle, also known as California pepper tree, molle, pepper tree, pepperina, Peruvian mastictree and Peruvian peppertree) is a tree or shrub that grows to between 5 and 18 m tall. ... Binomial name L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... For the color, see Pomegranate (color). ... This article is about the plant. ... Binomial name Crocus sativus L. Saffron (IPA: ) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. ... Binomial name Killip & Morton Sarsaparilla (Smilax regelii and other closely related species of Smilax) is a plant that comes in vine and, in the case of Aralia nudicaulis L., bush variants that bears roots with many useful properties. ... This article is about the Sassafras tree. ... Binomial name Sesamum indicum L. Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum. ... Sichuan pepper (or Szechuan pepper) is the outer pod of the tiny fruit of a number of species in the genus Zanthoxylum (most commonly Zanthoxylum piperitum, Zanthoxylum simulans, and Zanthoxylum sancho), widely grown and consumed in Asia as a spice. ... Binomial name Hook. ... Species About 250 species; see text Rhus is a genus approximately 250 species of woody shrubs and small trees in the family Anacardiaceae. ... Species (not a complete list) Tasmannia is a genus of woody, evergreen flowering plants of the family Winteraceae. ... Binomial name L. This article refers to the tree. ... Binomial name Linnaeus Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae which is native to tropical South Asia. ... Binomial name Matsum. ... Binomial name Curcuma zedoaria (Christm. ...

External links

  • Gernot Katzer's spice dictionary - Fenugreek
  • Ghormeh Sabzi, an Iranian recipe using fenugreek leaves
  • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center - About Herbs, Botanicals & Other Products
  • Encyclopedia of Spices


  • A. Amin et al. (2005). "Chemopreventive activities of Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek) against breast cancer". Cell Biol Int 29 (8): 687-94. 
  • E. Basch et al. (2003). "Therapeutic applications of fenugreek". Altern Med Rev 8 (1): 20-27. 
  • S. Kaviarasan et al. (2006). "Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seed extract prevents ethanol-induced toxicity and apoptosis in Chang liver cells". Alcohol Alcohol 41 (3): 267-273. 
  • J. Raju and R.P. Bird et al. (2006). "Alleviation of hepatic steatosis accompanied by modulation of plasma and liver TNF-alpha levels by Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) seeds in Zucker obese (fa/fa) rats". International Journal of Obesity 30 (8): 1298-1307. 
  • J. Raju et al. (2004). "Diosgenin, a steroid saponin of Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek), inhibits azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci formation in F344 rats and induces apoptosis in HT-29 human colon cancer cells". Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13 (8): 1392-1398. 
  • K. Srinivasan et al. (2005). "Plant foods in the management of diabetes mellitus: spices as beneficial antidiabetic food adjuncts". International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 56 (6): 399-414. 
  • V. Thirunavukkarasu et al. (2003). "Protective effect of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seeds in experimental ethanol toxicity". Phytother Res 17 (7): 737-743. 


  1. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf, Domestication of plants in the Old World, third edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 122.
  2. ^ http://www.breastfeeding.com/all_about/all_about_fenugreek.html



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