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Encyclopedia > Fentanyl
Fentanyl
Systematic (IUPAC) name
N-(1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl)-N-phenyl-propanamide
Identifiers
CAS number 437-38-7
ATC code N01AH01 N02AB03
PubChem 3345
DrugBank APRD00347
Chemical data
Formula C22H28N2O 
Mol. mass 336.471 g/mol
Physical data
Melt. point 87.5 °C (190 °F)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 92% (transdermal)
50% (buccal)
Protein binding 80-85%
Metabolism hepatic, primarily by CYP3A4
Half life 7 hours (range 3–12 h)
Excretion Urine
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

C(US) Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 519 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 714 pixel, file size: 190 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fentanyl ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... The DrugBank database available at the University of Alberta is a unique bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug (i. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... General Name, symbol, number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... A drugs efficacy may be affected by the degree to which it binds to the proteins within blood plasma. ... Drug metabolism is the metabolism of drugs, their biochemical modification or degradation, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. ... The liver is an organ in vertebrates including humans. ... Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) (EC 1. ... It has been suggested that Effective half-life be merged into this article or section. ... Excretion is the process of eliminating waste products of metabolism and other materials that are of no use. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...

Legal status

Schedule II(US) The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ... The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...

Dependence Liability Moderate - High
Routes TD, IM, IV, oral, sublingual, buccal

Fentanyl is an opioid analgesic, first synthesized by Janssen Pharmaceutica (Belgium) in the late 1950s, with a potency many times that of morphine. Fentanyl was introduced into medical practice in the 1960s as an intravenous anesthetic under the trade name of Sublimaze. Fentanyl has an LD50 of 3.1 milligrams per kilogram in rats, and, 0.03 milligrams per kilogram in monkeys. The LD50 in humans is not known. In the United States, fentanyl is a Schedule II drug. In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body 1. ... A 21mg dose Nicoderm CQ patch applied to the right arm A transdermal patch or skin patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a time released dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream. ... Intramuscular injection is the injection of a substance directly into a muscle. ... Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... Sublingual, literally under the tongue, from Latin, refers to a pharmacological route of administration in which certain drugs are entered directly into the bloodstream via absorption under the tongue. ... Buccal mucosa is mucous membrane of the inside of the cheek. ... An opioid is a chemical substance that has a morphine-like action in the body. ... An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... Johnson & Johnson NYSE: JNJ is an international pharmaceutical, medical devices and consumer packaged goods manufacturer founded in 1885. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ... An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ... The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ...

Contents

Chemistry

Synthesis

The synthesis of fentanyl (N-phenyl-N-(1-phenethyl-4-piperidinyl)propanamide) by Janssen Pharmaceutica was achieved in four steps, starting from 4-piperidinone hydrochloride. The 4-piperidinone hydrochloride was first reacted with phenethyl bromide to give N-phenethyl-4-piperidinone (NPP). Treatment of the NPP intermediate with aniline followed by reduction with sodium borohydride afforded 4-anilino-N-phenethyl-piperidine (ANPP). finally ANPP and propionic anhydride are reacted to form the amide product. Johnson & Johnson NYSE: JNJ is an international pharmaceutical, medical devices and consumer packaged goods manufacturer founded in 1885. ... 4-Piperidinone (4-piperidone, piperidin-4-one) is a derivative of piperidine with the molecular formula C5H9NO. 4-Piperidone is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of chemicals and pharmaceutical drugs. ... N-Phenethyl-4-piperidinone (1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidone) is a derivative of piperidine with the molecular formula C5H9NO. 4-Piperidone is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of chemicals and pharmaceutical drugs such as fentanyl. ... Aniline, phenylamine or aminobenzene is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2. ... Sodium borohydride, also known as sodium tetrahydroborate, has the chemical formula NaBH4. ... Propanoic anhydride, also called propionic anhydride, is a simple carboxylic anhydride. ...


Analogues

The pharmaceutical industry has developed several analogues of fentanyl:

  • Alfentanil (trade name Alfenta), an ultra-short acting (5–10 minutes) analgesic,
  • Sufentanil (trade name Sufenta), a potent analgesic (5 to 10 times more potent than fentanyl) for use in heart surgery.
  • Remifentanil (trade name Ultiva), currently the shortest acting opioid, has the benefit of rapid offset, even after prolonged infusions.
  • Carfentanil (trade name Wildnil) is an analogue of fentanyl with an analgesic potency 10,000 times that of morphine and is used in veterinary practice to immobilize certain large animals.

Alfentanil (Alfenta) is a parenteral short-acting opioid painkiller, used for anaesthesia in surgery. ... Sufentanil is a synthetic opioid analgesic drug approximately 5 to 10 times more potent than fentanyl. ... Remifentanil is a potent ultra short-acting synthetic opioid analgesic drug. ... Carfentanil, also Carfentanyl, is an analogue of the popular opioid Fentanyl, and is currently the most potent opioid known [Actually Ohmefentanil is 13,000X morphine]. It has a quantitative potency approximately 10,000 times that of morphine and 100 times that of fentanyl (activity in humans starting at about 1...

Therapeutic use

Fentanyls are extensively used for anesthesia and analgesia, most often in the operating room and intensive care unit. Fentanyl transdermal patch is used in chronic pain management. Fentanyl patches work by releasing fentanyl into body fats, which then slowly release the drug into the blood stream over 72 hours, allowing for long lasting relief from pain. In the past few years, the patches have gone generic and are available for lower costs. Fentanyl patches are manufactured in five patch sizes: 12.5 micrograms/h, 25 µg/h, 50 µg/h, 75 µg/h, and 100 µg/h. Dosage is based on the size of the patch, since the transdermal absorption rate is generally constant at a constant skin temperature. Rate of absorption is dependent on a number of factors. Body temperature, skin type and placement of the patch can have major effects. The different delivery systems used by different makers will also affect individual rates of absorption. Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... For other uses of painkiller, see painkiller (disambiguation) An analgesic (colloquially known as painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain. ... A 21mg dose Nicoderm CQ patch applied to the right arm A transdermal patch or skin patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a time released dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream. ... A generic drug (pl. ... The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the SI base unit of mass. ...


Fentanyl lozenges are a solid formulation of fentanyl citrate on a stick in the form of a lollipop that dissolves slowly in the mouth for transmucosal absorption. These lozenges are intended for opioid-tolerant individuals and is effective in treating breakthrough cancer pain. It is also useful for breakthrough pain for those suffering bone injuries, severe back pain, neuropathy, arthritis, and some other examples of chronic nonmalignant pain. The unit is a berry-flavored lozenge on a stick which is swabbed on the mucosal surfaces inside the mouth—inside of the cheeks, under and on the tongue and gums—to release the fentanyl quickly into the system. It is most effective when the lozenge is consumed in 15 minutes. The drug is less effective if swallowed, as despite good absorbance from the small intestine there is extensive first pass metabolism, leading to an oral bioavailability of 33%. Fenanyl lozenges are available in six dosages, from 200 to 1600 µg in 200 µg increments (excluding 1000 µg and 1400 µg). These are now available in the United states in generic form,[1] through an FTC consent agreement.[2]
However, most patients find it takes 10-15 minutes to use all of one lozenge, and those with a dry mouth cannot use this route. In addition, nurses are unable to document how much of a lozenge has been used by a patient, making drug records inaccurate. A girl with a lollipop A child looking at his lollipop A lollipop, pop, lolly, sucker, or dum-dum is a type of confectionery consisting mainly of hardened, flavoured sucrose with corn syrup mounted on a stick and intended for sucking or licking. ... Most cancer patients will, from time to time, experience pain which is normally treated by pain medications. ... FTC may mean several things: The Federal Trade Commission. ...


The development of small fentanyl buccal pellets may be much more practical. These are effervescent tablets placed in the cheek and is absorbed through the buccal mucosa. One advantage of such tablets is claimed be quicker absorption into the bloodstream at lower dosage levels. Look up Cheek in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Cheeks (Latin: malar) are the fleshy area of the face below the eyes and between the nose and the left or right ear, the skin being suspended by the chin and the jaws. ... Carbonated bubbles in a soda float to the surface. ... Look up Cheek in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Cheeks are the fleshy area of the face below the eyes and between the nose and the left or right ear, the skin being suspended by the chin and the yaws. ... Buccal mucosa is mucous membrane of the inside of the cheek. ...


Fentanyl is frequently given intrathecally as part of spinal anesthesia or epidurally for epidural anesthesia and analgesia. It is also used as a sedative. Spinal anaesthesia is a form of local, or more specifically regional, anaesthesia involving injection of a local anaesthetic into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), generally through a long fine needle. ... The epidural space is a part of the human spine which is very close to the spinal cord, lying just outside the dura mater. ... The epidural space is a part of the human spine which is very close to the spinal cord, lying just outside the dura mater. ...


Adverse effects

Like other lipid soluble drugs, the pharmacodynamics of fentanyl are poorly understood. The manufacturers acknowledge there is no data on the pharmacodynamics of fentanyl in elderly, cachectic or debilitated patients, frequently the type of patient for which transdermal fentanyl is being used. This may explain the increasing number of reports of respiratory depression events since the late 1970s.[3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9] In 2006 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration started investigating several respiratory deaths. Cachexia is loss of weight, muscle wasting, fatigue, weakness and anorexia (not anorexia nervosa) in someone who is not actively trying to lose weight. ... In medicine, hypoventilation exists when ventilation is inadequate to perform gas exchange. ... hi “FDA” redirects here. ...


The precise reason for sudden respiratory depression is unclear, but there are several hypotheses:

  • Saturation of the body fat compartment in patients with rapid and profound body fat loss (patients with cancer, cardiac or infection-induced cachexia can lose 80% of their body fat).
  • Early carbon dioxide retention causing cutaneous vasodilatation (releasing more fentanyl), together with acidosis which reduces protein binding of fentanyl (releasing yet more fentanyl).
  • Reduced sedation, losing a useful early warning sign of opioid toxicity, and resulting in levels closer to respiratory depressant levels.

In palliative care fentanyl has a definite, but limited, role for: Palliative care (from Latin palliare, to cloak) is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of disease symptoms, rather than providing a cure. ...

  • Patients already stabilised on other opioids but who cannot swallow
  • Patients with moderate to severe renal failure

Fentanyl is not considered a first line opioid in palliative care—morphine remains the first line choice, and safer opiate derivatives such as oxycodone and hydromorphone are usually tried before resorting to fentanyl. Renal failure is the condition in which the kidneys fail to function properly. ... Morphine (INN) (IPA: ) is a highly potent opiate analgesic drug and is the principal active agent in opium and the prototypical opiate. ... Not to be confused with oxytocin. ... Hydromorphone is a drug developed in Germany in the 1920s and introduced to the mass market beginning in 1926. ...


Illicit use

? This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims.
Please help Wikipedia by adding references. See the talk page for details.
Fentanyl powder seized by a Lake County Deputy Sheriff in Painesville, Ohio, where a male subject had been discovered unresponsive and struggling to breathe

Illicit use of pharmaceutical fentanyls first appeared in the mid-1970s in the medical community and continues in the present. United States authorities classify fentanyl as a narcotic. To date, over 12 different analogues of fentanyl have been produced clandestinely and identified in the U.S. drug traffic. The biological effects of the fentanyls are similar to those of heroin, with the exception that there is less of a euphoric 'high' associated with the drug and a stronger sedative and analgesic effect. Because the effects of fentanyl last for only a very short time, it is even more addictive than heroin, and regular users may become addicted very quickly. Additionally, fentanyl may be hundreds of times more potent than street heroin, and tends to produce significantly worse respiratory depression, making it somewhat more dangerous than heroin to users — though in some places, it is sold as heroin, often leading to overdoses. Fentanyl is most commonly used orally, but like heroin, can also be smoked, snorted or injected. Many fentanyl overdoses were initially classified as heroin overdoses.[10] Image File history File links Circle-question. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Lake County is a county located in the state of Ohio. ... Painesville is a city located in Lake County, Ohio. ... Drug abuse has a wide range of definitions related to taking a psychoactive drug or performance enhancing drug for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Clandestine chemistry generally refers to chemistry carried out in illegal drug laboratories, but can include any kind of laboratory operation carried on in secret. ... In medicine, hypoventilation exists when ventilation is inadequate to perform gas exchange. ...


Fentanyl is normally sold on the black market in the form of transdermal fentanyl patches such as Duragesic, diverted from legitimate medical supplies. The patches may be cut up and eaten, or the gel from inside the patch is extracted and smoked by addicts, and so in response to this manufacturers such as Mylan have produced newer forms of fentanyl patches that cannot be abused in this way.[1] Another dosage form of fentanyl which has appeared on the streets are the fentanyl lollipops Actiq, which are sold under the street name of "percopop". The pharmacy retail price ranges from US$16 to US$50 per unit (based on strength of lozenge), with the black market cost anywhere from US$20 to US$60 per unit, depending on the strength. Abuse of fentanyl by individuals without opiate tolerance can be very dangerous and has resulted in numerous deaths.[2] Duragesic (or Durogesic in Europe) is the trade name of a fentanyl transdermal therapeutic system manufactured by ALZA Corporation and marketed by Janssen Pharmaceutica (both subsidiaries of Johnson & Johnson). ... Mylan Laboratories Inc. ... Actiq, by Cephalon, is a recently-developed solid formulation of fentanyl citrate on a stick that dissolves slowly in the mouth for transmucosal absorption. ... ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Indian Ocean Territory,[1] the British Virgin Islands, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 2. ...


Illicitly synthesized fentanyl powder thought to be manufactured in Mexico has also appeared on the US market. Because of the extremely high strength of pure fentanyl powder, it is very difficult to dilute appropriately, and often the resulting mixture may be far too strong and consequently very dangerous. Some heroin dealers mix fentanyl powder with larger amounts of heroin in order to increase potency or compensate for low-quality heroin, and to increase the volume of their product. As of December 2006, a mix of fentanyl and either cocaine or heroin has caused an outbreak in overdose deaths in the United States, heavily concentrated in the cities of Detroit, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Milwaukee, Camden, Chicago,[11] Little Rock, and Dallas.[12] The mixture of fentanyl and heroin is known as "magic", among other names, on the street.[13] Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... Nickname: Motto: Philadelphia maneto - Let brotherly love endure Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: , Country Commonwealth County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Government  - Mayor John F. Street (D) Area  - City 369. ... City nickname: The Steel City Location in the state of Pennsylvania Founded 1758 Mayor Tom Murphy (Dem) Area  - Total  - Water 151. ... This article is about Milwaukee in Wisconsin. ... The City of Camden is the county seat of Camden County, New Jersey in the United States. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... There is also a Littlerock, California. ... Dallas redirects here. ...


Several large quantities of illicitly-produced fentanyl have been seized by U.S. law enforcement agencies. In June 2006, 945 grams of 83% pure fentanyl powder were seized by Border Patrol agents in California from a vehicle which had entered from Mexico.[14] Mexico is the source of much of the illicit fentanyl for sale in the U.S. However, there has been one domestic fentanyl lab discovered by law enforcement, in April 2006 in Azusa, California. The lab was a source of counterfeit 80 mg OxyContin tablets containing fentanyl instead of oxycodone, as well as bulk fentanyl and other drugs.[15][16] Categories: Stub | U.S. Dept. ... Azusa is a city located in Los Angeles County, California, United States. ... Not to be confused with oxytocin. ...


The "china white" form of fentanyl refers to the clandestinely produced analogue α-methylfentanyl (AMF).[17] This has been reported in the literature to be twice the strength of regular fentanyl.[citation needed] The main bonus of the alpha-methyl is it provides a site of resistance to metabolic degradation resulting in a drug with an increased duration.[18] α-methylfentanyl is an opioid analgesic that is an analogue of fentanyl. ...


References

  1. ^ Barr Pharmaceuticals (2006-09-27). Barr Launches Generic ACTIQ(R) Cancer Pain Management Product. Press release. Retrieved on 2006-09-30.
  2. ^ FTC (2004-08-09). With Conditions, FTC Allows Cephalon’s Purchase of CIMA, Protecting Competition for Breakthrough Cancer Pain Drugs. Press release. Retrieved on 2006-09-30.
  3. ^ Smydo J. Delayed respiratory depression with fentanyl. Anesthesia Progress. 26(2):47-8, 1979
  4. ^ van Leeuwen L. Deen L. Helmers JH. A comparison of alfentanil and fentanyl in short operations with special reference to their duration of action and postoperative respiratory depression. Anaesthesist. 30(8):397-9, 1981
  5. ^ Brown DL. Postoperative analgesia following thoracotomy. Danger of delayed respiratory depression. Chest. 88(5):779-80, 1985.
  6. ^ Bulow HH. Linnemann M. Berg H. Lang-Jensen T. LaCour S. Jonsson T. Respiratory changes during treatment of postoperative pain with high dose transdermal fentanyl. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 1995; 39(6): 835-9.
  7. ^ Nilsson C. Rosberg B. Recurrence of respiratory depression following neurolept analgesia. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. 26(3):240-1, 1982
  8. ^ McLoughlin R. McQuillan R. Transdermal fentanyl and respiratory depression. Palliative Medicine, 1997; 11(5):419.
  9. ^ Regnard C, Pelham A. Severe respiratory depression and sedation with transdermal fentanyl: four case studies. Palliative Medicine, 2003; 17: 714-716.
  10. ^ [Boddiger, D. (2006, August 12). Fentanyl-laced street drugs “kill hundreds”. In EBSCOhost. Retrieved March 7, 2007, from http://proxy.clpccd.cc.ca.us:2271/ehost/ pdf?vid=8&hid=8&sid=e6bcbd34-2854-4beb-bfca-35460dd686e6%40sessionmgr7 ]
  11. ^ Press Release by the Chicago Police Department Police report about a death linked to heroin/fentanyl mixture August 24, 2006
  12. ^ SMU student's death blamed on rare drug
  13. ^ Fentanyl probe nets 3 suspects by Norman Sinclair and Ronald J. Hansen, The Detroit News, June 23, 2006, retrieved June 25, 2006.
  14. ^ INTELLIGENCE ALERT: HIGH PURITY FENTANYL SEIZED NEAR WESTMORELAND, CALIFORNIA, DEA Microgram, June 2006
  15. ^ INTELLIGENCE ALERT: LARGE FENTANYL / MDA / TMA LABORATORY IN AZUZA, CALIFORNIA - POSSIBLY THE “OC-80” TABLET SOURCE, DEA Microgram, April 2006.
  16. ^ INTELLIGENCE ALERT: OXYCONTIN MIMIC TABLETS (CONTAINING FENTANYL) NEAR ATLANTIC, IOWA, DEA Microgram, January 2006.
  17. ^ Behind the Identification of China White Analytical Chemistry, 53(12), 1379A-1386A (1981)
  18. ^ Van Bever W, Niemegeers C, Janssen P (1974). "Synthetic analgesics. Synthesis and pharmacology of the diastereoisomers of N-(3-methyl-1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidyl)-N-phenylpropanamide and N-(3-methyl-1-(1-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidyl)-N-phenylpropanamide". J Med Chem 17 (10): 1047–51. PMID 4420811. 
  • Lehman, K. A., and D. Zech (eds) Transdermal Fentanyl: a new Approach to Prolonged Pain Control, Berlin; New York: Springer-Verlag (1991) ISBN 0387544402

Barr Pharmaceuticals, Inc. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A press release (sometimes known as a news release or press statement) is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something claimed as having news value. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... FTC may mean several things: The Federal Trade Commission. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A press release (sometimes known as a news release or press statement) is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something claimed as having news value. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

An assortment of psychoactive drugs A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ...

External links

  • National Institute of Health (NIH) Medline Plus: Fentanyl
  • RxList: Fentanyl
  • FDA Public Health Advisory: Fentanyl
  • US DEA information: fentanyl
  • 08/16/2007 News Release: Cephalon Announces Positive Results from a Pivotal Study of FENTORA in Opioid-tolerant Patients with Non-cancer Breakthrough Pain
  • Description of use of Fentanyl in Russia as an incapacitating weapon. See also Moscow theater hostage crisis
  • BBC news report on Russian siege story
  • Amid fentanyl deaths, investigation, addicts keep using in the Chicago Defender
  • Lancaster Online story - New Killer: Fentanyl-Heroin Mix
  • Transdermal Fentanyl- Article by:Mr Andrew Dickman (MSc MRPharmS) - Specialist Principal Pharmacist, Palliative Care Team, Whiston Hospital, Merseyside. Published on www.pain-talk.org.uk

  Results from FactBites:
 
Fentanyl - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (750 words)
Fentanyl is an opioid analgesic, first synthesized in Belgium in the late 1950s, with an analgesic potency of about 80 times that of morphine.
Fentanyl is frequently given intrathecally as part of spinal anesthesia or epidurally for epidural anesthesia and analgesia.
The biological effects of the fentanyls are indistinguishable from those of heroin, with the exception that the fentanyls may be hundreds of times more potent - in some places, it is sold as heroin, often leading to many overdoses.
Fentanyl - definition of Fentanyl in Encyclopedia (503 words)
Actiq is a recently-developed solid formulation of fentanyl citrate on a stick that dissolves slowly in the mouth for transmucosal absorption.
Illicit use of pharmaceutical fentanyls first appeared in the mid-1970s in the medical community and continues to be a problem in the United States.
The biological effects of the fentanyls are indistinguishable from those of heroin, with the exception that the fentanyls may be hundreds of times more potent.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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