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Encyclopedia > Fenian Raids
Fenian Raids
Campobello Island – RidgewayFort Erie – Pigeon Hill – Eccles Hill – Trout River
Fenian Monument - Queen's Park, Toronto Canada ca. 1890

The Fenian raids were attacks by members of the Fenian Brotherhood based in the United States, on British army forts, customs posts and other targets in Canada in order to bring pressure on Britain to withdraw from Ireland, between 1866 and 1871. Most of the raids were successfully repelled by British forces and local militias. They divided many Irish-Canadians, many of whom were torn between loyalty to their new home and sympathy for the aims of the Fenians. The Protestant Irish were generally loyal to Britain and fought the Fenians. While the U.S. authorities arrested the men and confiscated their arms afterwards, many in government had turned a blind eye to the preparations for the invasion, angered at British support for the Confederacy during the American Civil War. There were five Fenian raids to note. Fenian Monument - Queens Park, Toronto Canada ca. ... Battle of Ridgeway - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Battle of Fort Erie (1866) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Battle of Eccles Hill - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (520x695, 194 KB) Fenian Monument, Queens Park, Toronto Canada, ca. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (520x695, 194 KB) Fenian Monument, Queens Park, Toronto Canada, ca. ... The Fenian Brotherhood was an Irish nationalist organization based in the United States in the mid-nineteenth century. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Irish Canadians are Irish people or people of Irish descent living in Canada. ... Fenian is a term used since the 1850s for Irish nationalists (who oppose British rule in Ireland). ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (traditional) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Government Republic President... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...

Contents

Campobello Island raid (1866)

Main article: Campobello Island raid

This Fenian raid occurred in April, 1866, at Campobello Island. Campobello Island is a Canadian island located in the Bay of Fundy near the entrances to Passamaquoddy Bay and Cobscook Bay. ...


Niagara raid (1866)

In 1866, the Fenians had split into two factions, with the original faction, led by Fenian founder John O'Mahony focussed more on fundraising for rebels in Ireland. The leaders of the more militant "senate faction" believed that even a marginally successful invasion of the Province of Canada or other parts of British North America would provide them with leverage in their efforts. After an April attempt to raid New Brunswick (see "Campobello Island Raid", above) that had been blessed by O'Mahony failed, the senate faction Fenians implemented their own plan for an invasion into Canada West (now southern Ontario) from Buffalo, New York. Battle of Ridgeway - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Battle of Fort Erie (1866) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... John OMahony was one of the founders of the Irish Republican Brotherhood. ... Note: for information about Canadas present-day provinces, see Provinces and territories of Canada. ... British North America was an informal term first used in 1783, but uncommon before the Report on the Affairs of British North America (1839), called the Durham Report. ... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) Official languages English, French Flower Purple Violet Tree Balsam Fir Bird Black-capped Chickadee Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson Premier Shawn Graham (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 10 10 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total)  Ranked... Canada West was the western portion of the former Province of Canada from 1841 to 1867. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English (de facto) Flower White Trillium Tree Eastern White Pine Bird Common Loon Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 106 24... Nickname: City of Good Neighbors, Queen City, City of Light Location of Buffalo in New York State County Erie County Mayor Byron Brown Area    - City 136. ...


Fenian commander John O'Neill and an Irish-American force crossed the Niagara River and skirmished with a brigade of Canadian militia near Ridgeway, Canada West (now Ontario) on 2 June 1866. Several hundred other Fenians (Canadian sources claim up to 3,000) remained in the U.S., prevented from crossing the river by the arrival of the U.S. Navy's side-wheeler gunboat USS Michigan. Satellite image of the Niagara River. ... Battle of Ridgeway - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... There are several places named Ridgeway: In England: Ridgeway, Derbyshire The Ridgeway National Trail, often referred to as The Ridgeway. In Canada: Ridgeway, Ontario In the United States: Ridgeway, Alaska Ridgeway, Iowa Ridgeway, Ohio Ridgeway, Missouri Ridgeway, New York Ridgeway, South Carolina Ridgeway, Virginia Ridgeway, Wisconsin Ridgeway (town), Wisconsin Ridgeway... Canada West was the western portion of the former Province of Canada from 1841 to 1867. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English (de facto) Flower White Trillium Tree Eastern White Pine Bird Common Loon Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 106 24... June 2 is the 153rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (154th in leap years), with 212 days remaining. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... USN redirects here. ... Three ships of the United States Navy have been named USS Michigan in honor of the U.S. state of Michigan. ...


O'Neill's 800 Fenian soldiers called themselves the "Irish Republican Army", and some wore uniforms with "IRA" buttons. This is considered to be the first use of the term. (A well-known fanciful painting of the skirmish in the National Archives of Canada depicts a green flag with the letters IRA over a gold harp; in fact, the most common Fenian emblem at this time was a sunburst.) This article is about the historical army of the self-proclaimed Irish Republic (1919–1922) which fought in the Irish War of Independence 1919-21, and the Irish Civil War 1922-23. ... Library and Archives Canada (French: Bibliothèque et Archives Canada) is a new cultural institution created by the Parliament of Canada in 2004 (S.C. 2004, c. ...


After assembling with other units from the province and marching all night, the Canadians, advanced on the Fenians the next morning at Ridgeway, a small hamlet west of Fort Erie. The Canadian militia consited of inexperienced volunteers with no more than basic drill training and primarily Enfield rifled muskets comparable to the armaments of the Fenians. A single company of the Queens Own Rifles had recently been armed with Spencer repeating rifles, but had never been given the opportunity to practice with them. The Fenian forces were mostly battle-hardened American Civil War veterans, armed with weapons procured from leftover war munitions, also Enfield rifled muskets or the comparable Springfield. The Enfield 1853 Rifled Musket (also known as the Pattern 1853 Enfield, P53 Enfield, and Enfield Rifled Musket) was a . ... The Spencer repeating rifle was a manually operated lever-action, repeating rifle fed from a tube magazine with cartridges. ... Modern reproduction of the Springfield Model 1861 The Springfield Model 1861 was a rifled musket shoulder arm used by the United States Army and Marines during the American Civil War. ...


Some later accounts attribute the conduct of Canadian forces to being "outnumbered, exhausted, and hungry" and make allegations of vastly superior armaments on the part of the Fenians. Hardware had by both sides was comparable. While the Canadians had to mount a hasty defense, the Fenians likewise had rushed into battle, with little to no thought regarding a supply train. If anything, lack of combat experience and the conduct of Canadian commanders was a more important contribution to the outcome of the Battle of Ridgeway. It is telling that a formal board of inquiry into the conduct of Canadian defenses found Queen's Own Rifles Lt. Colonel, J. Stoughton Dennis culpable for dereliction of duty. Likewise, Lt. Colonel Albert Booker (13th Btn.), upon whom command of Canadian volunteers had devolved, was determined to have handled his men poorly.


The Canadians retreated in broken ranks, taking their dead and wounded with them, while the Fenians celebrated the first Irish victory over British forces since the Battle of Fontenoy in 1745. Nine Canadians had been killed, thirty-seven were wounded. Combatants Britain United Provinces Hanover France Commanders Duke of Cumberland Maurice, comte de Saxe Strength 48,000 30,000 Casualties 2,500 dead 5,000 wounded or captured 2,300 dead 5,000 wounded This battle should not be confused with the two battles of Fontenay, which occurred at a...


After the first clash, the Canadians retreated to Port Colborne at the Lake Erie end of the Welland Canal, while the Fenians rested at Ridgeway briefly before themselves returning to Fort Erie. Another fight followed there that saw the surrender of another small group of local Canadian militia that had moved into the Fenian rear. But after considering the inability of reinforcements to cross the river and the approach of large numbers of both militia and British regulars, the remaining Fenians chose to return to Buffalo. They were intercepted by the Michigan, and surrendered to American naval personnel. Categories: Stub | Cities in Ontario | Coastal towns of Canada ... Lake Erie (pronounced ) is the eleventh largest lake on Earth[2] and, of the five Great Lakes of North America, it is the fourth largest by surface area, the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume. ... Lock 3 of the Welland Canal, with the Garden City Skyway bridge in background. ... Battle of Fort Erie (1866) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


President Andrew Johnson's proclamation requiring enforcement of the laws of neutrality issued five days after the beginning of the invasion, guaranteeing that it would not continue. Both US General Ulysses S. Grant and U.S. General George Meade went to Buffalo, New York to assess the situation. In the meantime, following instructions from General Grant, General Meade issued strict orders to prevent anyone from further violating the border. General Grant then proceeded to St. Louis while General Meade, finding that the battle at Ridgeway was over and the Fenian army interned in Buffalo, proceeded to Ogdensburg, New York to oversee the situation in the St. Lawrence River area. The US Army was then instructed to seize Fenian weapons and ammunition, and to prevent more border crossings. Further instructions on 7 June 1866 were to arrest anyone who looked like they might be a Fenian. Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 – July 31, 1875) was the seventeenth President of the United States (1865–1869), succeeding to the presidency upon the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. ... Ulysses S. Grant[1] (born Hiram Ulysses Grant, April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American general and politician who was elected as the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... George Meade George Gordon Meade (December 31, 1815 – November 6, 1872) was a career U.S. Army officer and engineer involved in coastal construction. ... Ogdensburg is a city located in St. ... This page concerns the Christian martyr. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


Ironically, although they did not do much to advance the cause of Irish independence, the 1866 raids and the efforts of Canadian colonial troops to repulse them helped to galvanize support for the Confederation of Canada in 1867. Some historians have argued that the debacle tipped the final votes of reluctant Maritime provinces in favour of the collective security of nationhood, making Ridgeway the “battle that made Canada.” We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ...


In the ensuing years, the Battle of Ridgeway and the defeat have been forgotten and its possible link to the timing of Canada’s Confederation rarely even whispered in the classroom. The sandstone monument to the fallen students stands crumbling and ignored, trapped and isolated behind the back wall of a university library and the traffic of Queens Park circle. Only in June 2006, did Ontario’s heritage agency finally dedicate a plaque at Ridgeway on the commemoration of the 140th anniversary of the battle.


Many members of today's Canadian army regiment, The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada, return to the Ridgeway battle site each year on the weekend closest to the June 2nd anniversary for a bicycle tour of the battle sites. The Queens Own Rifles of Canada is a militia regiment within the Canadian Armed Forces and is based in Toronto, Ontario. ...


Alexander Muir , a Scottish immigrant, author of the former Canadian anthem "The Maple Leaf Forever" and member of the Orange Order fought at Ridgeway with the Queens Own Rifles. DoubleBlue (Talk) 8 July 2005 19:33 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... The Maple Leaf Forever was written by Alexander Muir (1830–1906) in 1867, the year of Canadas Confederation. ...


Pigeon Hill raid (1866)

Main article: Pigeon Hill raid

This Fenian raid occurred in July, 1866, at Pigeon Hill.


Mississquoi County raid (1870)

Main articles: Battle of Eccles Hill and Battle of Trout River

This Fenian raid occurred during 1870, which resulted in the skirmishes of Eccles Hill and Trout River. Battle of Eccles Hill - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


Pembina raid (1871)

Main article: Pembina raid

This Fenian raid occurred in Manitoba during 1871. 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Agitation in Pacific Northwest

The Fenian Brotherhood organized openly in the Pacific Northwest states during the 1870s and 1880s, agitating to invade British Columbia. Although no raids were ever launched, tensions were sufficient that the British posted a number of large warships to the new railhead at Vancouver, British Columbia in for the celebrations opening the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1886. This article refers to the city in British Columbia, Canada. ... An eastbound CPR freight at Stoney Creek Bridge in Rogers Pass. ... 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ...


Results and long term effects

Fenian Raid Medal - Canada 1870
Location Certificate issued in 1905
Location Certificate issued in 1905

Support for the Fenian Brotherhood's Invasion of Canada levelled out and there was no real threat of any more raids after the 1890s. The raids, however, did have a large effect on Canada-U.S. relations for years after the last raid. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (540x768, 92 KB) Fenian Raid Medal (front), 1870 Henry Bull Wallis fonds Reference Code: F 923 Archives of Ontario Canada File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fenian... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (540x768, 92 KB) Fenian Raid Medal (front), 1870 Henry Bull Wallis fonds Reference Code: F 923 Archives of Ontario Canada File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fenian... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (720x1083, 343 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fenian raids ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (720x1083, 343 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fenian raids ...


There was a great deal of anger in Canada with the U.S. government, who Canadians felt had looked the other way and failed to prevent the raids on their end. There is even some indication that U.S. President Andrew Johnson may have given his blessing to the early raids, saying that he would "recognize the accomplished facts"[1]; implying that if the Fenians were successful, he would support them. Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 – July 31, 1875) was the sixteenth Vice President (1865) and the seventeenth President of the United States (1865–1869), succeeding to the presidency upon the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. ...


Canada-U.S. relations remained strained until Anglo-American rapprochment in the first decade of the 20th century. However, though relations markedly improved after this period, Canadian-American relations remained considerably distant until co-operation during the Second World War. Canada-United States relations were described by former Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau as being like sleeping with an elephant. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


We are the Fenian Brotherhood, skilled in the arts of war, And we're going to fight for Ireland, the land we adore, Many battles we have won, along with the boys in blue, And we'll go and capture Canada, for we've nothing else to do. -- Fenian soldier's song


See also

The Fenian Brotherhood was an Irish nationalist organization based in the United States in the mid-nineteenth century. ... Fenian is a term used since the 1850s for Irish nationalists (who oppose British rule in Ireland). ...

Further reading

  • Senior, H. (1996). The last invasion of Canada: The Fenian raids, 1866-1870. Dundurn Press. ISBN 1-55002-085-4

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Fenian raids at AllExperts (1063 words)
The Fenian raids were attacks by members of the Fenian Brotherhood based in the United States, on British army forts, customs posts and other targets in Canada in order to bring pressure on Britain to withdraw from Ireland, between 1866 and 1871.
Fenian commander John O'Neill and an Irish-American force crossed the Niagara River and skirmished with a brigade of Canadian militia near Ridgeway, Canada West (now Ontario) on 2 June 1866.
Although no raids were ever launched, tensions were sufficient that the British posted a number of large warships to the new railhead at Vancouver, British Columbia in for the celebrations opening the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1886.
Fenian at AllExperts (545 words)
The Fenian Brotherhood, the Irish Republican Brotherhood's American branch, was founded in 1858 by John O'Mahony, James Stephens, and Michael Doheny, to gain Irish-American support for armed rebellion in Ireland.
"Fenian" is the sole epitaph on the headstone of Tom Clarke, in Glasnevin Cemetery in Dublin.
Fenian is also the name of the horse that won the Belmont Stakes in 1869.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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