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Encyclopedia > Fenian Brotherhood

The Fenian Brotherhood was an Irish nationalist organization based in the United States in the mid-nineteenth century. It was a precursor to Clan na Gael, a sister organization to the Irish Republican Brotherhood. Members were commonly known as "Fenians". The revolutionary secret society was founded by John O'Mahony in 1858. O'Mahony, who was a Celtic scholar, named his organization after the Fianna, the legendary band of Irish warriors led by Fionn mac Cumhaill. An Irish nationalist is generally one who seeks (greater) independence of Ireland from Great Britain, including since 1921 the goal of a United Ireland. ... With Irish immigration to the United States of America in the 18th_century there arose Irish ethnic organizations. ... The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) was a secret fraternal organisation dedicated to fomenting armed revolt against the British state in Ireland in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. ... Fenian is a term used since the 1860s for an Irish nationalist who espouses violence, usually by people opposed to their aims. ... A secret society is an organization that conceals its activities from outsiders. ... John OMahony was one of the founders of the Irish Republican Brotherhood. ... This article is about the European people. ... In Irish mythology, the Fianna were Irish warrior-hunters who served the High King of Ireland in the 3rd century AD. Their adventures were recorded in the Fenian Cycle. ... Fionn mac Cumhaill (pronounced /fuN mÉ™ ku:L/, /fiN mÉ™ ku:L/, /fu:n mÉ™ ku:l/ or /foun mÉ™ ku:l/ according to dialect)(earlier Finn or Find mac Cumail or mac Umaill, later Anglicised to Finn McCool) was a hunter-warrior of the Gaelic...

Contents

Founding of The Fenian Brotherhood

After the collapse of William Smith O'Brien's attempted rising in Ireland in 1848, O'Mahony, who had been involved in it, had escaped abroad, arriving in New York City in 1852.[1] Around 1858, O'Mahony was a member of the committee that sent a delegate to James Stephens in Dublin with proposals for the founding of the secret society later known as the Fenian Brotherhood, whose members bound themselves by an oath of allegiance to the Irish Republic and swore to take up arms when called upon and to obey their superior officers. After a convention held at Chicago under O'Mahony's presidency in November 1863, the American wing of the movement began to become effective. William Smith OBrien (born Dromoland, Ireland, October 17, 1803; died Bangor, Wales, June 18, 1864) was an Irish Nationalist and MP and leader of the Young Ireland movement. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois County Cook & DuPage Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ...


The Irish People, a revolutionary journal started in Dublin by IRB leader James Stephens, was appealing for aid from Irishmen who had received military training and experience in the American Civil War. At the close of that war in 1865, numbers of Irish veterans flocked back to Ireland, but a government crackdown arrested many and forced Stephens to flee. Revolutionary, when used as a noun, is a person who either advocates or actively engages in some kind of revolution. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Leinster County: Dáil Éireann: Dublin Central, Dublin North Central, Dublin North East, Dublin North West, Dublin South Central, Dublin South East European Parliament: Dublin Dialling Code: 01, +353 1 Postal District(s): D1-24, D6W Area: 114. ... James Stephens (February 9, 1882–December 26, 1950) was an Irish novelist and poet. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


Fenian Raids into Canada

See main article Fenian Raids

In the United States, O'Mahony's presidency over the Fenian Brotherhood was being increasingly challenged by William R. Roberts. Both Fenian factions raised money by the issue of bonds in the name of the "Irish Republic," which were bought by the faithful in the expectation of their being honored when Ireland should be "a nation once again." These bonds were to be redeemed "six months after the recognition of the independence of Ireland." Hundreds of thousands of Irish immigrants subscribed. Fenian Monument - Queens Park, Toronto Canada ca. ... William Randall Roberts (1830-1897) of New York City, born in County Cork, Ireland, was a U.S. Representative from New York from 1871 to 1875. ... A Nation Once Again is a song, written sometime in the 1840s by Thomas Osbourne Davis (1814-1845). ...


Large quantities of arms were purchased, and preparations were openly made by the Roberts faction for a co-ordinated series of raids into Canada, which the United States government took no major steps to prevent. Many in the U.S. administration were not indisposed to the movement because of Britain's failure to support the Union during the civil war. Roberts' "Secretary for War" was General T.W. Sweeny, who was struck off the American army list from January 1866 to November 1866 to allow him to organize the raids. The purpose of these raids was to seize the transportation network of Canada, with the idea that this would force the British to exchange Ireland's freedom for possession of their Province of Canada. Before the invasion, the Fenians had received some intelligence from like minded supporters within Canada but did not receive support from all Irish Catholics there who saw the invasions as threatening the emerging Canadian sovereignty. Thomas William Sweeny (1820-92) was an American soldier, born at Cork, Ireland. ...


The command of the expedition in Buffalo, New York, was entrusted by Roberts to Colonel John O'Neill, who crossed the Niagara River (the Niagara is the international border) at the head of at least 800 (O'Neill's figure; usually reported as up to 1,500 in Canadian sources) men on the night and morning of May 31/June 1, 1866, and briefly captured Fort Erie, defeating a Canadian force at Ridgeway. Many of these men, including O'Neill, were battle-hardened veterans of the American Civil War. In the end the invasion had been broken by the US authorities’ subsequent interruption of Fenian supply lines across the Niagara River and the arrests of Fenian reinforcements attempting to cross the river into Canada. It is unlikely that with such a small force that they would have ever achieved their goal. Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State County Erie County Government  - Mayor Byron Brown Area  - City 52. ... Satellite image of the Niagara River. ... May 31 is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Fort Erie National Historic Site, on a stamp issued in 1985. ... Battle of Ridgeway - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


Other Fenian attempts to invade occurred throughout the next week in the St. Lawrence Valley. As many of the weapons had in the meantime been confiscated by the US army, relatively few of these men actually became involved in the fighting. There even was a small Fenian raid on a storage building that successfully got back some weapons that had been seized by the US Army. Many were eventually returned anyway by sympathetic officers. The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ...


To get the Fenians out of the area, both in the St. Lawrence and Buffalo, the US government purchased rail tickets for the Fenians to return to their homes if the individuals involved would promise not to invade any more countries from the United States. Many of the arms were returned later if the person claiming them could post bond that they were not going to be used to invade Canada again, although some were possibly used in the raids that followed.


In December 1867, O'Neill became president of the Roberts faction of the Fenian Brotherhood, which in the following year held a great convention in Philadelphia attended by over 400 properly accredited delegates, while 6,000 Fenian soldiers, armed and in uniform, paraded the streets. At this convention a second invasion of Canada was determined upon; while the news of the Clerkenwell explosion was a strong incentive to a vigorous policy. Henri Le Caron, who, while acting as a secret agent of the British government, held the position of "Inspector-General of the Irish Republican Army," asserts that he distributed fifteen thousand stands of arms and almost three million rounds of ammunition in the care of the many trusted men stationed between Ogdensburg, New York and St. Albans, Vermont, in preparation for the intended raid. It took place in April 1870, and proved a failure just as rapid and complete as the attempt of 1866. The Fenians under O'Neill's command crossed the Canadian frontier near Franklin, Vermont, but were dispersed by a single volley from Canadian volunteers; while O'Neill himself was promptly arrested by the United States authorities acting under the orders of President Ulysses S. Grant. Yet another attempt and failure would take place in 1871 near the Red River in Manitoba. Nickname: Motto: Philadelphia maneto - Let brotherly love continue Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States Commonwealth Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Government  - Mayor John F. Street (D) Area  - City 369. ... Note: This was originially a subsection of Fenian Brotherhood. ... Thomas Miller Beach (who used the alias Major Henri Le Caron) (September 26, 1841- April 1, 1894), British spy, was born in Colchester, England. ... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... This article is about the historical army of the self-proclaimed Irish Republic (1919–1922) which fought in the Irish War of Independence 1919–21, and the Irish Civil War 1922–23. ... Ogdensburg is a city located in St. ... St. ... Franklin, Vermont Franklin is a town located in Franklin County, Vermont. ... Ulysses S. Grant[2] (born Hiram Ulysses Grant, April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American general and the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English and French, per mandate of the Constitution Act 1982 Government - Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard - Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th...


The Fenian threat prompted calls for Canadian confederation. Confederation had been in the works for years but was only implemented in 1867, the year following the first raids. In 1868, a Fenian sympathizer assassinated Irish-Canadian politician Thomas D'Arcy McGee in Ottawa for his condemnation of the raids. We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ... Irish Canadians are Irish people or people of Irish descent living in Canada. ... McGee in 1868 Thomas DArcy McGee, PC, (April 13, 1825 – April 7, 1868) was a Canadian journalist and Father of Confederation. ... Motto: Advance Ottawa/Ottawa en avant Location of the City of Ottawa in the Province of Ontario Coordinates: Country Canada Province Ontario Established 1850 as Town of Bytown Incorporated 1855 as City of Ottawa Amalgamated January 1, 2001 Government  - Mayor Larry OBrien  - City Council Ottawa City Council  - Representatives 8...


Fear of Fenian attack plagued the Lower Mainland of British Columbia during the 1880s, as the Fenian Brotherhood was actively organizing in Washington and Oregon, but raids never actually materialized . At the inauguration of the mainline of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1885, photos taken of the occasion show three large British warships sat in the harbor just off the railhead and its docks. Their presence was explicitly because of the threat of Fenian attack or terrorism, as were the large numbers of troops on the first train. The Lower Mainland is the name that residents of British Columbia apply to the region surrounding the City of Vancouver. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km... Official language(s) English Capital Olympia Largest city Seattle Area  Ranked 18th  - Total 71,342 sq mi (184,827 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 6. ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... An eastbound CPR freight at Stoney Creek Bridge in Rogers Pass. ... HMS Illustrious (R06), an Invincible class aircraft carrier of the Royal Navy, and current flagship of the First Sea Lord. ...


1867, and after

See main article Irish Rebellion of 1867

During the latter part of 1866 Stephens endeavored to raise funds in America for a fresh rising planned for the following year. He issued a bombastic proclamation in America announcing an imminent general rising in Ireland; but he was himself soon afterwards deposed by his confederates, among whom dissension had broken out. Note: This was originially a subsection of Fenian Brotherhood. ...


The Fenian Rising (1867) proved to be a "doomed rebellion"1, poorly organized and with minimal public support. Most of the Irish-American officers who landed at Cork, in the expectation of commanding an army against England, were imprisoned; sporadic disturbances around the country were easily suppressed by the police, army and local militias.... The Fenian Rising of 1867 was a rebellion against British rule in Ireland, organized by the Irish Republican Brotherhood. ... Irish Americans are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates in the west European island nation of Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , , Statistics Province: Munster County: Area: 37. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the Queen England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 967 AD  Area  -  Total 130,395 km²  50,346 sq mi  Population  -  2007 estimate 50... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ...


After the 1867 rising, IRB headquarters in Manchester opted to support neither of the dueling American factions, promoting instead a renewed organization in America, Clan na Gael. With Irish immigration to the United States of America in the 18th_century there arose Irish ethnic organizations. ...


In 1881, the submarine Fenian Ram, designed by John Philip Holland for use against the British, was launched by the Delamater Iron Company in New York. Alvin in 1978, a year after first exploring hydrothermal vents. ... The submarine Fenian Ram was designed by John Philip Holland for use by the Fenian Brotherhood against the British. ... John Philip Holland (Irish: Seán Ó Maolchalann) (24 February 1841–12 August 1914) was an engineer who developed the first submarine accepted by the U.S. Navy (though not the first American submarine, see American Civil War submarines, and the earlier Nautilus and Turtle) and the first ever Royal Navy... The christening of the USCGC Mackinaw (WLBB-30) The ceremonies involved in naming and launching naval ships are based in traditions thousands of years old. ... NY redirects here. ...


This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


See also

With Irish immigration to the United States of America in the 18th_century there arose Irish ethnic organizations. ... Fenian Monument - Queens Park, Toronto Canada ca. ... Fenian is a term used since the 1850s for Irish nationalists (who oppose British rule in Ireland). ... The Hunters were an obscure secret society from early 19th century America. ... The Catalpa rescue was a 1876 escape of six British penal colony of Western Australia. ...

Footnote

  1. Quote from 'fenianism' by R. V. Comerford in W. J. McCormack, The Blackwell Companion to Modern Irish Culture p.221.

Additional Reading

  • R.V. Comerford, The Fenians in Context: Irish Politics and Society, 1848–82 (Wolfhound Press, 1985)
  • William D'Arcy, The Fenian Movement in the United States, 1858–86 (Catholic University of America Press, 1947)
  • Brian Jenkins, Fenians and Anglo-American Relations during Renstruction (Cornell University Press, 1969)
  • William L. Keogan, Irish Nationalism and Anglo-American Naturalization: The Settlement of the Expatriation Question 1865-1872 http://www.charleslivermore.com/keogan/keogan.htm (1982)
  • T. W. Moody (ed.) The Fenian Movement (Mercier Press, 1968)
  • William O'Brien and Desmond Ryan (eds.) Devoy's Post Bag 2 Vols. (Fallon, 1948, 1953)
  • Leon O'Broin, Revolutionary Underground: The Story of the Irish Republican Brotherhood, 1858–1924 (Gill and Macmillan, 1976)
  • David Owen. The Year of the Fenians. Buffalo: Western New York Heritage Institute, 1990.
  • Hereward Senior. Canadian Battle Series No. 10: The Battles of Ridgeway and Fort Erie, 1866. Toronto: Balmuir Book Publishing, 1993.
  • Hereward Senior. The Fenians and Canada. Toronto: MacMillan, 1978.
  • Hereward Senior. The Last Invasion of Canada. Toronto and Oxford: Dundurn Press, 1991.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Fenian - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (376 words)
Fenian is a term used since the 1860s for an Irish nationalist who espouses or is perceived to espouse violence against British rule, usually by people opposed to their aims.
The Fenian Brotherhood, the IRB's American branch, was founded in 1858 by John O'Mahony, Michael Doheny (1805–1863), and Stephens, to gain Irish-American support for armed rebellion in Ireland.
"Fenian" is the sole epitaph on the headstone of Thomas J. Clarke, in Glasnevin Cemetery in Dublin.
Fenian Brotherhood - definition of Fenian Brotherhood in Encyclopedia (2350 words)
Fenian units involved in the Buffalo crossing were the 7th Buffalo (NY), 18th Ohio, 13th Tennessee, and 17th Kentucky Fenian Regiments, and an independent Company from Indiana.
There are a few references to the Fenian troops who crossed the Niagara River near Buffalo calling themselves the "Irish Republican Army" including a painting of the battle in the National Archives of Canada showing a green flag with the letters IRA over a gold harp.
In 1879, John Devoy, a member of the Fenian Brotherhood, promoted a "new departure" in America, by which the "physical force party" allied itself with the "constitutional movement" under the political leadership of Charles Stewart Parnell, MP; and the political conspiracy of the Fenians was combined with the agrarian revolution inaugurated by the Land League.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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