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Encyclopedia > Feng shui
Feng shui

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Feng Shui Luopan Compass
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese: 風水
Simplified Chinese: 风水
Literal meaning: wind-water
Filipino name
Tagalog: punsoy
Japanese name
Kanji: 風水
Hiragana: ふうすい
Korean name
Hangul: 풍수
Hanja: 風水
Thai name
Thai: ฮวงจุ้ย (Huang Jui)
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese: Phong thủy

In ancient times as well as today, Feng Shui, pronounced in English as [fʊŋ'ʃweɪ] ("fung shway"), was known as "Kan-Yu" which means 'The Law of Heaven and Earth.’ [1] Today's Feng Shui schools teach that it is the ancient Chinese practice of placement and arrangement of space to achieve harmony with the environment. Feng shui literally translates as "wind-water." This is a cultural shorthand taken from the following passage of the Zhangshu (Book of Burial) by Guo Pu of the Jin Dynasty:[2] Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Standard Mandarin, also known as Modern Standard Chinese, is the official modern Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and is one of the four official languages of Singapore. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... This article is about all of the Cantonese (Yue) dialects. ... Jyutping (sometimes spelled Jyutpin) is a romanization system for Standard Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK) in 1993. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Tagalog (pronunciation: ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... Hiragana ) is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana and kanji; the Latin alphabet is also used in some cases. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji The Hepburn romanization system ) is named after James Curtis Hepburn, who used it to transcribe the sounds of the Japanese language into the Latin alphabet in the third edition of his Japanese–English dictionary, published... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Romaji ローマ字 Kunrei-shiki (訓令式, Cabinet-ordered system) is a romanization system, that is, a system for transcribing the Japanese language into the Roman alphabet. ... Jamo redirects here. ... Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ... The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. ... McCune-Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems, along with the Revised Romanization of Korean, which replaced (a modified) McCune-Reischauer as the official romanization system in South Korea in 2000. ... Feng Shui is the ancient Chinese practice of placement and arrangement of space to achieve harmony with the environment. ... GÅ«o Pú (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Kuo Pu, 276-324), born in Yuncheng, Shanxi, was a noted natural historian and also a versatile and prolific writer of the Jin Dynasty. ... The Jìn Dynasty (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; 265–420), one of the Six Dynasties, followed the Three Kingdoms period and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ...

The qi that rides the wind stops at the boundary of water.[3] For other uses, see Qi (disambiguation). ...

Feng shui is a discipline with guidelines that are compatible with many techniques of architectural planning as well as internal furniture arrangements. Space, weather, astronomy, and geomagnetism are basic components of feng shui. Proponents claim that feng shui has an effect on health, wealth, and personal relationships.

Contents

Introduction

Early feng shui relied on astronomy to find correlations between humans and the universe [4] and it is inseparable from an understanding of political power in premodern China.[5]


Chinese often used the celestial pole determined by the pole stars to determine the north-south axis of settlements. This technique explains why Shang palaces at Xiaotun lie 10° east of due north. In some cases, as Paul Wheatley observed[6], they bisected the angle between the directions of the rising and setting sun to find north. This technique provided the more precise alignments of the Shang walls at Yanshi and Zhengzhou. Zhengzhou (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), formerly called Zhengxian (traditional form: Chengchow) , is a prefecture-level city and the capital of Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ...


Currently Early Yanshao and Hongshan cultures provide the earliest evidence for feng shui. Professor David Pankenier and his associates reviewed astronomical data for the time of the Banpo dwellings (4000 BCE) to show that the asterism Yingshi (Lay out the Hall, in the Warring States period and early Han era) corresponded to the sun's location at this time. Centuries before, the asterism Yingshi was known as Ding. It was used to indicate the appropriate time to build a capital city, according to the Shijing. Apparently an astronomical alignment ensured that Banpo village homes were sited for solar gain.[7] Yangshao culture (仰韶文化) was a Neolithic culture that existed extensively along the central Yellow River in China. ... The Hongshan culture (红山文化) was a Neolithic culture in northeastern China. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Alternative meaning: Warring States Period (Japan) The Warring States Period (traditional Chinese: 戰國時代, simplified Chinese: 战国时代 pinyin Zhànguó Shídài) takes place from sometime in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by Qin in 221 BC. It is nominally... // Han in China Chinese (æ¼¢), an abbreviation or adjectival modifier for things Chinese. ... Asterism has several meanings: In astronomy, it refers to a constellation_like group of stars; see asterism (astronomy) In gemmology, it is an optical phenomenon; see asterism (gemmology) In typography, it refers to a symbol; see asterism (typography) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages... Solar gain (also known as solar heat gain or passive solar gain) refers to the increase in temperature in a space, object or structure that results from solar radiation. ...


The grave at Puyang (radiocarbon dated 5,000 BP) that contains mosaics of the Dragon and Tiger constellations and Beidou (Dipper) is similarly oriented along a north-south axis.[8] The presence of both round and square shapes in the Puyang tomb, and at Hongshan culture ceremonial centers, suggests that the gaitian cosmography (heaven-round, earth-square) was present in Chinese society long before it appeared in the Zhou Bu Suan Jing.[9] Photo of the familiar constellation Orion. ... The Beidou navigation system is a project by the Peoples Republic of China to develop an independent satellite navigation system. ... For the article on the constellations, see Big Dipper and Little Dipper Species Cinclus cinclus Cinclus leucocephalus Cinclus mexicanus Cinclus pallasii Cinclus schulzi Dippers are members of the genus Cinclus in the family Cinclidae. ... The Hongshan culture (红山文化) was a Neolithic culture in northeastern China. ...


Cosmography that bears a striking resemblance to modern feng shui compasses (and computations) was found on a jade unearthed at Hanshan (c. 3000 BCE). The design is linked by Li Xueqin to the liuren astrolabe, zhinan zhen, and Luopan. [10] A 16th century astrolabe. ...


All capital cities of China followed rules of Feng Shui for their design and layout. These rules were codified during the Zhou era in the "Kaogong ji" (Manual of Crafts). Rules for builders were codified in the "Lu ban jing" (Carpenter's Manual). Graves and tombs also followed rules of Feng Shui. From the earliest records, it seems that the rules for the structures of the graves and dwellings were the same.


Instrumentation

History

A feng shui spiral at LA Chinatown's Metro station.

Emperor Di Ku was said to dabble in astronomy. Shun consulted the stars before he assumed the throne. There were feng shui devices before the invention of the magnetic compass, which occurred comparatively late in the long history of feng shui. According to the Zhouli the original device may have been a gnomon, although Yao, Huangdi, and other figures were said to possess devices such as the south-pointing chariot. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 2379 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chinatown, Los Angeles User:Buchanan-Hermit/photographs/losangeles Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 2379 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chinatown, Los Angeles User:Buchanan-Hermit/photographs/losangeles Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Los Angeles County Metro Rail is the current mass transit rail system operating in Los Angeles. ...


As Derek Walters observed[11], "The luopan was originally a scientific instrument, used for astronomical observation." The oldest excavated examples of instruments used for feng shui are liuren astrolabes. These consist of a lacquered, two-sided board with astronomical sightlines. Liuren astrolabes have been unearthed from tombs that date between 278 BC and 209 BC. The markings are virtually unchanged from the astrolabe to the first magnetic compasses.[12]


Since the invention of the magnetic compass for use in Feng Shui[13], some feng shui disciplines require the use of a compass. This compass could be a Luopan (Chinese Feng Shui compass of the types San Yuan, San He, and Zong He) or one of the earlier versions such as a south-pointing spoon (zhinan zhen). In physics, magnetism is a phenomenon by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ... This article is about the navigational instrument. ...


The history of the Luopan compass takes us back to the Zhou dynasty (770-476 BCE), when emperor Shing combined the knowledge of the compass with that of the I-ching. The compass consists of a magnetic needle that point towards magnetic north not true north. The foundation of the I-ching is in the trigrams. This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ...


The trigrams are the set of three broken and/or solid lines that you typically find around a Chinese mirror.


In Traditional Compass techniques these trigrams determine the divination of fortune. The traditional Luopan has 36 rings of information. These trigrams occupy the first circle of the luopan. How these rings line up with the compass and the combination of the reading of these rings determines your fortune.


Foundation theories

The goal of feng shui as practiced today is to situate the human built environment on spots with good qi. The "perfect spot" is a location and an axis in time. Some areas are not suitable for human settlement and should be left in their natural state.


Some current techniques can be traced to Neolithic China, while others were added in later times (most notably the Han dynasty, the Tang, and the Ming). Today, to determine a perfect spot, local manifestations of qi must be assessed for quality. Quality is determined by observations and by using a compass (Luopan). An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... // Han in China Chinese (漢), an abbreviation or adjectival modifier for things Chinese. ... Tang could refer to: Tang Dynasty of China Tang (Shang dynasty ruler) A transliteration of Chinese family names such as 唐,湯,鄧,邓,滕 Tang Clan of Hong Kong, the first inhabitants to leave China and settle in Hong Kong. ... Ming is a common personal name in China, It may also mean: Ming Dynasty, the ruling dynasty in China from 1368 to 1644 Ming class submarine, a class of diesel-electric submarines built by China Motorola MING, a smartphone released by Motorola Ming library, a C library with PHP bindings...


Qi (ch'i)

Qi is a difficult word to translate and is usually left untranslated. Literally the word means "air". In feng shui, "Qi" means "flow of energy". Max Knoll suggested in a 1951 lecture that qi is a form of solar radiation.[14] For other uses, see Qi (disambiguation). ... Max Knoll (1897-1969) was a German inventor. ... Look up solar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Radiation as used in physics, is energy in the form of waves or moving subatomic particles. ...


A Luopan is used to determine many things. One of those being to detect the direction of the flow of qi. Compasses reflect local geomagnetism which includes geomagnetically induced currents caused by space weather.[15] It could be said that feng shui assesses the quality of the local environment and the effects of space weather -- that is, feng shui is qimancy, or qi divination. [16]. The cause of Earths magnetic field (the surface magnetic field) is not known for certain, but is possibly explained by dynamo theory. ... Geomagnetically induced currents (GIC), affecting the normal operation of long technological conductor systems, are a manifestation at ground level of space weather. ... Aurora australis observed by Discovery, May 1991. ... For other uses, see Divination (disambiguation). ...


Beliefs from the Axial Age, feng shui among them, hold that the heavens influence life on Earth. This seems preposterous to many people, yet space weather exists and can have profound effects on technology (GPS, power grids, pipelines, communication and navigation systems, surveys), and the internal orienting faculties of birds and other creatures.[17][18][19] Atmospheric scientists have suggested that space weather creates fluctuations in market prices.[20][21] According to the Axial Age theory, the philosophy behind the worlds major religions sprang from a six-hundred year span of time in the first millennium BCE. German philosopher Karl Jaspers coined the term the Axial Age (Achsenzeit in the German language original) to describe the period from 800... Over fifty GPS satellites such as this NAVSTAR have been launched since 1978. ... Transmission towers Transmission lines in Lund, Sweden Electric power transmission, or more accurately Electrical energy transmission, is the second process in the delivery of electricity to consumers. ...


Polarity

Polarity is expressed in feng shui as Yin and Yang. The polarity within feng shui is buildings of the living (yang) and buildings of the dead (yin). The polarity of an object is, in general, its physical alignment of atoms. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Yin and yang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) are generalizations of the antithesis or mutual correlation between certain objects or phenomena in the natural world, combining to create a unity of opposites. ...


Magnetic north and Luopan compass

The stability of Magnetic North is critical for the accuracy of reading your fortune with a compass. Earth has an electromagnetic field. Our solar sun also has an electromagnetic field. Our solar sun goes through 11 year cycles of solar fluctuations called solar flares that create solar wind. In 2003 two of the strongest flares ever recorded. This solar wind creates a vibration that disturbs the electromagnetic field of the earth. This is about the geographic meaning of North Pole. ... A Solar Flare and CME, courtesy NASA A solar flare is a violent explosion in the Suns atmosphere with an energy equivalent to a billion megatons, traveling normally at about 1 million km per hour (about 0. ... The plasma in the solar wind meeting the heliopause The solar wind is a stream of charged particles (i. ... The plasma in the solar wind meeting the heliopause The solar wind is a stream of charged particles (i. ...


Magnetic North and True North (the Earth’s axis) are not the same. Magnet North moves an average of 40 kilometers every year. In the last 100 years Magnetic North has moved approximately 1200 kilometers. Due to solar flares, Magnetic North is always in constant movement, creating conflicting readings on a compass. True Pizza is a navigational term referring to the direction of the North Pole relative to the navigators position. ...


Bagua (eight symbols)

Two diagrams known as bagua (or pa kua) loom large in feng shui, and both predate their mentions in the Yijing or I Ching. The Lo (River) Chart (Luoshu, or Later Heaven Sequence) and the River Chart (Hetu, or Early Heaven Sequence) are linked to astronomical events of the sixth millennium BCE, and with the Turtle Calendar from the time of Yao.[22] The Turtle Calendar of Yao (found in the Yaodian section of the Shangshu or 'Book of Documents') dates to 2300 BCE, plus or minus 250 years.[23] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Alternative meaning: I Ching (monk) The I Ching (Simplified Chinese: 易经; Traditional Chinese: 易經, Hanyu Pinyin: Yì Jīng; Cantonese IPA: jɪk6gɪŋ1; Cantonese Jyutping: jik6ging1; alternative romanizations include I Jing, Yi Ching, Yi King) is the oldest of the Chinese classic texts. ... Alternative meaning: I Ching (monk) The I Ching (Traditional Chinese: 易經, pinyin y jīng; Cantonese IPA: jɪk6gɪŋ1; Cantonese Jyutping: jik6ging1; alternative romanizations include I Jing, Yi Ching, Yi King) is the oldest of the Chinese classic texts. ...


It seems clear from many sources that time, in the form of astronomy and calendars, is at the heart of feng shui.


In Yaodian, the cardinal directions are determined by the marker-stars of the mega-constellations known as the Four Celestial Animals.


East: the Bluegreen Dragon (Spring equinox) --- Niao (Bird), α Hydrae


South: the Red Bird (Summer solstice) --- Huo (Fire), α Scorpionis


West: the White Tiger (Autumn equinox) --- Xu (Emptiness, Void), α, β Aquarii


North: the Dark (Mysterious) Turtle (Winter solstice) --- Mao (Hair), η Tauri (the Pleiades)


The bagua diagrams are also linked with the sifang (four directions) method of divination used during the Shang dynasty.[24] The sifang is much older, however. It was used at Niuheliang, and figured large in Hongshan culture's astronomy. And it is this area of China that is linked to Huangdi, the Yellow Emperor, who allegedly invented the south-pointing spoon.[25]


Fundamental techniques

A building in Hong Kong with a hollow middle hole, maximizing on fengshui benefits

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

School

A school in Feng Shui terminology is a technique. The term should not be confused with the physical school. There are many 'masters' of the different Feng shui schools. However, some maintain that authentic masters impart their genuine knowledge of Feng shui only to selected students.[26]


Early fundamentals

The history of feng shui covers at least 3,500 years before the invention of the magnetic compass,[27] defining authentic feng shui as having a "compass school" and a "form school" misses the point.


Feng Shui developed thousands of years ago in little villages of the Orient. It was called Folk Feng Shui[28]. Their livelihoods were dependent on it. They studied the formations of the land and ways of the wind & water to determine the best setting for their survival. Good Feng Shui would produce bountiful harvest, healthy livestock and abundant life. Harsh winds would destroy their crops leaving no food for their family and their animals. Violent storms tear down their homes and villages.


The elements, water, rain, wind, fog, sun were believed to be the energy of heaven and earth. These shaman-kings had knowledge of landforms and weather, that could drive back the elements that threaten a village. This divinization of land forms was the beginning and foundation of Feng Shui. A shaman doctor of Kyzyl. ...


Landform Technique is the fundamental basis of feng shui. Compass Feng Shui originated after Landform techniques. Compass Feng Shui uses the compass and magnetic north for all of it's readings.


In his fieldwork in China, Ole Bruun[29] noted that traditional methods of feng shui (increasingly referred to worldwide as "classical feng shui") all use a compass. Traditional or classical Feng shui is what is practiced and taught in Asia. Classical Feng shui has some features similar to those found in the archaeological record, and in Chinese history and literature, but the application of classical Feng Shui is not identical to that of ancient Feng Shui techniques.


Combining techniques

Classical feng shui is typically associated with the following techniques. This is not a complete list; it is merely a list of the most common techniques.[30]

  • Bagua (relationship of the five phases or wuxing)
  • Five phases (wuxing relationships)
  • Xuan Kong (time and space methods)
  • Xuan Kong Fei Xing (Flying Stars methods of time and directions)
  • Xuan Kong Da Gua ("Secret Decree" or 64 gua relationships)
  • Xuan Kong Shui Fa (time and space water methods)
  • Zi Bai (Purple-White Flying Stars methods)
  • Ba Zhai (Eight Mansions)
  • San Yuan Dragon Gate Eight Formation
  • Major & Minor Wandering Stars
  • San He Luan Dou (24 Mountains, Mountain-Water relationships)
  • San He Shui Fa (water methods)
  • Qimen Dunjia (Eight Doors and Nine Stars methods)
  • Zi wei dou shu (Purple King, 24-star astrology)

This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (水) Japanese Earth (地) | Water (水) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water In traditional Chinese philosophy, natural phenomena can be classified into the Five Elements (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ): wood, fire... Zi Wei Dou Shu (Chinese: 紫微斗数, Zi wei dou shu, zi mei dau sou) is a form of fortune-telling in Chinese culture. ...

New Version

One of the grievances mentioned when the anti-Western Boxer Rebellion broke out was that Westerners were violating the basic principles of Feng shui in their construction of railroads and other conspicuous public structures throughout China. At the time, the Westerners concerned had indeed little idea of or interest in such Chinese traditions. Combatants Eight-Nation Alliance (ordered by contribution): Empire of Japan Russian Empire British Empire France United States German Empire Kingdom of Italy Austro-Hungarian Empire Righteous Harmony Society Qing Dynasty (China) Commanders Edward Seymour Alfred Graf von Waldersee Ci Xi Strength 20,000 initially 49,000 total 50,000-100...


Since Richard Nixon journeyed to The People's Republic of China in 1972, there has been substantial interests on the subject of feng shui by Westerners. It has been reinvented by New Age entrepreneurs for Western consumption. Feng shui speaks to the profound role of magic, mystery, and order in American life.[31] This is a curious twist given that feng shui cannot be legally practised in its country of origin today. Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... In the technical terminology of political science the PRC was a communist state for much of the 20th century, and is still considered a communist state by many, though not all, political scientists. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... For the sequel to the computer game Entrepreneur, which has no article of its own, see The Corporate Machine. ...


The following list does not exhaust the varieties.


Black Sect -- Incorporated as a US church in 1984, with temples in California and New York. (The church deviates from what is known of the history of Tantrism in China.) [32] Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... This article is about the state. ...


This new version of Feng Shui was invented in the early 1980s by Thomas Lin Yun Rinpoche who came to the US from Taiwan. [33] Called Black Sect (or Black Sect Tantric Buddhist, or BTB) Feng Shui, it relies on "transcendental" methods, the concept of clutter as metaphor for life circumstances, and the use of affirmations or intentions (what some deride as "happy talk").[34] BTB Feng Shui has a unique and specially created bagua, with each of the eight compass segment directions representing a particular area of one's life. Black Sect Tantric Buddhism is a modern form of Buddhism that encompasses Buddhist and Tantric Buddhist thought and Tibetan, Indian, and Chinese ideas and philosophies. ... Transcendental in philosophical contexts In philosophy, transcendental experiences are experiences of an exclusively human nature that are other-worldly or beyond the human realm of understanding. ... Look up Clutter, clutter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... Affirmations are a way to control your mind. ... Bagua may refer to: Bagua (concept), a fundamental philosophical concept in ancient China. ...


Shen Dao Feng Shui - Developed in the late '70's by Harrison G.Kyng.


Shen Dao style became the first school of its type in the UK. Based upon both 'Form' and 'Compass' styles, Shen Dao utilises the Five Element modality to assess its clients health as well as their buildings harmony. This relationship is said to create a unique 'viewpoint' that can then be used to create a greater sense of harmony both inwardly and outwards. Shen Dao's unique compass uses the former heavenly sequence and expands the Ba Gua into over 300 harmonics that help to fine tune its results.


Criticism

Victorian-era commentators on feng shui were generally ethnocentric, and as such skeptical and derogatory of what little they knew of feng shui.[35]


In 1896 at a meeting of the Educational Association of China, Rev. P.W. Pitcher railed at the "rottenness of the whole scheme of Chinese architecture," and urged fellow missionaries "to erect unabashedly Western edifices of several stories and with towering spires in order to destroy nonsense about fung-shuy." [36]


Some modern Christians have a similar opinion of feng shui.[37]

It is entirely inconsistent with Christianity to believe that harmony and balance result from the manipulation and channeling of nonphysical forces or energies, or that such can be done by means of the proper placement of physical objects. Such techniques, in fact, belong to the world of sorcery.[38]

Since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, feng shui has been officially deemed as a "feudalistic superstitious practice" and a "social evil" according to the state's atheistic Communist ideology and discouraged or even outright banned at times [39][40]. Persecution was the severest during the Cultural Revolution, when feng shui was classified as a custom under the so-called Four Olds to be wiped out. Feng shui practitioners were beaten and abused by Red Guards and their works burned. After the death of Mao Zedong and the end of the Cultural Revolution, the official attitude became more tolerant but restrictions on feng shui practice are still in place in today's China. It is illegal in the PRC today to register feng shui consultation as a business and similarly advertising feng shui practice is banned, and there have been frequent crackdowns on feng shui practitioners on the grounds of "promoting feudalistic superstitions" such as one in Qingdao in early 2006 when the city's business and industrial administration office shut down an art gallery converted into a feng shui practice [41]. Communist officials who had consulted feng shui are sacked and expelled from the Communist Party [42]. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution [1] in the Peoples Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into wide-scale social, political, and economic chaos, which grew to include large sections of Chinese society and eventually brought the entire country to... Chinese art from the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD), an example of art that had survived the Four Olds destruction The Four Olds or the Four Old Things (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) were Old Custom, Old Culture, Old Habits, and Old Ideas. ... Red Guards refer to socialist or communist militia formed to instigate, support, or defend communist revolutions. ... “Mao” redirects here. ...


Partly because of the Cultural Revolution, in today's PRC less than one-third of the population believe in feng shui, and the proportion of believers among young urban PRC Chinese is said to be much less than 5% [43]. Among all the ethnic Chinese communities the PRC has the least number of feng shui believers in proportion to the general population. Learning feng shui is considered taboo in today's China.[44] Nevertheless, it is reported that feng shui has gained adherents among Communist Party officials according to a BBC Chinese news commentary in 2006. [45], and since the beginning of Chinese economic reforms the number of feng shui practitioners are increasing. A number of Chinese academics permitted to research on the subject of feng shui are anthropologists or architects by trade, studying the history of feng shui or historical feng shui theories behind the design of heritage buildings, such as Cao Dafeng, the Vice-President of Fudan University[46], and Liu Shenghuan of Tongji University. Fudan University (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), located in Shanghai, China, is one of the oldest leading and most selective universities in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Tongji University (同济大学) is one of the leading universities directly under the State Ministry of Education in China. ...


Feng Shui practitioners have been skeptical of claims and methods in the "cultural supermarket."[47] Mark Johnson[48] made a telling point:

This present state of affairs is ludicrous and confusing. Do we really believe that mirrors and flutes are going to change people's tendencies in any lasting and meaningful way? ... There is a lot of investigation that needs to be done or we will all go down the tubes because of our inability to match our exaggerated claims with lasting changes.

A travelogue-type article from the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry explained feng shui initially as "a commonsense alignment of structures to conform to the shape of the land, an idea shared by any sensible architect in a land fraught with typhoons and torrential rains." However, after reading two books (one by field researcher Ole Bruun), the writer's conclusion was that feng shui "is more of a mystical belief in cosmic harmony."[49]


Penn & Teller did an episode of their television show Bullshit! that featured several Feng Shui practitioners in the US, and was highly critical of the inconsistent (and frequently odd) advice. In the show, the entertainers argue that if Feng Shui is a science (as some claim), it should feature a consistent methodology. Penn & Teller at the 1988 Emmy Awards Penn & Teller are Las Vegas headliners whose act is an amalgam of illusion and comedy. ... Bullshit! (also known as Penn & Teller: Bullshit!) is an American, Emmy-nominated documentary television series, running since 2003 on the premium cable channel Showtime. ...


People have reacted skeptically towards the alleged benefits of crystals, wind chimes, table fountains, and mirrored balls, etc., on one's life, finances, and relationships. Often, these claims are dismissed as New Age, pseudoscience, relying on the placebo effect, or even outright fraud. For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... For the Beach Boys song, see Wind Chimes. ... A mirrored disco ball A disco ball, mirror ball, or ball mirror is a roughly spherical object that reflects light directed at it in many directions, producing a complex display. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... A typical 18th century phrenology chart. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Placebo. ...


Current research

A modern feng shui fountain at Taipei 101, Taiwan

A growing body of research exists on what is now called "traditional" or "classical" feng shui. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 383 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 479 pixel, file size: 677 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Feng Shui fountain at Taipei 101 entrance 7 on Hsinyi Road. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 383 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 479 pixel, file size: 677 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Feng Shui fountain at Taipei 101 entrance 7 on Hsinyi Road. ... Taipei 101 (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Táiběi Yīlíngyī; Wade-Giles: Tai-pei I-ling-i) is a 101-floor landmark skyscraper located in Taipei, the capital of Taiwan. ...


Landscape ecologists find traditional feng shui an interesting study.[50] In many cases, the only remaining patches of old forest in Asia are "feng shui woods," which strongly suggests the "healthy homes,"[51] sustainability[52] and environmental components of ancient feng shui techniques should not be easily dismissed.[53][54]


Environmental scientists and landscape architects have researched traditional feng shui and its methodologies.[55][56]


Architectural schools study the principles as they applied to ancient vernacular architecture[57][58][59].


Geographers have analyzed the techniques and methods to help locate historical sites in Victoria, Canada,[60] and archaeological sites in the American Southwest, concluding that ancient Native Americans considered astronomy and landscape features. [61]


Whether it is data on comparisons to scientific models, or the design and siting of buildings,[62] graduate and undergraduate students have been accumulating solid evidence on what researchers call the "exclusive Chinese cultural achievement and experience in architecture"[63] that is feng shui.


Modern Usage

Architects in Sydney and Hong Kong were surveyed by researchers regarding their selection of the environment for a building and interior layout. The architects generally concurred with the ideal feng shui model.[64]


The hospitality industry has documented the expensive retrofits members must undertake when accommodations were not designed with feng shui principles in mind.[65]


Donald Trump and Britain's Prince Charles have used feng shui.[66] Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946 in Queens, New York, New York) is an American business executive, entrepreneur, television and radio personality and author. ... Prince Charles may refer to: Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, current heir-apparent to the British throne Any of the previous British royals named Charles, Prince of Wales The former Belgian regent, Prince Charles of Belgium This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that...


News Corporation consulted feng shui experts regarding the headquarters offices of DirecTV after News Corp. acquired that company in 2003.[67] 1211 Avenue of the Americas (Sixth Avenue), where News Corporation is based News Corporation (abbreviated to News Corp) (NYSE: NWS, NYSE: NWSa, ASX: NWS, LSE: NCRA) is one of the worlds largest Media conglomerates. ...


It has also recently been included in the Lockie Leonard TV series.


Running Gags

  • Whenever feng shui is demonstrated in a TV show, such as WGN's Becker or PBS's Maya & Miguel, the furniture is often placed where it is inconvenient.

Maya & Miguel is a half-hour American childrens television animated series produced by Scholastic Studios. ...

References

  1. ^ Tina Marie (2007). Feng Shui Facts.. What is Feng Shui?. PaintedFace Publishing.
  2. ^ Field, Stephen L.. The Zhangshu, or Book of Burial..
  3. ^ Larry Sang. (1995) The Principles of Feng Shui.
  4. ^ Sun, X. (2000) Crossing the Boundaries between Heaven and Man: Astronomy in Ancient China. In H. Selin (ed.), Astronomy Across Cultures: The History of Non-Western Astronomy. 423-454. Kluwer Academic.
  5. ^ Aihe Wang. Some do believe that early feng shui was started a colony of peace loving nomadic types who participated in every form of love and bonding including homosexuality. Cosmology and Political Culture in Early China. 2000:23
  6. ^ The Pivot of the Four Quarters (1971:46)
  7. ^ David W. Pankenier. 'The Cosmo-Political Background of Heaven's Mandate.' Early China 20 (1995):121-176.
  8. ^ Zhentao Xu, David W. Pankenier, and Yaotiao Jiang. East Asian Archaeoastronomy. 2000:2
  9. ^ Sarah M. Nelson, Rachel A. Matson, Rachel M. Roberts, Chris Rock and Robert E. Stencel. (2006) Archaeoastronomical Evidence for Wuism at the Hongshan Site of Niuheliang. Page 2.
  10. ^ Chen Jiujin and Zhang Jingguo. 'Hanshan chutu yupian tuxing shikao,' Wenwu 4, 1989:15
  11. ^ Derek Walters. About the Luopan. http://www.derekwalters.de/text2.htm
  12. ^ Marc Kalinowski. 'The Xingde Texts from Mawangdui.' Early China. 23-24 (1998-99):125-202.
  13. ^ Wallace H. Campbell. Earth Magnetism: A Guided Tour Through Magnetic Fields. Academic Press, 2001.
  14. ^ Max Knoll. "Transformations of Science in Our Age." In Joseph Campbell (ed.). Man and Time. Princeton UP, 1957, 264-306.
  15. ^ Lui, A.T.Y., Y. Zheng, Y. Zhang, H. Rème, M.W. Dunlop, G. Gustafsson, S.B. Mende, C. Mouikis, and L.M. Kistler, Cluster observation of plasma flow reversal in the magnetotail during a substorm, Ann. Geophys., 24, 2005-2013, 2006
  16. ^ Stephen L. Field. 1998. [Qimancy: The Art and Science of Fengshui. http://www.fengshuigate.com/qimancy.html].
  17. ^ Moore, F. R. 1975. Influence of solar and geomagnetic stimuli on the migratory orientation of Herring Gull chicks. Auk 92:655-664.
  18. ^ Moore, F. R. 1977. Geomagnetic disturbance and the orientation of nocturnally migrating birds. Science 196:684-686.
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  20. ^ L.Pustil’nik, G. Yom Din, Influence of solar activity on the state of the wheat market in medieval England, Solar Physics. 223, 335–356, 2004.
  21. ^ L. Pustil’nik, G. Yom Din, Space climate manifestation in Earth prices – from Medieval England up to Modern U.S.A., Solar Physics, 224, 473–481, 2004.
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  23. ^ Sun and Kistemaker. The Chinese Sky During the Han. 1997:15-18
  24. ^ Aihe Wang. Cosmology and Political Structure in Early China. 2000:107-128
  25. ^ Sarah M. Nelson, Rachel A. Matson, Rachel M. Roberts, Chris Rock, and Robert E. Stencel. Archaeoastronomical Evidence for Wuism at the Hongshan Site of Niuheliang. 2006
  26. ^ Jacky Cheung Ngam Fung (2007). History of Feng Shui..
  27. ^ Aihe Wang. Cosmology and Political Culture in Early China. Cambridge UP: 2000.
  28. ^ Candace Czarny. Different Schools of Feng Shui. http://www.artofplacement.com
  29. ^ Ole Bruun. Fengshui in China: Geomantic Divination Between State Orthodoxy and Popular Religion. U of Hawai'i Press, 2003.
  30. ^ Cheng Jian Jun and Adriana Fernandes-Gonçalves. Chinese Feng Shui Compass Step by Step Guide. 1998:46-47
  31. ^ H. L. Goodall, Jr. Writing the American Ineffable, or the Mystery and Practice of Feng Shui in Everyday Life. Qualitative Inquiry, 7:1, 3-20 (2001)
  32. ^ Chou Yi-liang. Tantrism in China. Harvard J. of Asiatic Studies, 8:3/4 (Mar., 1945), 241-332
  33. ^ Crystal Chu. [http://www.yunlintemple.org/professor.htm His Holiness Grandmaster Professor Thomas Lin Yun.].
  34. ^ Wu, Emily Shao-Fan. 2003. Fengshui plus Buddhism equals what?: an initial analysis of Black Sect Tantric Buddhism in the United States. Thesis (M.A.)--Boston University, 2003.
  35. ^ Andrew L. March. 'An Appreciation of Chinese Geomancy' in The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 27, No. 2. (February 1968), pp. 253-267.
  36. ^ Jeffrey W. Cody. Striking a Harmonious Chord: Foreign Missionaries and Chinese-style Buildings, 1911-1949. Architronic. 5:3 (ISSN 1066-6516)
  37. ^ Mah, Y.-B. Living in Harmony with One's Environment: A Christian Response to Feng Shui. Asia J. of Theology. 2004, 18; Part 2, pp 340-361.
  38. ^ Marcia Montenegro. Feng Shui" New Dimensions in Design. Christian Research Journal. 26:1 (2003)
  39. ^ Chang Liang (pseudoym), 14 January 2005, What Does Superstitious Belief of 'Feng Shui' Among School Students Reveal? http://zjc.zjol.com.cn/05zjc/system/2005/01/14/003828695.shtml
  40. ^ Tao Shilong, 3 April 2006, The Crooked Evil of 'Feng Shui' Is Corrupting The Minds of Chinese People http://blog.csdn.net/taoshilong/archive/2006/04/03/649650.aspx
  41. ^ Chen Xintang Art Gallery Shut by the Municipality's Business and Industrial Department After Converting to 'Feng Shui' Consultation Office Banduo Daoxi Bao, Qingdao, January 19, 2006 http://gwzz.blogbus.com/logs/2006/01/1854093.html
  42. '^ BBC, 9 March 2001, Feng Shui Superstitions' Troubles Chinese Authorities http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/chinese/news/newsid_1210000/12108792.stm
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  46. ^ Cao Dafeng http://www.fudan.edu.cn/new_genview/now_caidafeng.htm
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  49. ^ Monty Vierra. Harried by "Hellions" in Taiwan. Sceptical Briefs newsletter, March 1997.
  50. ^ Bo-Chul Whang and Myung-Woo Lee. Landscape ecology planning principles in Korean Feng-Shui, Bi-bo woodlands and ponds. J. Landscape and Ecological Engineering. 2:2, November, 2006. 147-162.
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  52. ^ Stephen Siu-Yiu Lau, Renato Garcia, Ying-Qing Ou, Man-Mo Kwok, Ying Zhang, Shao Jie Shen, Hitomi Namba. Sustainable design in its simplest form: Lessons from the living villages of Fujian rammed earth houses. Structural Survey. 2005, 23:5, 371-385
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  55. ^ Chen, B. X. and Nakama, Y. A summary of research history on Chinese Feng-shui and application of Feng-shui principles to environmental issues. Kyusyu J. For. Res. 57. 297-301 (2004).
  56. ^ Xu, Jun. 2003. A framework for site analysis with emphasis on feng shui and contemporary environmental design principles. Blacksburg, Va: University Libraries, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
  57. ^ Park, C.-P. Furukawa, N. Yamada, M. A Study on the Spatial Composition of Folk Houses and Village in Taiwan for the Geomancy (Feng-Shui). J. Arch. Institute of Korea. 1996, 12:9, 129-140.
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  59. ^ Hwangbo, A. B. An Alternative Tradition in Architecture: Conceptions in Feng Shui and Its Continuous Tradition. J. Architectural and Planning Research. 2002, 19:2, pp 110-130.
  60. ^ Chuen-Yan David Lai. A Feng Shui Model as a Location Index. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 64 (4), 506–513.
  61. ^ Xu, P. Feng-shui as Clue: Identifying Ancient Indian Landscape Setting Patterns in the American Southwest. Landscape Journal. 1997, 16:2, 174-190.
  62. ^ Lu, Hui-Chen. 2002. A Comparative analysis between western-based environmental design and feng-shui for housing sites. Thesis (M.S.). California Polytechnic State University, 2002.
  63. ^ Su-Ju Lu; Peter Blundell Jones. House design by surname in Feng Shui. J. of Architecture. 5:4 December 2000, 355-367.
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  65. ^ J.S. Perry Hobson. International J. of Contemporary Hospitality Management. Dec 1994. 6:6, 21-26
  66. ^ San Antonio Business Journal, April 7 2000
  67. ^ Eller, Claudia. "Younger Wife, Exotic Fish: The Mogul's Secret to Vitality." Los Angeles Times, September 18, 2006

Further reading

  • Yoon, Hong-key, Culture of Fengshui in Korea: An Exploration of East Asian Geomancy, Lexington Books, 2006. ISBN 9780739113486 (cloth : alk. paper); 0739113488 (cloth : alk. paper)
  • Wu, Baolin, Lighting the Eye of the Dragon: Inner Secrets of Taoist Feng Shui, St. Martin's Press, 2000. ISBN 0-312-25497-0

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Feng shui - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1322 words)
Feng shui (pronounced "fung shway") is the ancient Chinese practice of placement and arrangement of space to achieve harmony with the environment.
Feng shui is a discrete Chinese belief system involving a mix of geographical, religious, philosophical, mathematical, aesthetic, and astrological ideas.
The goal of feng shui guidelines is to orient dwellings, possessions, land and landscaping, etc., so as to be attuned with the flow of qi.
Feng Shui: Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine (1169 words)
Feng shui, pronounced "foong swee" (Cantonese) or "fong shway" (Mandarin) is the Chinese art of arranging buildings, objects, and space in the environment in order to achieve energy, harmony, and balance.
With feng shui, the goal is to bring both into harmony so as to foster prosperity, health, and well-being with the Wind (feng) dispersing the qi throughout the universe and Water (shui).
Feng shui adjustments to living space should not be relied upon as a sole source of treatment for individuals with health problems.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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