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Encyclopedia > Fencing (sport)
Fencing advertisement for the 1900 Summer Olympic Games
Fencing advertisement for the 1900 Summer Olympic Games

In the broadest possible sense, fencing is the art and science of armed combat involving cutting, stabbing, or bludgeoning weapons directly manipulated by hand, rather than shot or thrown. Example weapons include swords, knives, pikes, bayonets, batons, clubs, and similar. In contemporary common usage, fencing tends to refer specifically to European schools of swordsmanship and to the modern Olympic sport that has evolved out of them. Fencing is one of the four sports that has been featured at every modern Olympic Games. The modern weapons for sport fencing are the foil, épée, and sabre. The term 'Fencing' derives from the expression, "The Art of Defence", meaning the art of defending one's self in combat. This article is predominantly about Olympic fencing. Image File history File links 1900. ... Image File history File links 1900. ... Actresses (Uma Thurman and Vivica A. Fox) performing stage combat Stage Combat is a specialized technique in theatre designed to create the illusion of physical combat without causing harm to the performers. ... Academic fencing or Mensur fencing is the traditional kind of fencing practiced by some student corporations (Studentenverbindungen) in Germany, Austria, Flanders and Switzerland. ... A fence in Westtown Township, Pennsylvania A fence is a freestanding structure designed to restrict or prevent movement across a boundary. ... Fence or Fencer may refer to: Fence, a structure to restrict or prevent movement Fencing, to participate in the sport Fence (criminal), a person who specializes in the purchase and sale of stolen property from thieves Fences, a play by August Wilson Sukhoi Su-24, a fighter jet with NATO... Combate Naval de Iquique - oil on canvas painting by Thomas Somerscales, XIX century Combat, or fighting, is purposeful violent conflict between one or more persons or organizations, often intended to establish dominance over the opposition. ... Cutting is the separation of a physical object, or a portion of a physical object, into two portions, through the application of an acutely directed force. ... A stabbing or stab is the penetration of the human body by a sharp or pointed object at close range. ... Hercules fights the Lernaean Hydra with a club A club or cudgel is perhaps the simplest of all melee weapons. ... A weapon is a tool used to kill or incapacitate a person or animal, or destroy a military target. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A modern recreation of a mid-17th century company of pikemen. ... The US Marine Corps OKC-3S Bayonet A bayonet (from French baïonnette) is a knife- or dagger-shaped weapon designed to fit on or over the muzzle of a rifle barrel or similar weapon. ... A club, cudgel, truncheon, night stick, or bludgeon is perhaps the simplest of all weapons. ... A club, cudgel, truncheon, night stick, or bludgeon is perhaps the simplest of all weapons. ... Style guides generally give guidance on language use. ... This article is about the continent. ... Swordsman redirects here. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... An Italian-grip foil A foil is a type of sword used in fencing. ... An Épée fencer. ... A sabre fencer. ...

Contents

Forms of fencing

Contemporary fencing is divided in three broad categories:

  • Competitive fencing
  • Fencing as a Western martial art
  • Other forms of fencing

Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ...

Competitive fencing

There are three forms of competitive fencing in practice. Variations make each of them a distinct game. All three approach the activity as a sport, with varying degrees of connectedness to its historic past.

Russian Ivan Tourchine and American Weston Kelsey fence in the second round of the Men's Individual Épée event in the 2004 Summer Olympics at the Helliniko Fencing Hall on August 17, 2004.
Russian Ivan Tourchine and American Weston Kelsey fence in the second round of the Men's Individual Épée event in the 2004 Summer Olympics at the Helliniko Fencing Hall on August 17, 2004.

Olympic fencing (or simply "fencing") refers to the fencing seen in most competitions, including the Olympic Games. It is marked by the use of electronic scoring equipment, and conducted according to rules laid down by the Fédération Internationale d'Escrime (FIE), the sports federation governing most international fencing competitions. The current rules are very loosely based on a set of conventions developed in 18th- and 19th-century Europe to govern fencing as a martial art and a gentlemanly pursuit. The weapons used are the electric foil, electric épée, and electric sabre. U.S. Air Force 2nd Lt. ... U.S. Air Force 2nd Lt. ... The 2004 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad, were held in Athens, Greece, from August 13 to August 29, 2004. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... Fédération Internationale dEscrime (FIE) (English: International Fencing Federation) is the international governing body of Olympic fencing. ... The term gentleman (from Latin gentilis, belonging to a race or gens, and man, cognate with the French word gentilhomme, the Spanish gentilhombre, and the Italian gentil uomo or gentiluomo), in its original and strict signification, denoted a man of good family, the Latin generosus (its invariable translation in English...


Wheelchair fencing, an original paralympic sport, was developed in post-World War II England. Minor modifications to the FIE rules allow disabled fencers to fence all three weapons. The most apparent change is that each fencer sits in a wheelchair fastened to a frame. Footwork is replaced by torso or arm movement, depending on the fencer's disability. The proximity of the two fencers tends to increase the pace of bouts, which require considerable skill. The weapons are identical to those used in Olympic fencing. A wheelchair is a wheeled mobility device in which the user sits. ... Silver 2004 The Paralympic Games are an elite multi-sport event for athletes with a disability. ... The term disability, as it is applied to humans, refers to any condition that impedes the completion of daily tasks using traditional methods. ... The human torso Torso is an anatomical term for the greater part of the human body without the head and limbs. ...


American Fencing League (AFL) fencing is conducted in the United States according to rules of the American Fencing League (founded in 2005), which are based on the 1940 rules of the old Amateur Fencers League of America (which became the USFA in 1981). AFL fencing is not as purely athletic a game as Olympic fencing, as it has longer "phrases," longer time limits, 1-touch épée rules, a different approach to the principle of "right of way," and a revival of 3-weapon bouts. It uses the standard (non-electric) foil, standard épée, and standard sabre. Confusingly, it is sometimes referred to as classical fencing (see below). The American Fencing League, or AFL, was founded on March 25, 2005 in Salem, Oregon, United States, by a group of fencers seeking independence from the United States Fencing Association. ... The American Fencing League, or AFL, was founded on March 25, 2005 in Salem, Oregon, United States, by a group of fencers seeking independence from the United States Fencing Association. ... The Amateur Fencers League of America, or AFLA, was founded on April 22, 1891 in New York City by a group of fencers seeking independence from the Amateur Athletic Union. ... The United States Fencing Association (USFA) is the regulatory body that governs the sport of fencing in the United States. ...


Fencing as a Western martial art

Some practitioners of fencing approach it as a Western martial art, with the goal being to train for a theoretical duel. The element of sport is absent (or nearly so) from these forms of fencing, but they all share a common origin with each other and with competitive fencing. Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ...


Classical fencing is differentiated from competitive fencing as being theoretically closer to swordplay as a martial art. Those who call themselves classical fencers may advocate the use of what they see as more authentic practices, including little or no emphasis on sport competition. There is strong interest within the classical fencing community in reviving the European fencing practices of the 19th and early 20th century, when fencers were expected to be able to fight a duel using their training. Weapons used are the standard (non-electric) foil, standard epee (often equipped with pointes d'arret), and the blunted duelling sabre. AFL fencing is often referred to as classical fencing, but this is a misnomer. Classical fencing, often abbreviated as CF, is a semi-formal expression used to distinguish one branch of traditional fencing from modern sport or Olympic fencing. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... An editor has expressed a concern that the topic of this article may be unencyclopedic. ...


Historical fencing is a type of historical martial arts reconstruction based on surviving texts and traditions, with a particular emphasis on pre-19th century fencing practices. Predictably, historical fencers study an extremely wide array of weapons from different regions and periods. They may work with bucklers, daggers, polearms, bludgeoning weapons, etc. One main preoccupation of historical fencers is with weapons of realistic weight, which demand a different way of manipulating them from what is the norm in modern Fencing. For example, light weapons can be manipulated through the use of the fingers, but more realistically-weighted weapons must be controlled more through the wrist and elbow. This difference is great and can lead to drastic changes even in the carriage of the body and footwork in combat. There is considerable overlap between classical and historical fencing, especially with regard to 19th-century fencing practices. Historical martial arts reconstructions are attempts at reviving martial arts with no living tradition. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... A buckler (French bouclier shield, from old French bocle, boucle boss) is a small shield gripped in the fist -- it was generally used in hand-to-hand combat during the Middle Ages, as its size made it poor protection against missile weapons (e. ... Bold text This article is about the weapon. ... A pole weapon or polearm is a close combat weapon with the main fighting part of the weapon placed on the end of a long shaft, typically of wood. ...


Other forms of fencing

This circa 1900 painting illustrates a typical mensur bout in Heidelberg, Germany. The combatants have their swords high in the air and are wearing only metal goggles to protect the eyes and nose.

Finally, there are several other forms of fencing which have little in common besides history with either of the other two classifications. Image File history File links Mühlberg_-_Auf_die_Mensur. ... Image File history File links Mühlberg_-_Auf_die_Mensur. ... A view of the city from the castle (Schloss) A view of stone bridge from the castle (Schloss) The castle (Schloss) above the town Shopping district Heidelberg and the other cities of the Neckar valley View from the so called alley of philosophers (Philosophenweg) towards the Old Town, with Heidelberg...


Academic fencing, or mensur, is a German student tradition that is still practiced in Germany, Switzerland and Austria as well as in Flanders and Latvia. The combat, which uses a cutting weapon known as the schlager, uses sharpened blades and takes place between members of student fraternities - "Studentenverbindungen" - in accordance with a strictly delineated set of conventions. It uses special protective gear that leaves most of the head and face, excluding the eyes, unprotected. The ultimate goal is to develop personal character, therefore there is no winner or loser and flinching is not allowed. Acquiring a proper cut on the face with the sharp blade is one goal and a visible sign of manly courage. Academic fencing or Mensur fencing is the traditional kind of fencing practiced by some student corporations (Studentenverbindungen) in Germany, Austria, Flanders and Switzerland. ... A Studentenverbindung (the umbrella term that includes the Burschenschaften, Landsmannschaften, Corps, Turnerschaften, Sängerschaften, Catholic Corporations and Ferialverbindungen) is a German student corporation similar to fraternities in the US or Canada. ...


Stage fencing seeks to achieve maximum theatrical impact in representing a wide range of styles, including both modern and historical forms of fencing. Theatrical fight scenes are choreographed and fencing actions are exaggerated for dramatic effect and visual clarity. Actresses (Uma Thurman and Vivica A. Fox) performing stage combat Stage Combat is a specialized technique in theatre designed to create the illusion of physical combat without causing harm to the performers. ... For other usages see Theatre (disambiguation) Theater (American English) or Theatre (British English and widespread usage among theatre professionals in the US) is that branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, music, dance, sound and spectacle &#8212... Choreography (also known as dance composition) is the art of making structures in which movement occurs, the term composition may also refer to the navigation or connection of these movement structures. ...


Recreational roleplaying often incorporates fencing in the context of historical or fantasy themes in the Society for Creative Anachronism or live-action roleplaying games. Technique and scoring systems vary widely from one group to the next, as do the weapons. Depending on local conventions, participants may use modern sport fencing weapons, period weapons, or weapons invented specifically for the purpose, such as boffers. Fantasy is a genre of art that uses magic and other supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, or setting. ... The Society for Creative Anachronism (usually shortened to SCA) is a nonprofit educational organization whose goal is described in their By-Laws and Corporate Policies as a group devoted to the study of the Middle Ages and Renaissance life and culture of the landed nobility in Europe prior to A... A live action role-playing game, or LARP as it is commonly known, is a form of role-playing game where the participants perform some or all of the physical actions of the characters they play the role of. ... A boffer is any padded weapon used in the act of boffing and quite often associated with LARPs. ...


Modern weapons

Equipment of a right-handed épée fencer: 1-Jacket 2-Glove 3-Body cord 4-Épée 5-Breeches 6-Mask 7-Plastron Not pictured: socks and shoes
Equipment of a right-handed épée fencer: 1-Jacket 2-Glove 3-Body cord 4-Épée 5-Breeches 6-Mask 7-Plastron
Not pictured: socks and shoes

Three weapons survive in modern competitive fencing: foil, épée, and sabre. The spadroon and the heavy cavalry-style sabre, both of which saw widespread competitive use in the 19th century, fell into disfavour in the early 20th century with the rising popularity of the lighter and faster weapon used today, based on the Italian duelling sabre. The singlestick was featured in the 1904 Olympic Games, but it was already declining in popularity at that time. Bayonet fencing experienced a somewhat slower decline, with competitions organized by some armed forces as late as the 1940s and 1950s. At one time, combat with staves of various lengths, spears, halberds, axes, daggers, wrestling, shields and flails were all considered fencing. Today these weapons are the preserve of historical fencing. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2022x1455, 615 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2022x1455, 615 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... In fencing, a body cord serves as the connection between a fencer and the reel. ... An Italian-grip foil A foil is a type of sword used in fencing. ... An Épée fencer. ... A sabre fencer. ... The Spadroon is a light sword used both to cut and to thrust. ... Soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat are commonly known as cavalry (from French cavalerie). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... For other uses, see Duels (band). ... Singlestick is a martial art related to fencing, and a weapon for the art, bearing approximately the same relationship to the broadsword as the foil to the rapier in being a sporting version of the weapon for safe practice. ... The US Marine Corps OKC-3S Bayonet A bayonet (from French baïonnette) is a knife- or dagger-shaped weapon designed to fit on or over the muzzle of a rifle barrel or similar weapon. ... The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... // Recovering from World War II and its aftermath, the economic miracle emerged in West Germany and Italy. ... // A staff is a large, thick stick or stick-shaped object used to help with walking, as a status symbol, or as a weapon. ... Historical martial arts reconstructions are attempts at reviving martial arts with no living tradition. ...


While the weapons fencers use differ in size and purpose, their basic construction remains similar across the disciplines. Every weapon has a blade and a hilt. The tip of the blade is generally referred to as the point. The hilt consists of a guard and a grip. The guard (also known as the coquille, or the bellguard) is a metal shell designed to protect the fingers. The grip is the weapon's actual handle. There are a number of commonly used variants. The more traditional kind tend to terminate with a pommel, a heavy nut intended to act as a counterweight for the blade. In fencing, the grip is the part of the weapon which is gripped by the fencers hand. ... See also: Hilt (band) and Peter Hilt The hilt of a sword is its handle, consisting of a guard, grip and pommel. ...


Foil

Main article: Foil (fencing)
A foil fencer. Valid target (the torso) is in red.
A foil fencer. Valid target (the torso) is in red.

The foil is a light and flexible weapon, originally developed in the mid 17th century as a training weapon for the court sword (a light one-handed sword designed almost exclusively for thrusting). It is the weapon that, traditionally, many students practice first. Hits can be scored only by hitting the valid target surface with the point of the weapon. The target area is restricted to the torso. A touch on an off-target area stops the bout, but does not score a point. There are "right of way" conventions or priority rules, whose basic idea is that the first person to create a viable threat or the last person to defend successfully receives a "right" to hit. If two hits arrive more or less simultaneously, only the fencer who had the "right of way" receives a point. If priority cannot be assigned unambiguously, no points are awarded. The basic idea behind the foil rules was, originally, to encourage the defence of one's vital areas, and to fence in a methodical way with initiative passing back and forth between the two fencers and no last-minute counter-attacks ---- which risk a double death. An Italian-grip foil A foil is a type of weapon used in fencing. ... Image File history File links Foilfence. ... Image File history File links Fencing_foil_valid_surfaces. ... Image File history File links Fencing_foil_valid_surfaces. ... An Italian-grip foil A foil is a type of weapon used in fencing. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... The Smallsword is a sword intermediate in historical period between the rapier and the classical épée, ancestor to the modern sporting épée. ... The human torso Torso is an anatomical term for the greater part of the human body without the head and limbs. ...


In modern competitive fencing "electric" weapons are used. These have a push-button on the point of the blade, which allows hits to be registered by the electronic scoring apparatus. In order to register, the button must be depressed with a force of at least 4.90 newtons (500 grams-force) for at least 15 milliseconds (Originally 1-5 milliseconds, but changed in 2004, done to counter the popularity of the "flick attack"). Fencers wear conductive (lamé) jackets covering their target area, which allow the scoring apparatus to differentiate between on- and off-target hits. The newton (symbol: N) is the SI unit of force. ... The deprecated unit kilogram-force (kgf) or kilopond (kp) is the force exerted by one kilogram of mass in standard Earth gravity (defined as exactly 9. ... A millisecond is an SI-derived unit of time, equal to one thousandth of a second. ... A Lamé is the name of the electronically conductive jacket worn by Foil and Sabre fencers. ...


Épée

Main article: Épée (Fencing)
An Épée fencer. Valid target (the entire body) is in red.
An Épée fencer. Valid target (the entire body) is in red.

Épée fencing was started at the beginning of the 16th century. While the use of two-handed longsword was declining and full suits of plate armour became less common, this new weapon was born in Spain. The rapier épée had a long fine blade with a sharper edge, and the tip could be used to cut and thrust. The guard looked like a small basket drilled with holes, having a long, straight ramrod bored through it to be used in engaging and breaking the opponent's blade and point. The introduction of the rapier brought about a new style of fencing, used almost entirely in the civilian realm of battle. An Épée fencer. ... Image File history File links Epeefence. ... Image File history File links Fencing_epee_valid_surfaces. ... Image File history File links Fencing_epee_valid_surfaces. ... An Épée fencer. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or early 16th century (Morges museum) The Longsword is a type of European sword used during the late medieval and Renaissance periods, approximately 1250 to 1550. ... Gothic armour Plate armour is personal armour made from large metal plates, worn on the chest and sometimes the entire body. ... Silver damascened rapier guard, between 1580 and 1600. ... Look up ramrod in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Like the foil, the épée is a thrusting weapon: to score a valid hit, the fencer must fix the point of his weapon on his opponent's target. However, épée lacks the foil's most artificial conventions: the restricted target area and the priority rules. In épée, a hit can be scored by landing a hit anywhere on the opponent's body. The fencer whose hit lands first receives the point, irrespective of what happened in the preceding phrase. If two hits arrive simultaneously (within 40 milliseconds of each other), a double hit is recorded, and both fencers get a point (except for in modern pentathlon one-hit épée, where neither fencer receives a point). A millisecond is an SI-derived unit of time, equal to one thousandth of a second. ... Competitors in the final round of the Mens Modern Pentathlon pull for the finish line at the Goudi Sports Complex on August 26, 2004. ...


In order for the scoring apparatus to register a hit, the push-button on the end of the weapon must remain fully depressed (tip must be depressed for a certain distance) for 2-10 milliseconds. To register, the hit must arrive with a force of at least 7.35 newtons (the equivalent of 750 grams of stationary mass) - a slightly higher threshold than the foil's 4.9 newtons (500 grams). All hits register as valid, unless they land on a grounded metal surface, such as a part of the opponent's weapon, in which case they do not register at all. At large events, grounded conductive pistes are often used in order to prevent the registration of hits against the floor. At smaller events and in club fencing, it is generally the responsibility of the referee to watch out for floor hits. These often happen by accident, when an épéeist tries to hit the opponent's foot and misses. In such cases, they are simply ignored. However, deliberate hits against the floor are treated as "dishonest fencing," and penalized accordingly. A millisecond is an SI-derived unit of time, equal to one thousandth of a second. ... In physics, force is an influence that may cause a body to accelerate. ... The newton (symbol: N) is the SI unit of force. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... Unsolved problems in physics: What causes anything to have mass? The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. Mass is the property of a physical object that quantifies the amount of matter and energy it is equivalent to. ... Ground symbols The term ground or earth usually means a common return path in electrical circuits. ... A piste is the name given to a marked ski-run or path down a mountain for the purposes of skiing, snowboarding, or other mountain sports. ... A referee is a person who has authority to make decisions about play in many sports. ...


Sabre

A sabre fencer. Valid target (everything from the waist up, including the arms and head) is in red (exception: The hands, which are shown in red, are not valid targets).
A sabre fencer. Valid target (everything from the waist up, including the arms and head) is in red (exception: The hands, which are shown in red, are not valid targets).
Main article: Sabre (fencing)

The sabre is the "cutting" weapon, with a curved guard and a triangular blade. However, in modern electric scoring, a touch with any part of the sabre, point, flat or edge, as long as it is on target, will register a hit. Image File history File links Fencing_saber_valid_surfaces. ... Image File history File links Fencing_saber_valid_surfaces. ... A sabre fencer. ... A sabre fencer. ...


The modern sabre is commonly believed to have taken its origins and traditions from the cavalry sabre, but that has recently been exposed as a myth.[citation needed] It is believed that the Hungarians introduced sabre fencing in Europe towards the end of the 18th century. Their sabre, derived from oriental scimitars, had a flat, slightly curved blade and was not as wide and thick as the French cavalry sabre. The Hungarians could not perfect their sabre until they were influenced by the Italian school, which helped them to perfect their teaching. The term scimitar refers to a sword with a curved blade from western Asia. ...


The target area in sabre is everything from the waist up, except for the hands. A hit that lands off target will not register a light or stop the bout.


Like foil fencing, sabre fencing uses right of way rules. However, the definition of an "attack" is slightly different for the two weapons, and as a result, the right of way rules distinguish sabre and foil, though the basic concepts are the same. Sabre right of way rewards very fast fencing (on offence and defence), so sabre fencing tends to be more aggressive in style than the other weapons.


Protective clothing

Chest protector (women's)
Chest protector (women's)
Jacket
Jacket
Glove
Glove
Plastron
Plastron
Knickers (breeches)
Knickers (breeches)
Mask
Mask

The clothing which is worn in modern fencing is made of tough cotton or nylon. Kevlar was added to top level uniform pieces (jacket, breeches, underarm protector, and the bib of the mask) following the Smirnov incident at the 1982 World Championships in Rome. However, kevlar breaks down in chlorine and UV light, so the act of washing one's uniform and/or hanging it up in the sun to dry actually damaged the kevlar's ability to do the job. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1934x1836, 209 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1934x1836, 209 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3022x2074, 731 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3022x2074, 731 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1594x2032, 341 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1594x2032, 341 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2284x1726, 439 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2284x1726, 439 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1693x2877, 545 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1693x2877, 545 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1465x2101, 588 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1465x2101, 588 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) ... Cotton ready for harvest. ... Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers first produced on February 28, 1935 by Gerard J. Berchet of Wallace Carothers research group at DuPont. ... Chemical structure of Kevlar. ... Vladimir Smirnov (May 20, 1954 - July 27, 1982) was a Soviet foil fencer. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Atomic mass 35. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ...


In recent years other ballistic fabrics such as Dyneema have been developed that perform the puncture resistance function and which do not have kevlar's weakness. In fact, the FIE rules state that the entirety of the uniform (meaning FIE level clothing, as the rules are written for FIE tournaments) must be made of fabric that resists a force of 800 newtons (1600N in the mask bib). Dyneema or Spectra is a synthetic fiber based on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene which is 15 times stronger than steel and up to 40% stronger than Kevlar. ...


The complete fencing kit includes the following items of clothing:

  • Form-fitting jacket covering groin and with strap (croissard) which goes between the legs, a small gorget of folded fabric is also sewn in around the collar to prevent a blade from slipping upwards towards the neck.
  • Under-arm protector (plastron) which goes underneath the jacket and provides double protection on the sword arm side and upper arm. It is required to not have a seam in the armpit, which would line up with the jacket seam and provide a weak spot.
  • One glove for the sword arm with a gauntlet that prevents blades from going up the sleeve and causing injury, as well as protecting the hand and providing a good grip
  • Breeches or knickers which are a pair of short trousers. The legs are supposed to hold just below the knee.
  • Knee-length socks which cover the rest of the leg.
  • Shoes with flat soles and reinforcement on the inside of the back foot, to prevent wear from lunging.
  • Mask, including a bib which protects the neck. For competition, the bib must be sewn into the mask frame to eliminate a hole that might admit a blade. Thus, masks with snap-in bibs are not legal for competition. The mask can usually support 12 kilograms of force, however FIE regulation masks can stand much more, at least 25 kg.
  • Plastic chest protector, mandatory for female fencers. While male versions are also available, they were, until recently, primarily worn by instructors, who are hit far more often during training than their students. Since the change of the depression timing (see above), these are increasingly popular in foil, as the hard surface increases the likelihood of point bounce and thus a failure for a hit to register. Plastrons are still mandatory, though.
  • Fencing Masters wear a heavier protective jacket, usually reinforced by plastic foam to cushion the numerous hits an instructor has to endure. Sometimes in practice, masters wear a protective sleeve or a leg leather for protection of their fencing arm or leg.

Traditionally, the uniform is white in colour. This is primarily to assist the judges in seeing touches scored (black being the traditional colour for masters), but rules against non-white uniforms may also have been intended to combat sponsorship and the commercialization of the sport. However, recently the FIE rules have been relaxed to allow coloured uniforms. The colour white might also be traced back to times before electronic scoring equipment, when the blades were sometimes covered in soot or coloured chalk to make a mark on the opponent's clothing. Sir Philip Sidney wears a gorget for a portrait A gorget is a type of armor designed to protect the neck. ... A glove (Middle English from Old English glof) is a type of garment which covers the hand. ... Breeches as worn in America in the latter eighteenth century: Elijah Boardman by Ralph Earl, 1789. ... Knickerbockers were a kind of mens or boys baggy knee trousers, of a type particularly popular in the early twentieth century. ... Socks A sock is a knitted garment for enclosing the human foot and/or lower leg, which is designed to: ease chafing between the foot and footwear, keep the feet warm absorb moisture Sock is also the term given to the layer of leather or other material covering the insole... shoe for right foot A shoe is a piece of footwear for humans, less than a boot and more than a slipper. ... A mask is a piece of material or kit worn on the face. ...


Practice and techniques

Beginning positions for an épée bout
Beginning positions for an épée bout
Épée fencer in en garde postition
Épée fencer in en garde postition

A fencing bout takes place on a strip, or piste, which, according to the current FIE regulations, should be between 1.5 and 2 meters wide and 14 meters long. There are at least three people involved: two fencers and a referee, called a "Director". The referee may be assisted by two or four side-judges. The arrival of the electronic scoring apparatus has rendered them largely redundant. Under current FIE rules, a fencer may ask for two side-judges (one to watch each fencer) if (s)he thinks that the referee is failing to notice some infringement of the rules on his opponent's part (such as use of the unarmed hand, substitution of the valid target area, breaching the boundary of the piste etc.). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2428x1747, 544 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2428x1747, 544 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2620x2080, 548 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2620x2080, 548 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) ... Fencing practice and techniques of modern competitive fencing are governed by the FIE, though they developed from conventions developed in 18th- and 19th-century Europe to govern fencing as a martial art and a gentlemanly pursuit. ... A Piste or strip is the fencing area, roughly 14 meters long by 2 meters wide, upon which the modern sport of fencing is played. ... Fédération Internationale dEscrime (FIE) (English: International Fencing Federation) is the international governing body of Olympic fencing. ... The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... A referee is a person who has authority to make decisions about play in many sports. ...


Protocol

Very specific rules govern the behaviour of fencers while competing. To begin a bout, the referee stands at the side of the piste. The fencers walk on piste fully dressed, aside from the mask. If necessary, they plug their body wires into the spools connected to the electronic scoring apparatus and test their weapons against each other, to make sure everything is functioning. They then retreat to their en-garde lines. Prior to starting a bout, the fencers must salute each other. Refusal to do so can result in a fencer's suspension or disqualification. Both fencers must salute each other and the referee. They may choose to salute the audience. In non-electric events the 4 judges should be saluted also. A salute is a gesture or other action used to display respect. ...


The referee will call "Play!" or "Fence!", and the bout will start. Judging is often done in French, in which case the referee will say "En garde. Prêt. Allez". To interrupt the bout the referee calls "Halt!" (if judging in French, the term is the same). Once the bout is stopped, the referee will, if necessary, explain his reasons for stopping it, analyse what has just happened and award points or give out penalties. If a point has been awarded, then the competitors return to their en-garde lines; if not, they remain approximately where they were when the bout was interrupted. The referee will then restart the bout as before. This procedure is repeated until either one of the fencers has reached the required number of points (generally, 1, 5, or 15, depending on the format of the bout) or until the time allowed for the bout runs out.


Fencing bouts are timed: the clock is started every time the referee calls "Fence" and stopped every time he calls "Halt!". The bout must stop after three minutes of fencing (or 8 touches in saber). In 15 point bouts, a 1 minute break occurs in between the three minute intervals. If 9 minutes of fencing time elapse in a 15 touch bout, or 3 in a 5 touch bout, the bout is over and the current scores are taken as final. If the score is tied when time runs out then the director determines priority randomly, this is generally done by coin toss. After priority is determined the fencers bout for one minute. If a point is scored, then that fencer wins, however if no points are scored then the fencer with priority wins.


Priority ("right of way") rules

Foil and sabre are governed by priority rules, according to which the fencer who is the first to initiate an attack or the last to take a successful parry receives priority. When both fencers hit more or less simultaneously, only the fencer who had priority receives the point. If priority cannot be assigned unambiguously, no points are awarded. These rules were adopted in the 18th century as part of teaching practice. Their aim is to encourage "sensible" fencing and reward initiative and circumspection at the same time, in particular to reward fencers for properly made attacks, and penalize fencers for attacking into such an attack that lands, an action that could be lethal with sharp blades. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1132x1795, 291 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) Attack (fencing) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1132x1795, 291 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) Attack (fencing) ... In fencing, an attack is the first offensive movement of a phrase. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


Scoring

Prior to the introduction of electronic scoring equipment, a director (formerly called the president of jury) was assisted by four judges. Two judges were positioned behind each fencer, one on each side of the strip. The judges watched the fencer opposite to see if he was hit. This system is sometimes called "dry" fencing (USA) or "steam" (United Kingdom, Australia) fencing.


Electronic scoring is used in all major national and international, and most local, competitions. At Olympic level, it was first introduced to épée in 1936, to foil in 1956, and to sabre in 1988. The central unit of the scoring system is commonly known as "the box". In the simplest version both fencers' weapons are connected to the box via long retractable cables. The box normally carries a set of lights to signal when a touch has been made. (Larger peripheral lights are also often used.) In foil and sabre, because of the need to distinguish on-target hits from off-target ones, special conductive clothing and wires must be worn. This includes a lamé, (a jacket of conducting cloth) for both weapons, a body cord to connect the weapon to the system, a reel of retractable cable that connects to the scoring box and in the case of sabre, a conducting mask and cuff (manchette) as the head and arms are valid target areas. 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Lamé is the name of the electronically conductive jacket worn by Foil and Sabre fencers. ... In fencing, a body cord serves as the connection between a fencer and the reel. ... A Manchette is a special glove cover worn by fencers, specifically sabrerists, on their weapon hand. ...


Techniques

The lunge position on the right, showing how much more distance can be obtained over the en garde stance
The lunge position on the right, showing how much more distance can be obtained over the en garde stance

The nine classical parries comprise basic bladework. The first parry that most fencers learn is quarte, known commonly as "parry four". Parries are named for the line that they defend from attack: parry four would defend line four, which is the high inside line. Offensive bladework consists of the various means of scoring a touch on an opponent. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x800, 155 KB) A picture showing a fencer in a plunge and en garde, giving the idea of how much more reach you can get by plunging. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x800, 155 KB) A picture showing a fencer in a plunge and en garde, giving the idea of how much more reach you can get by plunging. ...


In a fencing bout, a great deal depends on being in the right place at the right time. Fencers are constantly manoeuvring in and out of each other's range, accelerating, decelerating, changing directions and so on. All this has to be done with minimum effort and maximum grace, which makes footwork arguably the most important aspect of a fencer's training regimen. In fact, in the first half of the 20th century it was common practice to put fencers through six months to a year of footwork before they were ever allowed to hold a sword. Although this practice has now been largely abandoned most fencing schools still begin their teaching with a very heavy emphasis on footwork. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


In general, Olympic fencing has put a premium on balance, speed, and athleticism in footwork, somewhat diluting orthodoxies regarding the classical stances and methods. To a degree, this has led to increasing resemblance between fencing footwork and that of other martial arts, with the significant caveat that a scoring "touch" requires almost no power behind the blow, only timing and the ability to manipulate distance.


Competition formats

Fencing Tournament
Fencing Tournament

Fencing tournaments are varied in their format, and there are both individual and team competitions. A tournament may comprise all three weapons, both individual and team, or it may be very specific, such as an Epee Challenge, with individual épée only. And, as in many sports, men and women compete separately. There are two types of event, individual and team. An individual event consists of two parts: the pools, and the direct eliminations. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2968x1474, 601 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2968x1474, 601 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) ...


In the pools, fencers are divided into groups, and every fencer in a pool will have the chance to fence every other fencer once. The size and number of the pools is determined by the number of athletes who have registered for the competition. After the pools are finished, the direct elimination round starts. Fencers are sorted in a table of some power of 2 (16, 32, 64, etc.) based on how many people are competing. The winner carries on in the tournament, and loser is eliminated. Fencing is slightly unusual in that no one has to fence for third place. Instead, two bronze medals are given to the losers of the semi-final round.


Team competition involves teams of three fencers. A fourth fencer can be allowed on the team as an alternate, but as soon as the fourth has been subbed in, they cannot leave again. The modern team competition is similar to the pool round of the individual competition. The fencers from opposing teams will each fence each other once, making for a total of nine matches. Matches between teams are three minutes long, or to 5 points, as in the pools. Unlike individual tournaments, teams must almost always fence for bronze.


Collegiate fencing

Collegiate fencing has existed for a long time. Some of the earliest programs in the US came from the Ivy League schools, but now there are over 100 fencing programs nation-wide. Both clubs and varsity teams participate in the sport, however only the varsity teams may participate in the NCAA championship tournament. Due to the limited number of colleges that have fencing teams, teams fence inter-division (teams from Division I schools to Division III), and all divisions participate in the NCAA Championships. The Ivy League is an athletic conference comprising eight private institutions of higher education located in the Northeastern United States. ... The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA, often pronounced N-C-Double-A ) is a voluntary association of about 1200 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States. ...


Collegiate fencing tournaments are "team tournaments" in a sense, but contrary to what many people expect, collegiate meets are not run as 45-touch relays. Schools compete against each other one at a time. In each weapon and gender, three fencers from each school fence three fencers on the opposing team in five-touch bouts. (Substitutions are allowed, so more than three fencers per squad can compete in a tournament.) A fencer's individual results in collegiate tournaments and regional championships are used to select the fencers who will compete in NCAA championships. Individual results for fencers from each school are combined to judge the school's overall performance and to calculate how it should be placed in a given tournament.


High School Fencing

High School Fencing has had ups and downs over the years. Fencing was once part of many school's physical education curriculum, and many schools had clubs that would sometimes hold inter-school tournaments. In more recent years in the United States fencing all but vanished from physical education classes. This has been attributed to worries about teaching children to use weapons or that it teaches violence and requires expensive equipment, as well as other reasons.[citation needed] Fencing remained a club sport at a few schools until recently, when there has been an increase in High School fencing clubs and tournaments. High school fencing season is generally in winter. Fencing in most places is not sanctioned by the state and therefore rules and competition rules vary. Image File history File links Information_icon. ...


See also

Fencing Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... Definitions and explanations of terms and maneuvers in fencing. ... The Intercollegiate Fencing Association or IFA is the oldest collegiate fencing conference in the United States. ... Kendo ) or way of the sword, is the martial art of Japanese fencing. ... This is a list of American epee fencers. ... This is a list of American foil fencers. ... This is a list of American sabre fencers. ... This is a list of United States colleges and universities with club-level fencing teams: Arizona State Uninversity, Salle Diablo Fencing Club University of California, Berkeley Fencing Club University of California, Irvine Fencing Club University of California, Los Angeles Fencing Club University of California, Santa Barbara Fencing Club University of... This is a list of US Colleges and Universities with NCAA sanctioned Fencing teams. ... // Belarus Elena Belova (Novikova) - foilist, one of the greatest fencers of the Soviet era, 1968 individual Olympic Champion, 1969 individual World Champion, member of the winning Soviet team at the 1968,1972 and 1976 Olympics and the 1970, 1971 and 1974 World Championships. ... This is the complete list of mens Olympic medalists in fencing from 1896 to 2004. ... This is a list of all womens Olympic medalists in Fencing. ... Hall of Fame listing for the United States Fencing Association (USFA). ...

References

    • Evangelista, Nick (1996). The Art and Science of Fencing. Chicago: Masters Press. ISBN 1-57028-075-4.
    • Evangelista, Nick (2000). The Inner Game of Fencing: Exceellence in Form, Technique, Strategy, and Spirit. Chicago: Masters Press. ISBN 1-57028-230-7.
    • United States Fencing Association (September, 2005). United States Fencing Association Rules for Competition. Official document. Retrieved 1 December, 2005.

    External links

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