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Encyclopedia > Fencing
Fencing advertisement for the 1900 Summer Olympic Games
Fencing advertisement for the 1900 Summer Olympic Games

In the broadest possible sense, fencing is the art of armed combat involving cutting, stabbing, or bludgeoning weapons directly manipulated by hand, rather than shot, thrown or positioned. Examples include swords, knives, pikes, bayonets, batons, clubs, and similar weapons. This definition is a stretch of the word, however. "Fencing" wasn't invented until either the Renaissance or at the very end of the Late Middle Ages, depending on who you ask. For weapon styles pre-dating this origin, "melee" or "Western Martial Arts" are better descriptors. In contemporary common usage, "fencing" tends to refer specifically to European schools of swordsmanship and to the modern Olympic sport that has evolved out of them. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Actresses Uma Thurman (right) and Vivica A. Fox performing a fight choreography Stage combat is a specialized technique in theatre designed to create the illusion of physical combat without causing harm to the performers. ... Academic fencing or Mensur fencing is the traditional kind of fencing practiced by some student corporations (Studentenverbindungen) in Germany, Austria, Switzerland and recently to a minor extent in Latvia and Flanders as well. ... A fence in Westtown Township, Pennsylvania. ... Image File history File links 1900. ... Image File history File links 1900. ... “Fights” redirects here. ... For other uses, including articles on self-injury, see Cutting (disambiguation). ... A detail from The Haywain Triptych by Hieronymus Bosch A stabbing is the penetration of a sharp or pointed object at close range. ... “Truncheon” redirects here. ... A weapon is a tool used to kill or incapacitate a person or animal, or destroy a military target. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the tool. ... A modern recreation of a mid-17th century company of pikemen. ... For other uses, see bayonet (disambiguation). ... “Truncheon” redirects here. ... “Truncheon” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Melee (disambiguation). ... Western Martial Arts (WMA) refers to formalised fighting techniques and skills of European origin, as distinct from those originating in Asia. ... Style guides generally give guidance on language use. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Swordsmanship refers to the skills of a swordsman, a person versed in the art of the sword. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ...


Fencing is one of the four sports which has been featured at every modern Olympic Games. Currently, three types of weapon are used in Olympic fencing:

  • Foil — a light thrusting weapon; the valid target is restricted to the torso; double touches are not allowed (see priority rules below).
  • Épée — a heavy thrusting weapon; the valid target area covers the entire body; double touches are allowed.
  • Sabre — a light cutting and thrusting weapon; the valid target area includes almost everything above the waist (excluding the back of the head and the hands); double touches are not allowed (see priority rules below).

Etymology: The word 'fence' was originally a shortening of the Middle English 'defens', that came from an Italian word, 'defensio', in origin a Latin word. The first known use of defens in reference to English swordsmanship is in William Shakespeare's Merry Wives of Windsor: 'Alas sir, I cannot fence.'[1] An Italian-grip foil A foil is a type of sword used in fencing. ... An Épée fencer. ... A sabre fencer. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Merry Wives of Windsor is a comedy by William Shakespeare. ...

Contents

History

Renaissance

Main articles: Historical European Martial Arts and Dardi school

The first handbooks on fencing, especially the book written around the 12th century by De Serpente brothers, or the most complete Flos Duellatorum of 1409 by Fiore de Liberi, were published in Italy at the beginning of the Renaissance, that is the rebirth of Roman culture. In those days many Italian masters such as Marozzo taught their art in France and other countries, working as mercenaries and masters of defense. The first page of the Codex Wallerstein shows the typical arms of 15th century fencing Historical European Martial Arts are martial arts of European origin which were formerly practiced, but have since died out or evolved into very different forms. ... Bolognese Swordsmanship, also known as the Dardi school is a tradition within the Italian school of swordsmanship, based in 16th century Bologna. ...


In the 16th century, compendia of older Fechtbücher techniques were produced, some of them printed, notably by Paulus Hector Mair (in the 1540s) and by Joachim Meyer (in the 1570s). page of Mscr. ... Chillin in ms murrays class 1541 Hernando de Soto is the first European to see the Mississippi River. ... Joachim Meyer was the author of a the 1570 fechtbuch Gründtliche Beschreibung der kunst des Fechten (in English, Fundamental Descriptions of the Art of Fencing). ... Significant Events and Trends Transition from the Muromachi to the Azuchi-Momoyama period in Japan Categories: 1570s ...


In the 16th century German fencing had developed sportive tendencies. The treatises of Paulus Hector Mair and Joachim Meyer derived from the teachings of the earlier centuries within the Liechtenauer tradition, but with new and distinctive characteristics. The printed fechtbuch of Jacob Sutor (1612) is the last in the German tradition. Jacob Sutor (also spelled Jakob Sutor) was a German fencing master who published a fighting manual in 1612 that was mostly an updated version of Joachim Meyers work. ... Events January 20 - Mathias becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ...


The Italian school is continued by the Dardi school, with masters such as Antonio Manciolino and Achille Marozzo. From the late 16th century, Italian rapier fencing attains considerable popularity all over Europe, notably with the treatise by Salvator Fabris (1606). Bolognese Swordsmanship, also known as the Dardi school is a tradition within the Italian school of swordsmanship, based in 16th century Bologna. ... Antonio Manciolino was a fencing master and author from the Dardi tradition. ... Achille Marozzo (1484 - 1553) was an Italian fencing master teaching in the Dardi or Bolognese tradition. ... For the UK Surface-to-air missile system, see Rapier missile. ... Salvator Fabris, one of the most celebrated sword masters of Old Europe, was born in or around Padua, Italy, in 1544. ...


Early modern period

Further information: Rapier fencing, Destreza, and Joseph Swetnam

The European dueling sword in the narrow sense is a basket and cage hilted weapon in use specifically in duels from the late 17th to the 19th century. It evolved through several forms of the rapier to the smallsword — reflecting the evolution from a cutting style of swordplay to a thrusting style ('foining'). This was a result of increasing specialization in their use to the duelling field and the social stigma attached to carrying and using swords associated with the actual "work" of warfare. The smallsword and the last stage of the rapier were made possible only by metallurgical advances in the seventeenth century[citation needed]. Carranza La Verdadera Destreza is a Spanish type of fencing. ... Joseph Swetnam was a fencing master that published his rapier, backsword, and quarterstaff text in 1617. ... The European dueling sword in the narrow sense is a basket and cage hilted weapon in use specifically in duels from the late 17th to the 19th century. ... A duel is a formalized type of combat. ... For the UK Surface-to-air missile system, see Rapier missile. ... The Smallsword is a sword intermediate in historical period between the rapier and the classical épée, ancestor to the modern sporting épée. ...


The foil was invented in France as a training weapon in the middle of the 18th century in order to practice fast and elegant thrust fencing. Fencers blunted the point by wrapping a foil around the blade or fastening a knob on the point ("blossom", French fleuret). In addition to practising, some fencers took away the protection and used the sharp foil for duels. German students took up that practise and developed the Pariser ("Parisian") thrusting small sword for the Stoßmensur ("thrusting mensur"). After the dress sword was abolished, the Pariser became the only weapon for academic thrust fencing in Germany. Parts of a foil A foil is a type of weapon used in fencing. ...

"Pariser" small sword, derived from the French foil
"Pariser" small sword, derived from the French foil

Since fencing on thrust with a sharp point is quite dangerous, many students died from their lungs being pierced (Lungenfuchser), which made breathing difficult or impossible. However, the counter movement had already started in Göttingen in the 1750s. Here the Göttinger Hieber was invented, the predecessor of the modern Korbschläger, a new weapon for cut fencing. In the following years, the Glockenschläger was invented in East German universities for cut fencing as well. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 323 pixelsFull resolution (3074 × 1240 pixel, file size: 336 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (Uploaded using CommonsHelper or PushForCommons) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 323 pixelsFull resolution (3074 × 1240 pixel, file size: 336 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (Uploaded using CommonsHelper or PushForCommons) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Parts of a foil A foil is a type of weapon used in fencing. ...


1800 to 1918

Further information: Classical fencing and Academic fencing

Thrust fencing (using Pariser) and cut fencing using Korbschläger or Glockenschläger) existed in parallel in Germany during the first decades of the 19th century - with local preferences. So thrust fencing was especially popular in Jena, Erlangen, Würzburg and Ingolstadt/Landshut, two towns where the predecessors of Munich university were located. The last thrust Mensur is recorded to have taken place in Würzburg in 1860. Classical fencing, often abbreviated as CF, is a semi-formal expression used to distinguish one branch of traditional fencing from modern sport or Olympic fencing. ... Academic fencing or Mensur fencing is the traditional kind of fencing practiced by some student corporations (Studentenverbindungen) in Germany, Austria, Switzerland and recently to a minor extent in Latvia and Flanders as well. ... , For other uses, see Jena (disambiguation). ... Erlangen around 1915 Erlangen is a German city in Middle Franconia. ... For the German World War II radar system of the same name, see Würzburg radar. ... Ingolstadt (Austro-Bavarian: InglstÃ¥dt) is a city in the Free State of Bavaria, Germany. ... Landshut is a city in Bavaria in the south-east of Germany both belonging to Eastern and Southern Bavaria. ...


Until the first half of the 19th century all types of academic fencing can be seen as duels, since all fencing with sharp weapons was about honor. No combat with sharp blades took place without a formal insult. For duels with non-students, e.g. military officers, the academic sabre became usual, apparently derived from the military sabre. It was a heavy weapon with a curved blade and a hilt similar to the Korbschläger. French naval officers sabre of the 19th Century From left to right: two bayonets, a short curved infantry or artillery briquet, a straight infantry officers sabre, and a carbine. ...


As it is commonly understood today, classical fencing is best represented by the 19th and early-20th century national fencing schools, especially the Italian and the French schools, although other pre-World War II styles such as the Russian and the Hungarian are also considered classical. Masters and legendary fencing figures such as Giuseppe Radaelli, Louis Rondelle, Masaniello Parise, the Greco brothers, Aldo Nadi and his rival Lucien Gaudin are considered examples of this period. Classical fencing, often abbreviated as CF, is a semi-formal expression used to distinguish one branch of traditional fencing from modern sport or Olympic fencing. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Aldo Nadi (1899-1965) is considered among the greatest fencers of all time. ...


Fencing was one of the disciplines at the 1896 Summer Olympics. The 1896 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the I Olympiad, were celebrated in 1896 in Athens, Greece. ...


Scoring was done by means of four judges who determined if a hit was made. Two side judges stood behind and to the side of each fencer, and watched for hits made by that fencer on the opponent's target. A director followed the fencing from a point several feet away from the center of the action. At the end of each action, after calling "Halt!", the director would describe the action, and then poll the judges in turn. If the judges differed or abstained, the director could overrule them with his vote.


This method was universally used, but had limitations. As described in an article in the London newspaper, The Daily Courier, on June 25, 1896: "Every one who has watched a bout with the foils knows that the task of judging the hits is with a pair of amateurs difficult enough, and with a well-matched pair of maîtres d’escrime well-nigh impossible." There also were problems with bias: well-known fencers were often given the benefit of mistakes (so-called "reputation touches"), and in some cases there was outright cheating. Aldo Nadi complained about this in his autobiography The Living Sword in regard to his famous match with Lucien Gaudin.


The article in the Daily Courier described a new invention, the electrical scoring machine, that would revolutionize fencing.


1918 to present

Dueling went into sharp decline after World War I. After World War II, dueling went out of use in Europe except for rare exceptions. Training for a duel, once fashionable for males of aristocratic backgrounds (although fencing masters such as Hope discuss how many people would only ever take one or two lessons and consider themselves trained.), all but disappeared, along with the classes themselves. Fencing continued as a sport, with tournaments and championships. However, the need to prepare for a duel with "sharps" vanished, changing the emphasis in training and technique. For an account of the Steven Spielberg film, see Duel (movie). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Starting with épée in the 1930s (foil was electrified in 1950s, sabre in 1980s), side judges were replaced by an electrical scoring apparatus, with an audible tone and a red or green light indicating when a touch landed. The scoring box reduced the bias in judging, and permitted more accurate scoring of faster actions, lighter touches, and more touches to the back and flank than were possible with human judges.


Forms of fencing

Contemporary fencing is divided in three broad categories:

  • Competitive fencing
  • Fencing as a Western martial art
  • Other forms of fencing

Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ...

Competitive fencing

Russian Igor Tourchine and American Weston Kelsey fence in the second round of the Men's Individual Épée event in the 2004 Summer Olympics at the Helliniko Fencing Hall on August 17, 2004.
Russian Igor Tourchine and American Weston Kelsey fence in the second round of the Men's Individual Épée event in the 2004 Summer Olympics at the Helliniko Fencing Hall on August 17, 2004.

There are numerous inter-related forms of competitive fencing in practice, all of which approach the activity as a sport, with varying degrees of connectedness to its historic past. U.S. Air Force 2nd Lt. ... U.S. Air Force 2nd Lt. ... The ceremony for the lighting of the flame is arranged as a pagan pageant, with priestesses dancing. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Olympic fencing (or simply "fencing") refers to the fencing seen in most competitions, including the Olympic Games and the world cup. Competitions are conducted according to rules laid down by the Fédération Internationale d'Escrime (FIE), the international governing body. These rules evolved from a set of conventions developed in Europe between mid 17th and early 20th century with the specific purpose of regulating competitive activity. The three weapons used in Olympic fencing are foil, épée, and sabre. In competition, the validity of touches is determined by the electronic scoring apparatus, so as to minimize human error and bias in refereeing. Fédération Internationale dEscrime (FIE) (English: International Fencing Federation) is the international governing body of Olympic fencing. ... An Italian-grip foil A foil is a type of sword used in fencing. ... An Épée fencer. ... A sabre fencer. ...


Wheelchair fencing, an original Paralympic sport, was developed in post-World War II England. Minor modifications to the FIE rules allow disabled fencers to fence all three weapons. The most apparent change is that each fencer sits in a wheelchair fastened to a frame. Footwork is replaced by torso or arm movement, depending on the fencer's disability. The proximity of the two fencers tends to increase the pace of bouts, which require considerable skill. The weapons are identical to those used in Olympic fencing. Wheelchair seating in a theater. ... Silver 2004 The Paralympic Games are a multi-sport event for athletes with physical, mental and sensorial disabilities. ... The term disability, as it is applied to humans, refers to any condition that impedes the completion of daily tasks using traditional methods. ... The human torso Torso is an anatomical term for the greater part of the human body without the head and limbs. ...


Other variants include one-hit épée (one of the five events which constitute modern pentathlon) and the various types of competitive fencing, whose rules are similar but not identical to the FIE rules. One example of this is the American Fencing League (distinct from the United States Fencing Association): the format of competitions is different, there is no electronic scoring, and the priority rules are interpreted in a different way. In a number of countries, the accepted practice at school and university level deviates slightly from the FIE format. Competitors in the final round of the Mens Modern Pentathlon pull for the finish line at the Goudi Sports Complex on August 26, 2004. ... The American Fencing League, or AFL, was founded on March 25, 2005 in Salem, Oregon, United States, by a group of fencers seeking independence from the United States Fencing Association. ... The United States Fencing Association (USFA) is the regulatory body that governs the sport of fencing in the United States. ...


Fencing as a Western martial art

Historical Fencing

Some practitioners of fencing approach it as a Western martial art, with the goal being to train for a theoretical duel. The element of sport is absent (or nearly so) from these forms of fencing, but they all share a common origin with each other and with competitive fencing. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2032x1354, 721 KB) Example of Historical Fencing using the style of single sword and buckler. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2032x1354, 721 KB) Example of Historical Fencing using the style of single sword and buckler. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ...


Classical fencing is differentiated from competitive fencing as being theoretically closer to swordplay as a martial art. Those who call themselves classical fencers may advocate the use of what they see as more authentic practices, including little or no emphasis on sport competition. There is strong interest within the classical fencing community in reviving the European fencing practices of the 19th and early 20th century, when fencers were expected to be able to fight a duel using their training. Weapons used are the standard (non-electric) foil, standard épée (often equipped with pointes d'arret), and the blunted duelling sabre. AFL fencing is often referred to as classical fencing, but this is a misnomer. Classical fencing, often abbreviated as CF, is a semi-formal expression used to distinguish one branch of traditional fencing from modern sport or Olympic fencing. ... Look up Misnomer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Historical fencing is a type of historical martial arts reconstruction based on surviving texts and traditions. Predictably, historical fencers study an extremely wide array of weapons from different regions and periods. They may work with bucklers, daggers, polearms, navajas, bludgeoning weapons, etc. One main preoccupation of historical fencers is with weapons of realistic weight, which demand a different way of manipulating them from what is the norm in modern Fencing. For example, light weapons can be manipulated through the use of the fingers (more flexibility), but more realistically-weighted weapons must be controlled more through the wrist and elbow. This difference is great and can lead to drastic changes even in the carriage of the body and footwork in combat. There is considerable overlap between classical and historical fencing, especially with regard to 19th-century fencing practices. Historical martial arts reconstructions are attempts at reviving martial arts with no living tradition. ... A buckler (French bouclier shield, from old French bocle, boucle boss) is a small shield gripped in the fist -- it was generally used in hand-to-hand combat during the Middle Ages, as its size made it poor protection against missile weapons (e. ... Bold text This article is about the weapon. ... A pole weapon or polearm is a close combat weapon with the main fighting part of the weapon placed on the end of a long shaft, typically of wood. ... The navaja is a Spanish fighting knife that first appeared around the 17th century. ...


Other forms of fencing

This circa 1900 painting illustrates a typical mensur bout in Heidelberg, Germany. The combatants have their swords high in the air and are wearing only metal goggles to protect the eyes and nose.
This circa 1900 painting illustrates a typical mensur bout in Heidelberg, Germany. The combatants have their swords high in the air and are wearing only metal goggles to protect the eyes and nose.

Finally, there are several other forms of fencing which have little in common besides history with either of the other two classifications. Image File history File links Mühlberg_-_Auf_die_Mensur. ... Image File history File links Mühlberg_-_Auf_die_Mensur. ... For other uses, see Heidelberg (disambiguation). ...


Academic fencing, or mensur, is a German student tradition that has become mostly extinct but is still sometimes practiced in Germany, Switzerland and Austria as well as in Flanders and Latvia. The combat, which uses a cutting weapon known as the schläger, uses sharpened blades and takes place between members of student fraternities - "Studentenverbindungen" - in accordance with a strictly delineated set of conventions. It uses special protective gear that leaves most of the head and face, excluding the eyes, unprotected. (The special goggles are called Paukbrille.) The ultimate goal is to develop personal character, therefore there is no winner or loser and flinching is not allowed. Acquiring a proper cut on the face with the sharp blade, called a Schmiss (German for "smite"), is one goal and a visible sign of manly courage. Academic fencing or Mensur fencing is the traditional kind of fencing practiced by some student corporations (Studentenverbindungen) in Germany, Austria, Switzerland and recently to a minor extent in Latvia and Flanders as well. ... A Studentenverbindung (the umbrella term that includes the Burschenschaften, Landsmannschaften, Corps, Turnerschaften, Sängerschaften, Catholic Corporations, Wingolf and Ferialverbindungen) is a German student corporation somewhat comparable to fraternities in the US or Canada. ...


Stage fencing seeks to achieve maximum theatrical impact in representing a wide range of styles, including both modern and historical forms of fencing. Theatrical fight scenes are choreographed by a Fight Director, and fencing actions are exaggerated for dramatic effect and visual clarity. Actresses Uma Thurman (right) and Vivica A. Fox performing a fight choreography Stage combat is a specialized technique in theatre designed to create the illusion of physical combat without causing harm to the performers. ... For other usages see Theatre (disambiguation) Theater (American English) or Theatre (British English and widespread usage among theatre professionals in the US) is that branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, music, dance, sound and spectacle — indeed... Choreography (also known as dance composition) is the art of making structures in which movement occurs, the term composition may also refer to the navigation or connection of these movement structures. ...


Recreational roleplaying often incorporates fencing in the context of historical or fantasy themes in the Society for Creative Anachronism or live-action roleplaying games. Technique and scoring systems vary widely from one group to the next, as do the weapons. Depending on local conventions, participants may use modern sport fencing weapons, period weapons, or weapons invented specifically for the purpose, such as boffers. For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... Arms of the Society for Creative Anachronism. ... A live action role-playing game, or LARP as it is commonly known, is a form of role-playing game where the participants perform some or all of the physical actions of the characters they play the role of. ... A foam weapon, (also known as a boffer or latex weapon), is a padded weapon used for simulated combat. ...


Modern weapons

Three weapons survive in modern competitive fencing: foil, épée, and sabre. The spadroon and the heavy cavalry-style sabre, both of which saw widespread competitive use in the 19th century, fell into disfavour in the early 20th century with the rising popularity of the lighter and faster weapon used today. The singlestick was featured in the 1904 Olympic Games, but it was already declining in popularity at that time. Bayonet fencing experienced a somewhat slower decline, with competitions organized by some armed forces as late as the 1940s and 1950s. The Spadroon is a light sword used both to cut and to thrust. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Singlestick, also known as cudgels, is a martial art related to fencing and stick fighting, and a wooden weapon for the art, used for attack and defence, the thicker end being thrust through a cup-shaped hilt of basket-work to protect the hand. ... For other uses, see bayonet (disambiguation). ...


While the weapons fencers use differ in shape and purpose, their basic construction remains similar across the disciplines. Every weapon has a blade and a hilt. The tip of the blade is generally referred to as the point. The hilt consists of a guard and a grip. The guard (also known as the coquille, the bell, or the bellguard) is a metal shell designed to protect the fingers. The grip is the weapon's actual handle. There are a number of commonly used variants. The more traditional kind are approximately straight and terminate with a pommel (a heavy nut intended to act as a counterweight for the blade). In the case of foil and épée, these have been surpassed in popularity by a variety of ergonomic designs, often collectively refereed to as pistol grip (the way they are held resembles how one holds a pistol). All of the weapons used for modern competition have electrical wiring which allows them to register a touch on the opponent. In fencing, the grip is the part of the weapon which is gripped by the fencers hand. ... See also: Hilt (band) and Peter Hilt Hilt of Szczerbiec The hilt of a sword is its handle, consisting of a guard, grip and pommel. ... Ergonomics (from Greek ergon work and nomoi natural laws) is the study of designing objects to be better adapted to the shape of the human body and/or to correct the users posture. ...


Foil

Main article: Foil (fencing)
Short clip of foil fencing
Valid target at foil (the torso)
Valid target at foil (the torso)

The foil is a light and flexible weapon, originally developed in the mid 17th century as a training weapon for the smallsword (a light one-handed sword designed almost exclusively for thrusting). Parts of a foil A foil is a type of weapon used in fencing. ... Image File history File links Foilfence. ... Image File history File links Foilfence. ... Image File history File links Fencing_foil_valid_surfaces. ... Image File history File links Fencing_foil_valid_surfaces. ... Parts of a foil A foil is a type of weapon used in fencing. ... The Smallsword is a sword intermediate in historical period between the rapier and the classical épée, ancestor to the modern sporting épée. ...


The target area is restricted to the torso (However from 01/01/2009 the international governing body of Olympic fencing the FIE has agreed to add whats known as the bib or neck area to the current foil target). Hits can be scored only by hitting the valid target surface with the point of the weapon in such a manner as would have caused a puncture wound, had the weapon been sharp. If you hit your opponent with any part of the foil other than the tip, it does not count. A touch on an off-target area stops the bout but does not score a point. There are right of way or priority rules, whose basic idea is that the first person to create a viable threat or the last person to defend successfully receives a 'right' to hit. If two hits arrive more or less simultaneously, only the fencer who had the 'right of way' receives a point. If priority cannot be assigned unambiguously, no points are awarded. The original idea behind the foil rules was to encourage the fencers to defend and attack vital areas, and to fight in a methodical way with initiative passing back and forth between the combatants and thus minimizing the risk of a double death.


In modern competitive fencing 'electric' weapons are used. These have a push-button on the point of the blade, which allows hits to be registered by the electronic scoring apparatus. In order to register, the button must be depressed with a force of at least 4.90 newtons (500 grams-force) for at least 15 milliseconds. Fencers wear conductive (lamé) jackets covering their target area, which allow the scoring apparatus to differentiate between on- and off-target hits. Buttons on a handheld calculator. ... For other uses, see Newton (disambiguation). ... The unit kilogram-force (kgf, often just kg) or kilopond (kp) is defined as the force exerted by one kilogram of mass in standard Earth gravity. ... A millisecond is an SI-derived unit of time, equal to one thousandth of a second. ... Foil fencers, each wearing a lamé For other uses of the word lamé, see lame. ...


Épée

Main article: Épée (Fencing)
Short clip of épée fencing
Valid target area at Épée (the entire body).
Valid target area at Épée (the entire body).

Épée, as the sporting weapon we know today, was invented in the second half of the 19th century by a group of French students, who felt that the conventions of foil were too restrictive, and the weapon itself too light; they wanted an experience closer to that of an actual duel. At the point of its conception, the épée was, essentially, an exact copy of a smallsword but without the needle-sharp point. Instead, the blade terminated in a point d'arrêt, a three-pronged contraption, which would snag on the clothing without penetrating the flesh. An Épée fencer. ... Image File history File links Epeefence. ... Image File history File links Epeefence. ... Image File history File links Fencing_epee_valid_surfaces. ... Image File history File links Fencing_epee_valid_surfaces. ... A duel is a formalized type of combat. ...


Like the foil, the épée is a thrusting weapon: to score a valid hit, the fencer must fix the point of his weapon on his opponent's target. However, the target area covers the entire body, and there are no rules regarding who can hit when (unlike in foil and sabre, where there are priority rules). In the event of both fencers making a touch within 40 milliseconds of each other, both are awarded a point (a double hit), except when the score is equal and the point would mean the win for both, such as at in the modern pentathlon one-hit épée, where neither fencer receives a point. Otherwise, the first to hit always receives the point, regardless of what happened earlier in the phrase.


The 'electric' épée, used in modern competitive fencing, terminates in a push-button, similar to the one on the 'electric' foil. In order for the scoring apparatus to register a hit, it must arrive with a force of at least 7.35 newtons (750 grams-force) (a higher threshold than the foil's 4.9 newtons), and the push-button must remain fully depressed for 1 millisecond. All hits register as valid, unless they land on a grounded metal surface, such as a part of the opponent's weapon, in which case they do not register at all. At large events, grounded conductive pistes are often used in order to prevent the registration of hits against the floor. At smaller events and in club fencing, it is generally the responsibility of the referee to watch out for floor hits. These often happen by accident, when an épéeist tries to hit the opponent's foot and misses. This results in a pause in the action but no points. However, deliberate hits against the floor are treated as "dishonest fencing," and penalized accordingly. For other uses, see Force (disambiguation). ... One millisecond is one-thousandth of a second. ... It has been suggested that Ground conductor be merged into this article or section. ... A Piste or strip is the fencing area, roughly 14 meters long by 2 meters wide, upon which the modern sport of fencing is played. ... A referee is a person who has authority to make decisions about play in many sports. ...


Sabre

Main article: Sabre (fencing)
Valid target at sabre (everything above the waist, excepting the hands and the back of the head).
Valid target at sabre (everything above the waist, excepting the hands and the back of the head).

Sabre is the 'cutting' weapon: points may be scored with edges and surfaces of the blade, as well as the point. Although the current design with a light and flexible blade (marginally stiffer than a foil blade) appeared around the turn of the 19th and 20th century, similar sporting weapons with more substantial blades had been used throughout the Victorian era. A sabre fencer. ... Image File history File links Fencing_saber_valid_surfaces. ... Image File history File links Fencing_saber_valid_surfaces. ... The Saber (spanish/portuguese: knowledge) currency is an educational sectoral currency in Brazil that is handed out by the ministry of education. ... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ...


There is some debate as to whether the modern fencing sabre is descended from the cavalry sabres of Turkic origin (which became popular in Central and Western Europe around the time of Napoleonic Wars) or one of Europe's indigenous edged duelling weapons, such as the cutting rapier. In practice, it is likely to be a hybrid of the two. Most of the conventions and vocabulary of modern sabre fencing were developed by late 19th and early 20th century masters from Italy and Hungary, perhaps most notable among them being Italo Santelli (1866–1945). This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For the UK Surface-to-air missile system, see Rapier missile. ... Italo Santelli (August 15, 1866-February 8, 1945) was an Italian fencer who is considered to be the father of modern sabre fencing. Early life Italo Santelli was born in Italy in 1866. ...


The sabre target covers everything above the waist, except the hands (wrists are included) and the back of the head. Today, any contact between any part of the blade and any part of the target counts as a valid touch. This was not always the case, and earlier conventions stipulated that a valid touch must be made with either the point or one of the cutting edges, and must arrive with sufficient force to have caused a palpable wound, had the weapon been sharp. These requirements had to be abandoned, because of technical difficulties, shortly after electronic scoring was introduced into sabre fencing in late 1980s.


Like foil, sabre is subject to right of way rules, but there are some differences in the precise definition of what constitutes a correctly executed attack and parry. These differences, together with a much greater scoring surface (the whole of the blade, rather than the point alone), make sabre parries more difficult to execute effectively. As a result, sabre tactics rely much more heavily on footwork with blade contact being kept to a minimum. In fencing, an attack is the first offensive movement of a phrase. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...


Protective clothing

Jacket
Jacket
Glove
Glove
Plastron
Plastron
Breeches
Breeches
Mask
Mask

The clothing which is worn in modern fencing is made of tough cotton or nylon. Kevlar was added to top level uniform pieces (jacket, breeches, underarm protector, lamé, and the bib of the mask) following the Smirnov incident at the 1982 World Championships in Rome. However, kevlar breaks down in chlorine and UV light, so the act of washing one's uniform and/or hanging it up in the sun to dry actually damaged the kevlar's ability to do the job. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3022x2074, 731 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3022x2074, 731 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1594x2032, 341 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1594x2032, 341 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2284x1726, 439 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2284x1726, 439 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1693x2877, 545 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1693x2877, 545 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1465x2101, 588 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1465x2101, 588 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ... Kevlars molecular structure; BOLD: monomer unit; DASHED: hydrogen bonds. ... Vladimir Smirnov (May 20, 1954 - July 27, 1982) was a Soviet foil fencer. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ...


In recent years other ballistic fabrics such as Dyneema have been developed that perform the puncture resistance function and which do not have kevlar's weakness. In fact, the FIE rules state that the entirety of the uniform (meaning FIE level clothing, as the rules are written for FIE tournaments) must be made of fabric that resists a force of 800 newtons (1600N in the mask bib). Dyneema or Spectra is a synthetic fiber based on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene which is 15 times stronger than steel and up to 40% stronger than Kevlar. ...


The complete fencing kit includes the following items of clothing:

  • Form-fitting jacket covering groin and with strap (croissard) which goes between the legs (note that in sabre fencing, jackets that are cut along the waist and exclude the groin padding are also sometimes used), a small gorget of folded fabric is also sewn in around the collar to prevent a blade from slipping upwards towards the neck.
  • Under-arm protector (plastron) which goes underneath the jacket and provides double protection on the sword arm side and upper arm. It is required to not have a seam in the armpit, which would line up with the jacket seam and provide a weak spot.
  • One glove for the sword arm with a gauntlet that prevents blades from going up the sleeve and causing injury, as well as protecting the hand and providing a good grip
  • Breeches or knickers which are a pair of short trousers. The legs are supposed to hold just below the knee.
  • Knee-length or Thigh high socks which should cover knee and thighs.
  • Shoes with flat soles and reinforcement on the inside of the back foot and heel of front foot, to prevent wear from lunging.
  • Mask, including a bib which protects the neck. The mask can usually support 12 kilograms of force, however FIE regulation masks can stand much more, at least 27 kg.
  • Plastic chest protector, mandatory for female fencers. While male versions of the chest protector are also available, they were, until recently, primarily worn by instructors, who are hit far more often during training than their students. Since the change of the depression timing (see above), these are increasingly popular in foil, as the hard surface increases the likelihood of point bounce and thus a failure for a hit to register. Plastrons are still mandatory, though.
  • Fencing Masters will often wear a heavier protective jacket, usually reinforced by plastic foam to cushion the numerous hits an instructor has to endure. Sometimes in practice, masters wear a protective sleeve or a leg leather for protection of their fencing arm or leg.

Traditionally, the fencers' uniform is white in colour (black being the traditional colour for masters). This may be to some extent down to the occasional pre-electric practice of covering the point of the weapon in dye, soot, or coloured chalk in order to make it easier for the referee to determine the placing of the touches. Recently the FIE rules have been relaxed to allow coloured uniforms (black still being reserved for the coaches). The guidelines delineating the permitted size and positioning of sponsorship logos are however still extremely strict. Sir Philip Sidney wears a gorget for a portrait A gorget is a type of armor designed to protect the neck. ... // Leather gloves A glove (Middle English from Old English glof) is a type of garment (and more specifically a fashion accessory) which covers the hand of a human. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pants. ... Knickerbockers were a kind of mens or boys baggy knee trousers, of a type particularly popular in the early twentieth century. ... For other uses, see Sock (disambiguation). ... shoe for right foot A shoe is a piece of footwear for humans, less than a boot and more than a slipper. ... For other uses, see Mask (disambiguation). ...


Practice and techniques

A fencing bout takes place on a strip, or piste, which, according to the current FIE regulations, should be between 1.5 and 2 meters wide and 14 meters long. There are at least three people involved: two fencers and a referee. The referee may be assisted by two or four side-judges (also known as corner-judges). The arrival of the electronic scoring apparatus has rendered them largely redundant. Under current FIE rules, a fencer may ask for two side-judges (one to watch each fencer) if (s)he thinks that the referee is failing to notice some infringement of the rules on his opponent's part (such as use of the unarmed hand, substitution of the valid target area, breaching the boundary of the piste etc.). Fencing practice and techniques of modern competitive fencing are governed by the FIE, though they developed from conventions developed in 18th- and 19th-century Europe to govern fencing as a martial art and a gentlemanly pursuit. ... A Piste or strip is the fencing area, roughly 14 meters long by 2 meters wide, upon which the modern sport of fencing is played. ...


Protocol

Very specific rules govern the behavior of fencers while competing. To begin a bout, the referee stands at the side of the piste. The fencers walk on piste fully dressed, aside from the mask. If necessary, they plug their body wires into the spools connected to the electronic scoring apparatus and test their weapons against each other, to make sure everything is functioning. They then retreat to their on-guard lines. Prior to starting a bout, the fencers must salute first each other, then the director. Refusal to do so can result in a fencer's suspension or disqualification. They may also choose to salute the audience and/or the referee's assistants (when they are present). This article is about the gesture. ...


The fencers start and stop the bout at the referee's command. Generally, referees interrupt the bout, whenever the electronic apparatus registers a touch (either on or off-target) or whenever one or both of the fencers break the rules of the game. Once the bout is stopped, the referee must explain his reasons for stopping it, analyze what has just happened, and award points or penalties. If a point has been awarded, then the competitors return to their on-guard lines; if not, they remain approximately where they were when the bout was interrupted. The referee will then restart the bout. This procedure is repeated until either one of the fencers has reached the required number of points (generally, 1, 5, 10 or 15, depending on the format of the bout) or until the time allowed for the bout runs out.


Fencing bouts are timed: the clock is started every time the referee calls "Fence!" and stopped every time he calls "Halt!" The bout must stop after 3 minutes of fencing (or 8 touches in sabre). In 15 point bouts, a 1 minute break occurs in between the 3 minute intervals. If 9 minutes of fencing time elapse in a 15 touch bout, or 3 in a 5 touch bout, the bout is over, and the current scores are taken as final. If the score is tied when time runs out, then the fencers go into an extra minute, at the beginning of which the referee randomly assigns "priority" to one of the fencers (generally done by coin toss). The first touch within the extra minute wins the bout. If neither fencer makes a touch during the extra minute, the winner is the fencer who had "priority".


At international events and large European events including Opens and those similar, all refereeing is in French, which is the official language of international fencing. In practice, neither the referee nor the fencers need anything more than the knowledge of a handful of key words and phrases (like "En garde. Prêt. Allez" to begin the bout and "Halte!" to interrupt it), coupled to a system of corresponding hand gestures. At domestic events, referees typically use the language of the country (for instance, to keep with the earlier example, "On guard! Fencers ready? Fence!" and "Halt!").


Priority ("right of way") rules

The fencer on the right is lunging in an attempt to deliver an attack to his opponent's flank. (Click on the image to see the full size version for greater clarity.)
The fencer on the right is lunging in an attempt to deliver an attack to his opponent's flank. (Click on the image to see the full size version for greater clarity.)

Foil and sabre are governed by right of way rules, according to which the fencer who is the first to initiate an attack or the last to take a successful parry receives right of way. In the event of a double touch (both fencers landing a hit at the same time), only the fencer who had right of way receives a point. These rules were adopted in the 18th century as part of teaching practice. Their main aim was to discourage careless tactics, which result in simultaneous hits and, in a real duel, would leave both participants dead (the least desirable outcome). In both sabre and foil, there are rules regarding what can be considered a properly executed attack or parry. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1132x1795, 291 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) Attack (fencing) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1132x1795, 291 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) Attack (fencing) ... In fencing, an attack is the first offensive movement of a phrase. ... In fencing, an attack is the first offensive movement of a phrase. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...


Scoring

Prior to the introduction of electronic scoring equipment, a referee(formerly called the president of jury) was assisted by four judges. Two judges were positioned behind each fencer, one on each side of the strip. The judges watched the fencer opposite to see if he was hit. This system is sometimes called "dry" fencing (USA) or "steam" (United Kingdom, Australia) fencing.


Electronic scoring is used in all major national and international, and most local, competitions. At Olympic level, it was first introduced to épée in 1936, to foil in 1956, and to sabre in 1988. The central unit of the scoring system is commonly known as "the box." In the simplest version both fencers' weapons are connected to the box via long retractable cables. The box normally carries a set of lights to signal when a touch has been made. (Larger peripheral lights are also often used.) In foil and sabre, because of the need to distinguish on-target hits from off-target ones, special conductive clothing and wires must be worn. This includes a lamé (a jacket with metal threads woven in), a body cord to connect the weapon to the system, a reel of retractable cable that connects to the scoring box and, in the case of sabre, a conducting mask and cuff (manchette) as the head and arms are valid target areas. In fencing, a body cord serves as the connection between a fencer and the reel. ... A Manchette is a special glove cover worn by fencers, specifically sabrerists, on their weapon hand. ...


Techniques and tactics

At the most basic level, fencing revolves around the opening and closing of various lines of attack and defense. In order for one fencer to hit, the other must make a mistake and leave an "opening." Fencing tactics rely on a mixture of "open-eyes" opportunism and deliberate "set-ups", where the opponent is systematically fed false information about one's own intentions.


A great deal in fencing depends on being in the right place at the right time. In general, Olympic fencing has put a premium on balance, speed, and athleticism in footwork, somewhat diluting orthodoxies regarding the classical stances and methods. To a degree, this has led to increasing resemblance between fencing footwork and that of other martial arts, with the significant caveat that a scoring "touch" requires almost no power behind the blow, only timing and the ability to manipulate distance.


Competition formats

Fencing Tournament. (Note the grounded conductive strips on the floor.)
Fencing Tournament. (Note the grounded conductive strips on the floor.)

Fencing tournaments are varied in their format, and there are both individual and team competitions. A tournament may comprise all three weapons, both individual and team, or it may be very specific, such as an Épée Challenge, with individual épée only. And, as in many sports, men and women compete separately in high-level tournaments. Mixed-gender tournaments are commonplace at lower-level events, especially those held by individual fencing clubs. There are two types of event, individual and team. An individual event consists of two parts: the pools, and the direct eliminations. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2968x1474, 601 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2968x1474, 601 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fencing (sport) ...


In the pools, fencers are divided into groups, and every fencer in a pool will have the chance to fence every other fencer once. There are typically seven fencers in a pool. If the number of fencers competing is not a multiple of seven, then there will usually be several pools of six or eight. After the pools are finished, the fencers are given a ranking, or "seed," compared to all other fencers in the tournament, based primarily on the percent of bouts they won, then based secondarily on the difference between the touches they scored and the touches they received. Once the seeds have been determined, the direct elimination round starts. Fencers are sorted in a table of some power of 2 (16, 32, 64, etc.) based on how many people are competing. Due to the fact that it is highly unlikely for the number of fencers to be exactly a power of two, the fencers with the best results in the pools are given byes. The winner carries on in the tournament, and loser is eliminated. Fencing is slightly unusual in that usually no one has to fence for third place (the exception is if the tournament is a qualifying tournament with limited slots for continuation). Instead, two bronze medals are given to the losers of the semi-final round.


Team competition involves teams of three fencers. A fourth fencer can be allowed on the team as an alternate, but as soon as the fourth has been subbed in, they cannot substitute again. The modern team competition is similar to the pool round of the individual competition. The fencers from opposing teams will each fence each other once, making for a total of nine matches. Matches between teams are three minutes long, or to 5 points, and the points then carry onto the next bout, making team fencing one forty-five touch bout fought by six fencers. Unlike individual tournaments, team tournaments almost always fence for bronze.


Collegiate fencing

Collegiate fencing has existed for a long time. Some of the earliest programs in the US came from the Ivy League schools, but now there are over 100 fencing programs in the US. Both clubs and varsity teams participate in the sport, however only the varsity teams may participate in the NCAA championship tournament. Due to the limited number of colleges that have fencing teams, teams fence inter-division (teams from Division I schools to Division III), and all divisions participate in the NCAA Championships. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... For other uses, see Ivy League (disambiguation). ... NCAA redirects here. ...


Collegiate fencing tournaments are "team tournaments" in a sense, but contrary to what many people expect, collegiate meets are not run as 45-touch relays. Schools compete against each other one at a time. In each weapon and gender, three fencers from each school fence three fencers on the opposing team in five-touch bouts. (Substitutions are allowed, so more than three fencers per squad can compete in a tournament.) A fencer's individual results in collegiate tournaments and regional championships are used to select the fencers who will compete in NCAA championships. Individual results for fencers from each school are combined to judge the school's overall performance and to calculate how it should be placed in a given tournament.


In the UK, BUSA organises Collegiate tournaments, as well as entrants to the World University Games.


High school fencing

Fencing at the high school level has varied in popularity. Fencing was once part of many schools' physical education curriculum, and many schools had clubs and would compete in inter-school tournaments. In the second half of the 20th century, fencing gradually faded from physical education curricula in the United States. This has been attributed to worries about teaching children to use weapons or that it teaches violence and requires expensive equipment[citation needed] as well as its association with nerdiness or preppiness (i.e. the incorrect perception that it is not a sport). Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... For other uses, see Nerd (disambiguation). ... Look up Preppy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


However, youth fencing has remained a club sport at some schools, and the last several years have seen an increase in fencing clubs and tournaments at the high school level. The United States Fencing Association has encouraged this through the Regional Youth Circuit program. High school fencing season is generally in winter.[1] High school competitive fencing has grown significantly in the state of New Jersey, one of the few states where it remains a varsity sport.


In many European countries fencing is growing more popular each year. In Scotland many new competitions have arisen to get these new fencers into fencing at higher levels, such as the Leon Paul Youth Development series where fencers fit in as much fencing as possible against as many of those in their age and weapon group to gain experience.


See also

Fencing Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... Definitions and explanations of terms and maneuvers in fencing. ... Fencing has been contested at every Summer Olympic Games since the birth of the modern Olympic movement at the 1896 Summer Olympics. ... The Intercollegiate Fencing Association or IFA is the oldest collegiate fencing conference in the United States. ... Kendo ), or way of the sword, is the martial art of Japanese fencing. ... This is a list of American epee fencers. ... This is a list of American foil fencers. ... This is a list of US Colleges and Universities with NCAA sanctioned Fencing teams. ... // Austria Siegfried Flesch, Austrian saber fencer & Olympic bronze medalist Otto Herschmann, Austrian fencer (saber); one of only a few athletes to have won Olympic medals in different sports; won silver medal in sabre team competition in 1912 Ellen Preis, Austrian fencer (foil), Olympic champion Belarus Elena Belova (Novikova) - foilist, 1968... This is the complete list of mens Olympic medalists in fencing from 1896 to 2004. ... This is a list of all womens Olympic medalists in Fencing. ... Hall of Fame listing for the United States Fencing Association (USFA). ... The Commonwealth Fencing Championships is one of the older sport-specific sporting events held in the Commonwealth of Nations, following the demise of fencing as an event in the Commonwealth Games. ...

References

  1. ^ Harper, Douglas (2001), Online Etymology Dictionary
  • Evangelista, Nick (1996). The Art and Science of Fencing. Indianapolis: Masters Press. ISBN 1-57028-075-4.
  • Evangelista, Nick (2000). The Inner Game of Fencing: Excellence in Form, Technique, Strategy, and Spirit. Chicago: Masters Press. ISBN 1-57028-230-7.
  • United States Fencing Association (September, 2005). United States Fencing Association Rules for Competition. Official document. Retrieved 1 December 2005.

is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Look up fencing in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
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Olympic fencing

Governing bodies for other forms

  • American Fencing League National organization for AFL fencing in the United States
  • Association for Historical Fencing An international organization for classical and historical fencing
  • Australian Historical Swordplay Federation
  • International Wheelchair Fencing Committee The body responsible for all international (Paralympic) wheelchair fencing
  • Italian Historical Fencing Federation
  • Sala d'Arme Achille Marozzo Ancient Fencing Art Italian Institute
  • BUSA Fencing Homepage Organisers of British Collegiate Fencing

Other sites

  • fencingchannel.tv Official videographer of the Fédération International d'Escrime
  • Classic books on fencing
  • Classical Fencing and Historical Swordsmanship Resources An extensive directory of traditional fencing groups and individuals
  • Directory of fencing links
  • Fencing FAQ from rec.sport.fencing
  • FencingPhotos Official photographer of the Fédération International d'Escrime
  • AskFRED: Fencing Results and Events Database
  • U.S. Fencing Coaches Association
  • Fencing.Net A large online fencing community

Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... Bājíquán (Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally eight extremes fist; Japanese: , Hakkyokuken) is a Chinese martial art that features explosive, short range power and is famous for its elbow strikes. ... For other meanings of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer. ... Angkorian warriors as depicted on bas reliefs at Angkor Wat Bokator/Boxkator, or more formally, Labok Katao(which means wielding a wooden stick to fight lions) (ល្បុក្កតោ), is an ancient Khmer martial art said to be the predecessor of all Southeast Asian kickboxing styles. ... Capoeira (IPA: ,Tupi-Guarani word for - clear area) is a Brazilian blend of martial art, game, and dance originated in Brazil, from the regions known as Bahia, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo. ... This article is about the Fujian style of White Crane. ... For other uses, see Karate (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see kempo (disambiguation). ... Kicking to left side Kickboxing refers to sport-fighting using kicks and punches and sometimes throws and bows representing a certain martial art or can be practiced for general fitness, or as a full-contact sport. ... BAMA LETHWEI Lethwei or Lethawae (Read as Let-whae, but quickly) ; also known as Burmese Boxing and Myanmar Traditional Boxing, is a form of kickboxing which originated in Myanmar (Burma). ... For the drink with a similar-sounding name, see Mai Tai. ... Pradal Serey (; English: Khmer Boxing) is the name of the centuries old kickboxing martial arts of Cambodia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Savate (pronounced ), also known as boxe française, French boxing, French Kickboxing or French Footfighting, is a French martial art which uses both the hands and feet as weapons and combines elements of western boxing with graceful kicking techniques. ... SIKARAN is a form of Philippine Martial Arts whose history dates back to the early 1500s before the Spaniards came, It is the art of foot-fighting where the farmers use their strong legs to drive the partners outside the designated line (pitak). ... Silat or Pencak Silat is an umbrella term for a martial art form originating from the regions of the Malay Archipelago. ... Subak, (or Subakhi, Subak-chigi) is a Korean traditional martial art. ... Ever since 1669, when Huang Zongxi first described Chinese martial arts in terms of a Shaolin or external school versus a Wudang or internal school,[1] Shaolin has been used as a synonym for external Chinese martial arts regardless of whether or not the particular style in question has any... Taekyon, or Taekkyon is a traditional Korean martial art, probably stemming from Subak. ... Taekwondo (태권도; IPA: ) is a Korean martial art and combat sport. ... Taido ( 躰道 / taidō ) is a Japanese martial arts or budo created in 1965 by Seiken Shukumine (1925 - 2001). ... Wing Chun, occasionally romanized as Ving Tsun or Wing Tsun (literally spring chant and alternatively as forever spring, or substituted with the character for eternal springtime[1]) is a Chinese martial art that specializes in aggressive close-range combat. ... WingTsunâ„¢, often shortened to WT, is a particular school of the Wing Chun style of Kung Fu developed by a student of Grandmaster Yip Man named Leung Ting. ... Like other southern Chinese martial arts, Choy Lei Fut features Five Animal techniques based on the tiger, dragon, crane, leopard, and snake but is distinguished from other southern styles by long, swinging, circular movements and twisting body motions more indicative of northern styles. ... For other uses, see Grapple. ... Aikido ) is a Japanese martial art developed by Morihei Ueshiba as a synthesis of his martial studies, philosophy, and religious beliefs. ... Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) is a martial art and combat sport that focuses on grappling and especially ground fighting with the goal of gaining a dominant position and using joint-locks and chokeholds to force an opponent to submit. ... Catch wrestling is a popular style of wrestling. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... This article is about the martial art and sport. ... Jujutsu )  , literally meaning the art of softness, is a Japanese martial art consisting primarily of grappling techniques. ... Kinomichi, calligraphy by Masamichi Noro Kinomichi 氣之道 is a Martial art (budo 武道 in Japanese ), founded by Masamichi Noro 野呂昌道 in Paris, France, in 1979. ... Kurash is the native ancient type of upright jacket wrestling practiced in Uzbekistan. ... Mallayuddha (literally wrestling combat)[1] is the martial art of classical Indian wrestling. ... Mongolian wrestling is a traditional Mongolian sport that has existed in Mongolia for centuries. ... Varzesh-e Pahlavani (Persian varzeÅ¡-e pahlavānÄ« ورزش پهلوانی) meaning the Sport of the Heroes, also known as Varzesh-e Bastani (Persian varzeÅ¡-e bāstnÄ« ورزش باستانی), meaning the Sport of the Ancients, is a traditional discipline of gymnastics and wrestling of Iran, which was originally an academy of physical training for... Pehlwani Modern wrestling, or Pehlwani , is a synthesis of an indigenous Aryan form of wrestling that dates back at least to the 5th century BC [1] and a Persian form of wrestling brought into South Asia by the Mughals. ... Sambo (Russian: ) -- (also called Sombo in the US and sometimes written in all-caps) is a modern martial art, combat sport and self-defense system developed in the former Soviet Union, and recognized as an official sport by the USSR All-Union Sports Committee in 1938, presented by Anatoly Kharlampiev. ... Shuai jiao (Chinese: 摔跤 or 摔角; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shuai-chiao) is the modern Chinese term for Chinese and Mongolian wrestling. ... Image:Ssireum-1. ... For other uses, see Sumo (disambiguation). ... Ancient Greek wrestlers (Pankratiasts) Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two unarmed persons, in which each wrestler strives to get an advantage over or control of their opponent. ... YaÄŸlı GüreÅŸ (IPA:) is the Turkish national sport. ... For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... Battōjutsu ) is a Japanese term meaning techniques for drawing a sword. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Gatka (Punjabi: , ) is a traditional Sikh martial art. ... Haidong Gumdo, also spelled Haedong Kumdo, is a name coined around 1982 and used for several Korean martial art organizations that use swords. ... Hojōjutsu (捕縄術) or Nawajutsu, (縄術) is the traditional Japanese martial skill of restraining a person using cord or rope. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Iaido (居合道 iaidō), also sometimes called iaijutsu (居合術 iaijutsu) or battojutsu (抜刀術 battōjutsu) is the art of drawing the katana, cutting down the opponent, flipping blood from the blade, and then re-sheathing the katana in one fluid movement. ... Jōdō ), meaning the way of the jō, or jōjutsu ) is a Japanese martial art using short staves called jō. The art is similar to bōjutsu, and is strongly focused upon defense against the Japanese sword. ... Jogo do Pau. ... JÅ«kendō ) is the Japanese martial art of bayonet fighting. ... Juttejutsu is the Japanese martial art of using a jitte or jutte. ... Kendo ), or way of the sword, is the martial art of Japanese fencing. ... Kenjutsu ) is the Japanese martial art specializing in the use of the Japanese sword (katana). ... This article contains a trivia section. ... KyÅ«jutsu ) is the traditional Japanese martial art of wielding a bow. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Naginatajutsu (なぎなた術, 長刀術 or 薙刀術) is the Japanese Martial art of wielding the naginata, a weapon resembling the medieval European glaive. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Shurikenjutsu ) is a general term describing the traditional Japanese martial arts of throwing shuriken, which are small, hand-held weapons such as metal spikes (bo shuriken), circular plates of metal known as hira shuriken, and knives (tantō). Shuriken-jutsu was usually taught among the sogo-bugei, or comprehensive martial arts... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sōjutsu (槍術, sometimes incorrectly read as yarijutsu) is the art of fighting with the Japanese spear, yari (槍). Sōjutsu is typically only a single component of curriculum in comprehensive Japanese koryu schools; for example Tenshin Shoden Katori Shinto-ryu includes spear fighting techniques. ... For the fighting styles that combine different arts, see hybrid martial arts. ... Hybrid martial arts (also known as hybrid fighting systems) refer to martial arts or fighting systems that incorporate techniques and theories from several particular martial arts. ... BāguàzhÇŽng is one of the major internal (a. ... the Tiger Defense Bando or animal system is the ancient art of self-defense from Burma. ... Bartitsu is an eclectic martial art and self defence method originally developed in England during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... The Bujinkan (武神館) is a martial arts organization practicing the art commonly referred to as Bujinkan Budō Taijutsu (武神館武道体術). The art is widely considered to be the last legitimate ninpo, or ninja, martial art, particularly because of the influence of Togakure ryu. ... This article is about Martial art. ... Hwa Rang Do is a Korean martial art that was created in its modern form by Joo Bang Lee and his brother, Joo Sang Lee. ... Jeet Kune Do (Chinese: 截拳道 Cantonese: Jitkyùndou Pinyin: Jiéquándào, lit. ... Kajukenbo is a hybrid martial art that combines karate, judo, jujutsu, kenpo, and kung fu. ... Kalarippayattu (IPA: [kaÉ­aɾipːajatɨ̆], Malayalam: കളരിപയറ്റ്) is a Dravidian martial art practised in Kerala and contiguous parts of neighboring Tamil Nadu of Southern India. ... Krav Maga (Hebrew קרב מגע: contact combat) is a martial art, at first developed in Czechoslovakia in the 1930s. ... Kuk Sool Won is a Korean martial arts system founded by In Hyuk Suh in 1958. ... MCMAP logo The Marine Corps Martial Arts Program (MCMAP) is a combat system developed by the United States Marine Corps to combine existing and new hand-to-hand and close combat techniques with morale and team-building functions and instruction in what the Marine Corps calls the Warrior Ethos.[1... Northern Praying Mantis (Chinese: ; pinyin: tánglángquán; literally praying mantis fist) is a style of Chinese martial arts, sometimes called Shandong Praying Mantis after its province of origin. ... This article is about a Japanese martial art. ... Pankration was an ancient sport introduced in the Greek Olympic games in 648 BC. Many historians believe that, although Pankration was not one of the first Olympic sports, it was likely the most popular. ... This article is about martial art forms practiced in Indonesia. ... The leitai of the 2004 China National Sanda Championships Sanshou (Chinese: 散手, lit. ... Shidokan karate is sometimes described as the triathlon of Martial Arts, as it encompasses knockdown (otherwise known as bare knuckle) karate, Thai kick-boxing, and grappling. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... ISFA logo Shootfighting is a combat sport and martial art, with competitions governed by the International Shootfighting Association (ISFA). ... Shorinji Kempo (少林寺拳法 Shōrinji Kenpō -- note that the World Shorinji Kempo Organization prefers the Romanization kempo to kenpo) is a martial art form of Kempo that was invented by Doshin So (å®— 道臣, 1911-1980) in 1947, who incorporated Japanese Zen Buddhism into the fighting style. ... For other uses, see Systema (disambiguation). ... Tai chi chuan (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: tai4 chi2 chüan2) is an internal Chinese martial art. ... Vajra Mushti (or Vajra Mukti)/Diamond Fist is one of the oldest martial arts of India . ... Vovinam is a type of Vietnamese martial arts. ... Xingyiquan is one of the three major internal Chinese martial arts—the other two being Tai Chi Chüan and Baguazhang—and is characterised by aggressive, seemingly linear movements and explosive power. ...


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Fencing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (8701 words)
The earliest known depiction of a fencing bout, complete with practice weapons, safety equipment, and judges, is a relief in a temple near Luxor built by Ramesses III around 1190 BC.
Bayonet fencing was somewhat slower to decline with competitions organized by some armed forces as late as the 1940s and 1950s.
Their aim is to encourage "sensible" fencing and reward initiative and circumspection at the same time, in particular to reward fencers for properly made attacks, and penalize fencers for attacking into such an attack that lands, an action that could be lethal with sharp blades.
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