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Encyclopedia > Feminism
International Women's Day rally in Dhaka, Bangladesh, organized by the National Women Workers Trade Union Centre on March 8, 2005
International Women's Day rally in Dhaka, Bangladesh, organized by the National Women Workers Trade Union Centre on March 8, 2005
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Feminism

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Feminism is a discourse that involves various movements, theories and philosophies that are concerned with the issue of gender difference, which advocate equality for women, and campaign for women's rights and interests.[1][2][3][4][5] According to some, the history of feminism can be divided into three waves.[4][6] The first wave was in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the second was in the 1960s and 1970s and the third extends from the 1990s to the present.[7] Feminist theory emerged from these feminist movements.[8][9] It manifests through a variety of disciplines such as feminist geography, feminist history and feminist literary criticism. This is a list of important participants in the development of feminism, listed by feminist ideology. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 295 KB) Summary March 8 rally in Dhaka, organized by Jatiyo Nari Shramik Trade Union Kendra (National Women Workers Trade Union Centre), an organization to the Bangladesh Trade Union Kendra. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 295 KB) Summary March 8 rally in Dhaka, organized by Jatiyo Nari Shramik Trade Union Kendra (National Women Workers Trade Union Centre), an organization to the Bangladesh Trade Union Kendra. ... Image:IWD 2007 Logo. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The feminist movement (also known as the Womens Movement or Womens Liberation) is a series of campaigns on issues such as reproductive rights (including abortion), domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, sexual harassment, and sexual violence. ... Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, or philosophical, ground. ... Feminist film theory is theoretical work within film criticism that is derived from feminist politics and feminist theory. ... Feminist economics broadly refers to a developing branch of economics that applies feminist insights and critiques to mainstream economics. ... Feminist sexology is the study of sexuality from a feminist viewpoint, i. ... Feminist theology is a movement, generally in the Western religious traditions (mostly Christianity and Judaism), to reconsider the traditions, practices, scriptures, and theologies of those religions from a feminist perspective. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ... Antifeminism refers to disbelief regarding the economic, political, and or social equality of females as a sex. ... Pro-feminism refers to support of the cause of feminism without implying that the supporter is a member of the feminist movement. ... Womens history is a term that refers to information about the past in regard to the female human being. ... Suffrage parade in New York City on May 6, 1912 The history of feminism reaches far back before the 18th century, but the seeds of modern feminism were planted during the late part of that century. ... The History of Feminism is the history of Feminist movements. ... First-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity during the nineteenth century and early twentieth century in the United Kingdom and the United States. ... A Womens Lib march in Washington, D.C. in 1970 Second-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity which began during the 1960s and lasted through the late 1970s. ... Third-wave feminism is a term identified with several diverse strains of feminist activity and study beginning in the early 1990s. ... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ... Womens suffrage has been granted (and been revoked) at various times in various countries throughout the world. ... Suffragette with banner, Washington DC, 1918 The title of suffragette (also occasionally spelled suffraget) was given to members of the womens suffrage movement, originally in the United Kingdom. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Amazon feminism is dedicated to the image of the female hero in fiction and in fact, as it is expressed in art and literature in the physiques and feats of female athletes, martial artists, and other powerfully built women, and in gender-related and sexual orientations. ... Anarcha-feminism combines anarchism with feminism. ... The current incarnation of Black Feminism is a political/social movement that grew out of a sense of feelings of discontent with both the Civil Rights Movement and the Feminist Movement of the 1970s. ... Chicana feminism, also called Xicanisma, is a group of social theories that analyze and historical, social, political, and economic roles and of Mexican American, Chicana, and Hispanic women in the United States, especially as they concern issues of gender. ... Christian feminism, a branch of feminist theology, seeks to interpret and understand Christianity in the scope of the equality of men and women morally, socially, spiritually and in leadership. ... Cultural feminism is the ideology of a female nature or female essence reappropriated by feminists themselves in an effort to revalidate undervalued female attributes. ... Difference feminism is a philosophy that stresses that men and women are ontologically different versions of the human being. ... Ecofeminism is a minor social and political movement which unites environmentalism and feminism[1], with some currents linking deep ecology and feminism. ... Equity feminism is a phrase coined by Christina Hoff Sommers in her book Who Stole Feminism (Simon & Schuster, 1994). ... Equality feminism is a submovement of feminism. ... Fat feminism or fat-positive feminism is a form of feminism that argues overweight women are economically, educationally, and socially disadvantaged due to their size. ... Gender feminism is a phrase coined by Christina Hoff Sommers in her book Who Stole Feminism (Simon & Schuster, 1994) to critique the mainstream of the contemporary feminist movement, which she felt was unduly gynocentric. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A symbol of Islamic feminism, incorporating the Crescent Moon and Star of Islam into the female symbol Islamic feminism is a form of feminism that aims for the full equality of all Muslims, regardless of sex or gender, in public and private life. ... Jewish feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious, legal, and social status of women within Judaism and to open up new opportunities for religious experience and leadership for Jewish women. ... Lesbian feminism is a cultural movement and critical perspective, most popular in the 1970s and early 1980s (primarily in North America and Western Europe) that questions the position of women and homosexuals in society. ... Liberal feminism is a form of feminism that argues that equality for women can be achieved through legal means and social reform, and that men as a group need not be challenged. ... Marxist feminism is a sub-type of feminist theory which focuses on the dismantling of capitalism as a way to liberate women. ... New feminism is a predominantly Catholic philosophy, and is a form of difference feminism. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Pro-life feminism is the opposition to abortion based on feminism. ... Radical feminism is a branch of feminism that views womens oppression (which radical feminists refer to as patriarchy) as a basic system of power upon which human relationships in society are arranged. ... Separatist feminism is a form of feminism that does not support heterosexual relationships due to a belief that sexual disparities between men and women are unresolvable. ... Sex-positive feminism, sometimes known as pro-sex feminism, sex-radical feminism, or sexually liberal feminism, is a movement that was formed in the early 1980s. ... Socialist feminism is a branch of feminism that focuses upon both the public and private spheres of a womans life and argues that liberation can only be achieved by working to end both the economic and cultural sources of womens oppression. ... Feminist spirituality is a class of religious beliefs in which certain feminist ideas play an important role. ... Although third world women have always been engaged in the feminism movement, they criticise it on the grounds that it is ethnocentric and does not take into account the unique experiences of women from third world countries or the existence of feminism(s) indigenous to third world countries. ... Transfeminism is a form of feminism that includes transgender and transexual rights and issues, especially those of transwomen. ... The word womanism was adapted from Pulitzer Prize winning author, Alice Walker. ... This is a list of important participants in the development of feminism, listed by feminist ideology. ... . ... This is a list of topics related to the issue of feminism, womens rights and womens liberation: All-women band Christian Feminism Coeducation Eco-feminism Erotophobia Female superiority (or male inferiority) Feminazi Feminist censorship Feminist history Feminist history in the United States Nineteenth Amendment to the United States... Image File history File links Portal. ... The word theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. ... Philosophy (from the Greek words philos and sophia meaning love of wisdom) is understood in different ways historically and by different philosophers. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ... Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, or philosophical, ground. ... Feminist geography is an approach to study in human geography which applies the theories, methods and critiques of feminism to the study of the human environment, society and geographical space. ... Suffrage parade in New York City on May 6, 1912 The history of feminism reaches far back before the 18th century, but the seeds of modern feminism were planted during the late part of that century. ... Feminist literary criticism is literary criticism informed by feminist theory, or by the politics of feminism more broadly. ...


Feminism has altered pre-dominant perspectives in a wide range of areas within Western society, ranging from culture to law. Feminist activists have campaigned for women's legal rights (rights of contract, property rights, voting rights); for rights to bodily integrity and autonomy, for abortion rights, and for reproductive rights (including access to contraception and quality prenatal care); for protection from domestic violence, sexual harassment and rape;[10][1] for workplace rights, including maternity leave and equal pay; and against other forms of discrimination.[11][12][13] Parental leave is the right to take time off work, paid or unpaid, to care for your child or make arrangements for your childs welfare. ...


During much of its history, most feminist movements and theories had leaders who were predominantly middle-class white women, from Western Europe and North America. However, at least since Sojourner Truth's 1851 speech to American feminists, women of other races have proposed alternative feminisms. This trend accelerated in the 1960s with the Civil Rights movement in the United States and the collapse of European colonialism in Africa, the Caribbean, parts of Latin America and Southeast Asia. Since that time, women in former European colonies and the Third World have proposed "Post-colonial" and "Third World" feminisms.[14] Some Postcolonial feminists, such as Chandra Talpade Mohanty, are critical of Western feminism for being ethnocentric.[15] Black feminists, such as Angela Davis and Alice Walker, share this view.[16] Sojourner Truth (c. ... As Third-wave feminism emerged in the 1990’s, feminism expanded to include new theories. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Chandra Talpade Mohanty is a prominent postcolonial feminist theorist. ... Ethnocentrism (Greek ethnos nation + -centrism) is a set of beliefs or practices based on the view that ones own group is the center of everything. ... The current incarnation of Black Feminism is a political/social movement that grew out of a sense of feelings of discontent with both the Civil Rights Movement and the Feminist Movement of the 1970s. ... Angela Yvonne Davis (born January 26, 1944 in Birmingham, Alabama) is an American socialist organizer, professor who was associated with the Black Panther Party (BPP) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). ... Alice Malsenior Walker (born February 9, 1944) is an American author and feminist (although she prefers the word Womanist). ...


Since the 1980s Standpoint feminists argued that feminism should examine how women's experience of inequality relates to that of racism, homophobia, classism and colonization.[17][18] In the late 1980s and 1990s postmodern feminists argued that gender roles are socially constructed[19][20][21] and that it is impossible to generalize women's experiences across cultures and histories.[22] Similar to intersectionality theory, standpoint feminism emphasizes that feminist social science should be practiced from the standpoint of women, or particular groups of women (Hill Collins). ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... A protest by The Westboro Baptist Church, a group identified by the Anti-Defamation League as virulently homophobic. ... Classism (a term formed by analogy with racism) is any form of prejudice or oppression against people who are in, or who are perceived as being like those who are in, a lower social class (especially in the form of lower or higher socioeconomic status) within a class society. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ... A bagpiper in military uniform. ... A social construction, social construct or social concept is an institutionalized entity or artifact in a social system invented or constructed by participants in a particular culture or society that exists because people agree to behave as if it exists, or agree to follow certain conventional rules, or behave as...

Contents

History of feminism

A 1932 Soviet poster for International Women's Day.
A 1932 Soviet poster for International Women's Day.
Main article: History of feminism

Feminists and scholars have divided the movement's history into three "waves". The first wave refers mainly to women's suffrage movements of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (mainly concerned with women's right to vote). The second wave refers to the ideas and actions associated with the women's liberation movement beginning in the 1960s (which campaigned for legal and social equality for women). The third wave refers to a continuation of, and a reaction to the perceived failures of, second-wave feminism, beginning in the 1990s.[7] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image:IWD 2007 Logo. ... The History of Feminism is the history of Feminist movements. ... First-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity during the nineteenth century and early twentieth century in the United Kingdom and the United States. ... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ... A Womens Lib march in Washington, D.C. in 1970 Second-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity which began during the 1960s and lasted through the late 1970s. ... Third-wave feminism is a term identified with several diverse strains of feminist activity and study beginning in the early 1990s. ...


First-wave feminism

Main article: First-wave feminism

First-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity during the nineteenth century and early twentieth century in the United Kingdom and the United States. Originally it focused on the promotion of equal contract and property rights for women and the opposition to chattel marriage and ownership of married women (and their children) by their husbands. However, by the end of the nineteenth century, activism focused primarily on gaining political power, particularly the right of women's suffrage. Yet, feminists such as Voltairine de Cleyre and Margaret Sanger were still active in campaigning for women's sexual, reproductive, and economic rights at this time.[23] First-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity during the nineteenth century and early twentieth century in the United Kingdom and the United States. ... Voltairine de Cleyre (November 17, 1866–June 20, 1912) was, according to Emma Goldman, the most gifted and brilliant anarchist woman America ever produced; yet she is not widely known even among anarchists today. ... Margaret Higgins Sanger (September 14, 1879 – September 6, 1966) was an American birth control activist, an advocate of negative eugenics, and the founder of the American Birth Control League (which eventually became Planned Parenthood). ... Reproductive rights (also Procreative liberty) refers to human rights in areas of sexual reproduction, including the rights to reproduce (such as opposition to forced sterilization) as well as rights not to reproduce (such as support for access to birth control and abortion), the right to privacy, medical coverage, right to...


In Britain the Suffragettes campaigned for the women's vote. In 1918 the Representation of the People Act 1918 was passed granting the vote to women over the age of 30 who owned houses. In 1928 this was extended to all women over eighteen.[24] In the United States leaders of this movement included Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, who each campaigned for the abolition of slavery prior to championing women's right to vote. Other important leaders include Lucy Stone, Olympia Brown, and Helen Pitts. American first-wave feminism involved a wide range of women, some belonging to conservative Christian groups (such as Frances Willard and the Woman's Christian Temperance Union), others resembling the diversity and radicalism of much of second-wave feminism (such as Matilda Joslyn Gage and the National Woman Suffrage Association). In the United States first-wave feminism is considered to have ended with the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (1919), granting women the right to vote in all states.The term first wave, was coined retrospectively after the term second-wave feminism began to be used to describe a newer feminist movement that focused as much on fighting social and cultural inequalities as political inequalities.[23][25][26][27][28] Suffragette with banner, Washington DC, 1918 The title of suffragette (also occasionally spelled suffraget) was given to members of the womens suffrage movement, originally in the United Kingdom. ... The Representation of the People Act 1918 widened suffrage by abolishing practically all property qualifications for men and by enfranchising women over 30 who met minimum property qualifications. ... Elizabeth Cady Stanton (November 12, 1815 – October 26, 1902) was an American social activist and leading figure of the early womans movement. ... For other uses, see Susan B. Anthony (disambiguation). ... Lucy Stone (August 13, 1818 – October 19, 1893) was a prominent American suffragist. ... Olympia Brown (January 5, 1835 – October 23, 1926) was a famous Womens suffragist. ... Helen Pitts Helen Pitts (1838 - 1903), was an American suffragette and the second wife of Frederick Douglass. ... Frances Elizabeth Caroline Willard (September 28, 1839 – February 17, 1898) was an American educator, temperance reformer, and womens suffragist. ... The Womans Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) is the oldest continuing non-sectarian womens organization in the U.S. and worldwide. ... A Womens Lib march in Washington, D.C. in 1970 Second-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity which began during the 1960s and lasted through the late 1970s. ... Matilda Electa Joslyn Gage (1826-1898) was a suffragist, a Native American activist, an abolitionist, a freethinker, and a prolific author, who was born with a hatred of oppression. Though born in Cicero, New York, Gage maintained residence in Fayetteville, New York for the majority of her life. ... The National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) was created in 1890, when two competing American womens suffrage advocacy groups united. ... Amendment XIX in the National Archives The Nineteenth Amendment (Amendment XIX) to the United States Constitution provides that neither any individual state or the federal government may deny a citizen the right to vote because of that citizens sex. ... A Womens Lib march in Washington, D.C. in 1970 Second-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity which began during the 1960s and lasted through the late 1970s. ...


Second-wave feminism

Main article: Second-wave feminism
Original paperback cover from Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique (1963)
Original paperback cover from Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique (1963)

Second-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity beginning in the early 1960s and lasting through the late 1980s. The scholar, Imelda Whelehan, suggests that the second wave was a continuation of the earlier phase of feminism involving the suffragettes in the UK and USA.[29] Second-wave feminism has continued to exist since that time and coexists with what is termed third-wave feminism. The scholar Estelle Freedman compares first and second-wave feminism saying that the first wave focused on rights such as suffrage, whereas the second wave was largely concerned with other issues of equality, such as ending discrimination.[23] A Womens Lib march in Washington, D.C. in 1970 Second-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity which began during the 1960s and lasted through the late 1970s. ... Image File history File links Mystique. ... Image File history File links Mystique. ... Betty Friedan, 1960 Betty Friedan (February 4, 1921 – February 4, 2006) was an American feminist, activist and writer, best known for starting what is commonly known as the Second Wave of feminism through the writing of her book The Feminine Mystique. ... Cover of the original paperback edition of The Feminine Mystique The Feminine Mystique is a 1963 book written by Betty Friedan which attacked the popular notion that women during this time could only find fulfillment through childbearing and homemaking. ... A Womens Lib march in Washington, D.C. in 1970 Second-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity which began during the 1960s and lasted through the late 1970s. ... Third-wave feminism is a term identified with several diverse strains of feminist activity and study beginning in the early 1990s. ...


The feminist activist and author, Carol Hanisch coined the slogan "The Personal is Political" which became synonymous with the second wave.[10][30] Second-wave feminists saw women's cultural and political inequalities as inextricably linked and encouraged women to understand aspects of their personal lives as deeply politicized and as reflecting sexist power structures. Carol Hanisch is a radical feminist and was an important member of New York Radical Women and Redstockings. ... The sign of the headquarters of the National Association Opposed To Woman Suffrage Sexism is commonly considered to be discrimination and/or hatred towards people based on their sex rather than their individual merits, but can also refer to any and all systemic differentiations based on the sex of the...


Women's Liberation in the USA

The phrase "Women’s Liberation" was first used in the United States in 1964[31] and first appeared in print in 1966.[32] By 1968, although the term Women’s Liberation Front appeared in the magazine Ramparts, it was starting to refer to the whole women’s movement.[33] Bra-burning also became associated with the movement.[34] One of the most vocal critics of the women's liberation movement has been the African American feminist and intellectual, Gloria Jean Watkins (who uses the pseudonym "bell hooks"), who argues that this movement glossed over race and class and thus failed to address "the issues that divided women". She highlighted the lack of minority voices in the women's movement in her book Feminist theory from margin to center (1984).[35] Ramparts was an American political and literary magazine, published from 1962 through 1975. ... The history of the bra is inextricably intertwined with the social history of the status of women. ... Gloria Jean Watkins (born on September 25, 1952), better known as bell hooks, is an African-American intellectual, feminist, and social activist. ...


The Feminine Mystique

Main article: The Feminine Mystique

Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique (1963) criticized the idea that women could only find fulfillment through childrearing and homemaking. According to Friedan's obituary in the The New York Times, The Feminine Mystique “ignited the contemporary women's movement in 1963 and as a result permanently transformed the social fabric of the United States and countries around the world” and “is widely regarded as one of the most influential nonfiction books of the 20th century.”[36] In the book Friedan hypothesizes that women are victims of a false belief system that requires them to find identity and meaning in their lives through their husbands and children. Such a system causes women to completely lose their identity in that of their family. Friedan specifically locates this system among post-World War II middle-class suburban communities. At the same time, America's post-war economic boom had led to the development of new technologies that were supposed to make household work less difficult, but that often had the result of making women's work less meaningful and valuable.[37] Cover of the original paperback edition of The Feminine Mystique The Feminine Mystique is a 1963 book written by Betty Friedan which attacked the popular notion that women during this time could only find fulfillment through childbearing and homemaking. ... Betty Friedan, 1960 Betty Friedan (February 4, 1921 – February 4, 2006) was an American feminist, activist and writer, best known for starting what is commonly known as the Second Wave of feminism through the writing of her book The Feminine Mystique. ... Cover of the original paperback edition of The Feminine Mystique The Feminine Mystique is a 1963 book written by Betty Friedan which attacked the popular notion that women during this time could only find fulfillment through childbearing and homemaking. ... Two homemakers. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the socio-economic class from a global vantage point. ... Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburbs are inhabited districts located either on the outer rim of a city or outside the official limits of a city (the term varies from country to country), or the outer elements of a conurbation. ...


Third-wave feminism

Main article: Third-wave feminism

Third-wave feminism began in the early 1990s, arising as a response to perceived failures of the second wave and also as a response to the backlash against initiatives and movements created by the second wave. Third-wave feminism seeks to challenge or avoid what it deems the second wave's essentialist definitions of femininity, which (according to them) over-emphasize the experiences of upper middle-class white women. Third-wave feminism is a term identified with several diverse strains of feminist activity and study beginning in the early 1990s. ... Third-wave feminism is a term identified with several diverse strains of feminist activity and study beginning in the early 1990s. ... In philosophy, essentialism is the view, that, for any specific kind of entity it is at least theoretically possible to specify a finite list of characteristics —all of which any entity must have to belong to the group defined. ... In some cultures, makeup is associated with femininity. ...


A post-structuralist interpretation of gender and sexuality is central to much of the third wave's ideology. Third-wave feminists often focus on "micro-politics" and challenge the second wave's paradigm as to what is, or is not, good for females.[23][38][39][40] The third wave has its origins in the mid-1980s. Feminist leaders rooted in the second wave like Gloria Anzaldua, bell hooks, Chela Sandoval, Cherrie Moraga, Audre Lorde, Maxine Hong Kingston, and many other black feminists, sought to negotiate a space within feminist thought for consideration of race-related subjectivities.[39][16][41] Post-structuralism encompasses the intellectual developments of continental philosophers and critical theorists that wrote with tendencies of twentieth-century French philosophy. ... Categories: Female-related stubs | 1942 births | 2004 deaths | Feminists | Lesbian writers | Queer theory ... Gloria Jean Watkins (born on September 25, 1952), better known as bell hooks, is an African-American intellectual, feminist, and social activist. ... Cherrie Moraga (born 25 September 1952 in Whittier, California) is a United States writer and activist of Anglo-Chicana descent. ... Lorde redirects here. ... Maxine Hong Kingston Maxine Hong Kingston (湯婷婷; born October 27, 1940) is an American writer. ...


Third-wave feminism also contains internal debates between difference feminists such as the psychologist Carol Gilligan (who believes that there are important differences between the sexes) and those who believe that there are no inherent differences between the sexes and contend that gender roles are due to social conditioning.[42] Difference feminism is a philosophy that stresses that men and women are ontologically different versions of the human being. ... Carol Gilligan (1936– ) is an American feminist, ethicist, and psychologist best known for her work with and against Lawrence Kohlberg on ethical community and ethical relationships, and certain subject-object problems in ethics. ... Social conditioning refers to the sociological phenomenological process of inheriting tradition and gradual cultural transmutation passed down through previous generations. ...


Post-feminism

For more details on this topic, see Third-wave_feminism#Post-feminism.

Post-feminism describes a range of viewpoints reacting to feminism. The term was first used in the 1980s to describe a backlash against second-wave feminism. It is now a label for a wide range of theories that take critical approaches to previous feminist discourses and includes challenges to the second wave's ideas.[43] Other post-feminists say that feminism is no longer relevant to today's society.[44] Amelia Jones has written that the post-feminist texts which emerged in the 1980s and 1990s portrayed second-wave feminism as a monolithic entity and criticized it using generalizations.[45] Third-wave feminism is a term identified with several diverse strains of feminist activity and study beginning in the early 1990s. ... A Womens Lib march in Washington, D.C. in 1970 Second-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity which began during the 1960s and lasted through the late 1970s. ...


One of the earliest uses of the term was in Susan Bolotin's 1982 article "Voices of the Post-Feminist Generation," published in New York Times Magazine. This article was based on a number of interviews with women who largely agreed with the goals of feminism, but did not identify as feminists.[46] The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


Some contemporary feminists, such as Katha Pollitt or Nadine Strossen, consider feminism to hold simply that "women are people". Views that separate the sexes rather than unite them are considered by these writers to be sexist rather than feminist.[47][48] Katha Pollitt (born 1949) is an American feminist writer. ... A portait of Nadine Strossen Professor Nadine Strossen is president of the American Civil Liberties Union. ...


In her 1994 book Who Stole Feminism? How Women Have Betrayed Women, Christina Hoff Sommers considers much of modern academic feminist theory and the feminist movement to be gynocentric and misandrist. She labels this "Gender feminism" and proposes "Equity feminism" - an ideology that aims for full civil and legal equality. She argues that while the feminists she designates as gender feminists advocate preferential treatment and portray women as victims, equity feminism provides a viable alternative form of feminism.[49] These descriptions and her other work have caused Hoff Sommers to be described as an antifeminist by other feminists.[50][51] It has been suggested that Equity feminism be merged into this article or section. ... Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, or philosophical, ground. ... Look up Misandry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Gender feminism is a phrase coined by Christina Hoff Sommers in her book Who Stole Feminism (Simon & Schuster, 1994) to critique the mainstream of the contemporary feminist movement, which she felt was unduly gynocentric. ... Equity feminism is a phrase coined by Christina Hoff Sommers in her book Who Stole Feminism (Simon & Schuster, 1994). ...


Susan Faludi in her book Backlash: The Undeclared War Against American Women, argues that a backlash against second wave feminism in the 1980s has successfully re-defined feminism through its terms. She argues that it constructed the women's liberation movement as the source of many of the problems alleged to be plaguing women in the late 1980s. She also argues that many of these problems are illusory, constructed by the media without reliable evidence. According to her, this type of backlash is an historical trend, recurring when it appears that women have made substantial gains in their efforts to obtain equal rights.[52] Susan C. Faludi (born April 18, 1959 ) ) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist and author of two well-known books and won a Pulitzer Prize for Explanatory Journalism in 1991, for a report on the leveraged buy-out of Safeway Stores, Inc. ...


French feminism

French feminism refers to a branch of feminist thinking from a group of feminists in France from the 1970s to the 1990s. French feminism, compared to Anglophone feminism, is distinguished by an approach which is more philosophical and literary. Its writings tend to be effusive and metaphorical being less concerned with political doctrine and generally focused on theories of "the body".[53] The term includes writers who are not French,[54] such as Julia Kristeva and Bracha Ettinger. French feminism (which is a phrase mostly used in English-speaking countries) refers to the work of a group of feminists in France from the 1970s to the early 1990s. ... Feminism in France founds its origins in the French Revolution. ... Julia Kristeva in 2007 Julia Kristeva (Bulgarian: ) (born 24 June 1941) is a Bulgarian-French philosopher, literary critic, psychoanalyst, feminist, and, most recently, novelist, who has lived in France since the mid-1960s. ... Bracha L. Ettinger (also known as Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger, Bracha Ettinger, Hebrew: ברכה אטינגר, ברכה ליכטנברג-אטינגר) is a renowned artist, painter, photographer, theorist and psychoanalyst. ...


The French author and philosopher Simone de Beauvoir wrote novels; monographs on philosophy, politics, and social issues; essays, biographies, and an autobiography. She is now best known for her metaphysical novels, including She Came to Stay and The Mandarins, and for her 1949 treatise The Second Sex, a detailed analysis of women's oppression and a foundational tract of contemporary feminism. It sets out a feminist existentialism which prescribes a moral revolution. As an existentialist, she accepted Jean-Paul Sartre's precept that existence precedes essence; hence "one is not born a woman, but becomes one". Her analysis focuses on the social construction of Woman as the Other, this de Beauvoir identifies as fundamental to women's oppression.[19] She argues that women have historically been considered deviant and abnormal, and contends that even Mary Wollstonecraft considered men to be the ideal toward which women should aspire. De Beauvoir argues that for feminism to move forward, this attitude must be set aside.[19] La Beauvoir redirects here; also see: Beauvoir (disambiguation). ... The Mandarins is a novel by Simone de Beauvoir (1908-86), whose father was a Catholic lawyer of conservative views. ... The Second Sex (French: Le Deuxième Sexe, 1949) is the best known work of Simone de Beauvoir and a seminal text in twentieth-century feminism. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement emphasizing individualism, individual freedom, and subjectivity. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... In philosophy, “existence precedes essence”, at the most basic level of understanding, is based on the idea of existence without essence. ... The Other or constitutive other (also referred to as othering) is a key concept in continental philosophy, opposed to the Same. ... Mary Wollstonecraft (circa 1797) by John Opie Mary Wollstonecraft (27 April 1759 – 10 September 1797) was a British writer, philosopher and feminist. ...


In the 1970s french feminists approached feminism with the concept of écriture féminine (which translates as female, or feminine writing).[43] Helene Cixous argues that writing and philosophy are phallocentric and along with other French feminists such as Luce Irigaray emphasize "writing from the body" as a subversive exercise.[43] The work of the feminist psychoanalyst and philosopher, Julia Kristeva, has influenced feminist theory in general and feminist literary criticism in particular. However, as the scholar Elizabeth Wright points out, "none of these French feminists align themselves with the feminist movement as it appeared in the Anglophone world".[43][55] Recently Bracha Ettinger, an artist, theorist and psychoanalyst, has put forward ideas about the female body and what she terms "matrixial trans-subjectivity".[56][57] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Hélène Cixous (born 1937) is a French feminist writer, poet, playwright, philosopher and literary critic. ... Luce Irigaray (born 1930 Belgium) is a French feminist and psychoanalytic and cultural theorist. ... Julia Kristeva in 2007 Julia Kristeva (Bulgarian: ) (born 24 June 1941) is a Bulgarian-French philosopher, literary critic, psychoanalyst, feminist, and, most recently, novelist, who has lived in France since the mid-1960s. ... Feminist literary criticism is literary criticism informed by feminist theory, or by the politics of feminism more broadly. ... Look up Anglophone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Feminist theory

Main article: Feminist theory

Feminist theory is an extension of feminism into theoretical or philosophical fields. It encompasses work in a variety of disciplines, including anthropology, sociology, economics, women's studies, literary criticism,[58][59] art history,[60] psychoanalysis[61] and philosophy.[62][63] Feminist theory aims to understand gender inequality and focuses on gender politics, power relations, and sexuality. While providing a critique of these social and political relations, much of feminist theory also focuses on the promotion of women's rights and interests. Themes explored in feminist theory include discrimination, stereotyping, objectification (especially sexual objectification), oppression, and patriarchy.[9][8] Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, or philosophical, ground. ... Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, or philosophical, ground. ... This article is about the social science. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ... This article is about the academic discipline of art history. ... Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... // Gender Inequality refers to the obvious or hidden disparities among individuals based on performance of gender (gender can be separate from biological sex, see Sex/gender distinction). ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Gender equality Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action... For the term used in Computing, see Stereotype (computing). ... Objectification refers to the way in which one person treats another person as an object and not as a human being. ... Sexual objectification is objectification of a person. ... For other uses, see Oppression (disambiguation). ... English family c. ...


The American literary critic and feminist Elaine Showalter describes the phased development of feminist theory. The first she calls "feminist critique", in which the feminist reader examines the ideologies behind literary phenomena. The second Showalter calls "gynocriticism", in which the "woman is producer of textual meaning" including "the psychodynamics of female creativity; linguistics and the problem of a female language; the trajectory of the individual or collective female literary career and literary history". The last phase she calls "gender theory", in which the "ideological inscription and the literary effects of the sex/gender system" are explored".[64] This model has been criticized by the scholar Toril Moi who sees it as an essentialist and deterministic model for female subjectivity and for failing to account for the situation of women outside the West.[53] Elaine Showalter (1941- ) is an American literary critic, feminist, and writer on cultural and social issues. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Look up and in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Toril Moi is James B. Duke Professor of Literature and Romance Studies at Duke University. ... In philosophy, essentialism is the view, that, for any specific kind of entity it is at least theoretically possible to specify a finite list of characteristics —all of which any entity must have to belong to the group defined. ... This article is about the general notion of determinism in philosophy. ...


Feminism's many forms

Several subtypes of feminist ideology have developed over the years; some of the major subtypes are listed below. These subtypes often overlap, and some feminists identify themselves with several types of feminist thought. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2150x2781, 372 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Betty Friedan User:Davepape/Images-people ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2150x2781, 372 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Betty Friedan User:Davepape/Images-people ... Betty Friedan, 1960 Betty Friedan (February 4, 1921 – February 4, 2006) was an American feminist, activist and writer, best known for starting what is commonly known as the Second Wave of feminism through the writing of her book The Feminine Mystique. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ...


Liberal feminism

Main article: Liberal feminism

Liberal feminism asserts the equality of men and women through political and legal reform. It is an individualistic form of feminism, which focuses on women’s ability to show and maintain their equality through their own actions and choices. Liberal feminism uses the personal interactions between men and women as the place from which to transform society. According to liberal feminists, all women are capable of asserting their ability to achieve equality, therefore it is possible for change to happen without altering the structure of society. Issues important to liberal feminists include reproductive and abortion rights, sexual harassment, voting, education, "equal pay for equal work", affordable childcare, affordable health care, and bringing to light the frequency of sexual and domestic violence against women.[65] Liberal feminism is a form of feminism that argues that equality for women can be achieved through legal means and social reform, and that men as a group need not be challenged. ... Liberal feminism is a form of feminism that argues that equality for women can be achieved through legal means and social reform, and that men as a group need not be challenged. ...


Radical feminism

Main article: Radical feminism
Related terms:
Anti-pornography feminism,
Cultural feminism,
Lesbian feminism,
Separatist feminism,
Sex-positive feminism

Radical feminism considers the capitalist hierarchy, which it describes as sexist, as the defining feature of women’s oppression. Radical feminists believe that women can free themselves only when they have done away with what they consider an inherently oppressive and dominating system. Radical feminists feel that there is a male-based authority and power structure and that it is responsible for oppression and inequality, and that as long as the system and its values are in place, society will not be able to be reformed in any significant way. Radical feminists see capitalism as one of the most important barriers to ending oppression. Most radical feminists see no alternatives other than the total uprooting and reconstruction of society in order to achieve their goals.[10] Radical feminism is a branch of feminism that views womens oppression (which radical feminists refer to as patriarchy) as a basic system of power upon which human relationships in society are arranged. ... Cultural feminism is the ideology of a female nature or female essence reappropriated by feminists themselves in an effort to revalidate undervalued female attributes. ... Lesbian feminism is a cultural movement and critical perspective, most popular in the 1970s and early 1980s (primarily in North America and Western Europe) that questions the position of women and homosexuals in society. ... Separatist feminism is a form of feminism that does not support heterosexual relationships due to a belief that sexual disparities between men and women are unresolvable. ... Sex-positive feminism, sometimes known as pro-sex feminism, sex-radical feminism, or sexually liberal feminism, is a movement that was formed in the early 1980s. ... Radical feminism is a branch of feminism that views womens oppression (which radical feminists refer to as patriarchy) as a basic system of power upon which human relationships in society are arranged. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ...


Over time a number of sub-types of Radical feminism have emerged, such as Cultural feminism, Separatist feminism and Anti-pornography feminism. Cultural feminism is the ideology of a "female nature" or "female essence" that attempts to revalidate what they consider undervalued female attributes.[66] It is also a theory that commends the difference of women from men.[67] Its critics assert that because it is based on an essentialist view of the differences between women and men and advocates independence and institution building, it has led feminists to retreat from politics to “life-style”[68] Once such critic, Alice Echols (a feminist historian and cultural theorist), credits Redstockings member Brooke Williams with introducing the term cultural feminism in 1975 to describe the depoliticisation of radical feminism.[69] Cultural feminism is the ideology of a female nature or female essence reappropriated by feminists themselves in an effort to revalidate undervalued female attributes. ... Separatist feminism is a form of feminism that does not support heterosexual relationships due to a belief that sexual disparities between men and women are unresolvable. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Redstockings, also known as Redstockings of the Womens Liberation Movement, is a radical feminist group that was most active during the 1970s. ... Radical feminism is a branch of feminism that views womens oppression (which radical feminists refer to as patriarchy) as a basic system of power upon which human relationships in society are arranged. ...


Separatist feminism is a form of radical feminism that does not support heterosexual relationships. Its proponents argue that the sexual disparities between men and women are unresolvable. Separatist feminists generally do not feel that men can make positive contributions to the feminist movement and that even well-intentioned men replicate patriarchal dynamics.[70] Author Marilyn Frye describes separatist feminism as "separation of various sorts or modes from men and from institutions, relationships, roles and activities that are male-defined, male-dominated, and operating for the benefit of males and the maintenance of male privilege — this separation being initiated or maintained, at will, by women".[71] Heterosexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by esthetic attraction, romantic love or sexual desire exclusively for members of the opposite sex or gender, contrasted with homosexuality and distinguished from bisexuality and asexuality. ... The sign of the headquarters of the National Association Opposed To Woman Suffrage Sexism is commonly considered to be discrimination and/or hatred towards people based on their sex rather than their individual merits, but can also refer to any and all systemic differentiations based on the sex of the... A patriarch (from Greek: patria means father; arché means rule, beginning, origin) is a male head of an extended family exercising autocratic authority, or, by extension, a member of the ruling class or government of a society controlled by senior men. ... Marilyn Frye is a philosophy professor and feminist theorist. ...


Black feminism

Angela Davis speaking at the University of Alberta on 28 March 2006
Angela Davis speaking at the University of Alberta on 28 March 2006
Main articles: Black feminism and Womanism

Black feminism argues that sexism, class oppression, and racism are inextricably bound together.[72] Forms of feminism that strive to overcome sexism and class oppression but ignore race can discriminate against many people, including women, through racial bias. The Combahee River Collective argued in 1974 that the liberation of black women entails freedom for all people, since it would require the end of racism, sexism, and class oppression.[73] One of the theories that evolved out of this movement was Alice Walker's Womanism. It emerged after the early feminist movements that were led specifically by white women who advocated social changes such as woman’s suffrage. These movements were largely white middle-class movements and ignored oppression based on racism and classism. Alice Walker and other Womanists pointed out that black women experienced a different and more intense kind of oppression from that of white women.[16] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1067x800, 929 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Angela Davis ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1067x800, 929 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Angela Davis ... Angela Yvonne Davis (born January 26, 1944 in Birmingham, Alabama) is an American socialist organizer, professor who was associated with the Black Panther Party (BPP) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The current incarnation of Black Feminism is a political/social movement that grew out of a sense of feelings of discontent with both the Civil Rights Movement and the Feminist Movement of the 1970s. ... The word womanism was adapted from Pulitzer Prize winning author, Alice Walker. ... The sign of the headquarters of the National Association Opposed To Woman Suffrage Sexism is commonly considered to be discrimination and/or hatred towards people based on their sex rather than their individual merits, but can also refer to any and all systemic differentiations based on the sex of the... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... Alice Malsenior Walker (born February 9, 1944) is an American author and feminist (although she prefers the word Womanist). ... The word womanism was adapted from Pulitzer Prize winning author, Alice Walker. ...


Angela Davis was one of the first people who articulated an argument centered around the intersection of race, gender, and class in her book, Women, Race, and Class.[74] Kimberle Crenshaw, a prominent feminist law theorist, gave the idea the name Intersectionality while discussing identity politics in her essay, "Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics and Violence Against Women of Color". Angela Yvonne Davis (born January 26, 1944 in Birmingham, Alabama) is an American socialist organizer, professor who was associated with the Black Panther Party (BPP) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). ... Intersectionality is a paradigmatic approach to sociology, cultural studies, and other social sciences, especially as applied to activism and social work. ... Identity politics is the political activity of various social movements for self-determination. ...


Postcolonial feminism and third-world feminism

For more details on this topic, see Postcolonial feminism.
Related terms:
Orientalism,
Postcolonialism,
Transnational feminism

Postcolonial feminists argue that oppression relating to the colonial experience, particularly racial, class, and ethnic oppression, has marginalized women in postcolonial societies. They challenge the assumption that gender oppression is the primary force of patriarchy. Postcolonial feminists object to portrayals of women of non-Western societies as passive and voiceless victims and the portrayal of Western women as modern, educated and empowered.[75] This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... For the book by Edward Said, see Orientalism (book). ... Postcolonialism (postcolonial theory, post-colonial theory) is a set of theories in philosophy, film, political sciences and literature that deal with the cultural legacy of colonial rule. ... Transnational Feminism is a contemporary paradigm. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ...


Postcolonial feminism emerged from the gendered history of colonialism: colonial powers often imposed Western norms on colonized regions. In the 1940s and 1950s, after the formation of the United Nations, former colonies were monitored by the West for what was considered "social progress". The status of women in the developing world has been monitored by organizations such as the United Nations and as a result traditional practices and roles taken up by women—sometimes seen as distasteful by Western standards—could be considered a form of rebellion against colonial oppression.[76] Postcolonial feminists today struggle to fight gender oppression within their own cultural models of society rather than through those imposed by the Western colonizers.[77] For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... UN redirects here. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...

Taslima Nasrin: author, physician, and feminist human rights activist
Taslima Nasrin: author, physician, and feminist human rights activist

Postcolonial feminism is critical of Western forms of feminism, notably radical feminism and liberal feminism and their universalization of female experience. Postcolonial feminists argue that cultures impacted by colonialism are often vastly different and should be treated as such. Colonial oppression may result in the glorification of pre-colonial culture, which, in cultures with traditions of power stratification along gender lines, could mean the acceptance of, or refusal to deal with, inherent issues of gender inequality.[78] Postcolonial feminists can be described as feminists who have reacted against both universalizing tendencies in Western feminist thought and a lack of attention to gender issues in mainstream postcolonial thought.[79] Image File history File links Taslima_nasrin. ... Image File history File links Taslima_nasrin. ... Taslima Nasrin Taslima Nasrin (Bengali: ), also spelled Taslima Nasreen and popularly refrerred to as Taslima, her first name rather than Nasreen (born 25 August 1962 in Mymensingh, Bangladesh) is a Bengali Bangladeshi author, feminist human rights activist and secular humanist exiled in Kolkata, India. ... Radical feminism is a branch of feminism that views womens oppression (which radical feminists refer to as patriarchy) as a basic system of power upon which human relationships in society are arranged. ... Liberal feminism is a form of feminism that argues that equality for women can be achieved through legal means and social reform, and that men as a group need not be challenged. ... Postcolonialism (postcolonial theory, post-colonial theory) is a set of theories in philosophy, film, political sciences and literature that deal with the cultural legacy of colonial rule. ...


Third-world feminism has been described as a group of feminist theories developed by feminists who acquired their views and took part in feminist politics in so-called third-world countries.[14] Although women from the third world have been engaged in the feminist movement, Chandra Talpade Mohanty and Sarojini Sahoo criticize Western feminism on the grounds that it is ethnocentric and does not take into account the unique experiences of women from third-world countries or the existence of feminisms indigenous to third-world countries. According to Chandra Talpade Mohanty , women in the third world feel that Western feminism bases its understanding of women on "internal racism, classism and homophobia".[15] According to Sarojini Sahoo , “sexual liberty is a major question for third wave feminist in Europe and it is an important question but for the Asian African feminist”.[citation needed] This discourse is strongly related to African feminism and postcolonial feminism. Its development is also associated with concepts such as black feminism, womanism,[16][80][81] "Africana womanism",[82] "motherism",[83] "Stiwanism",[84] "negofeminism",[85] chicana feminism, and "femalism". Although third world women have always been engaged in the feminism movement, they criticise it on the grounds that it is ethnocentric and does not take into account the unique experiences of women from third world countries or the existence of feminism(s) indigenous to third world countries. ... For other uses, see Third World (disambiguation). ... Chandra Talpade Mohanty is a prominent postcolonial feminist theorist. ... Dr. Sarojini Sahoo (born 1956) is an Indian feminist writer who has received the Orissa Sahitya Academy Award, 1993, the Jhankar Award, 1992, the Bhubaneswar Book Fair Award and the Prajatantra Award. ... Christopher Columbus 1492 voyage is seen by many Europeans as the discovery of the Americas, despite the fact that humans first reached it some 12,000 years prior. ... Indigenous knowledge is a term applied to knowledge held in specific cultures, world-wide. ... Chandra Talpade Mohanty is a prominent postcolonial feminist theorist. ... Dr. Sarojini Sahoo (born 1956) is an Indian feminist writer who has received the Orissa Sahitya Academy Award, 1993, the Jhankar Award, 1992, the Bhubaneswar Book Fair Award and the Prajatantra Award. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Chicana feminism, also called Xicanisma, is a group of social theories that analyze and historical, social, political, and economic roles and of Mexican American, Chicana, and Hispanic women in the United States, especially as they concern issues of gender. ...


Multiracial feminism

Multiracial feminism (also known as “women of color” feminism) offers a standpoint theory and analysis of the lives and experiences of women of color.[86] The theory emerged in the 1990s and was developed by Dr. Maxine Baca Zinn, a Chicana feminist and Dr. Bonnie Thornton Dill, a sociology expert on African American women and family.[87][88]


Socialist and Marxist feminisms

Clara Zetkin and Rosa Luxemburg, 1910
Clara Zetkin and Rosa Luxemburg, 1910

Socialist feminism connects the oppression of women to Marxist ideas about exploitation, oppression and labor. Socialist feminists see women as being held down as a result of their unequal standing in both the workplace and the domestic sphere.[89] Prostitution, domestic work, childcare, and marriage are all seen as ways in which women are exploited by a patriarchal system which devalues women and the substantial work that they do. Socialist feminists focus their energies on broad change that affects society as a whole, and not just on an individual basis. They see the need to work alongside not just men, but all other groups, as they see the oppression of women as a part of a larger pattern that affects everyone involved in the capitalist system.[90] Socialist feminism is a branch of feminism that focuses upon both the public and private spheres of a womans life and argues that liberation can only be achieved by working to end both the economic and cultural sources of womens oppression. ... Marxist feminism is a sub-type of feminist theory which focuses on the dismantling of capitalism as a way to liberate women. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Rosa Luxemburg Rosa Luxemburg (March 5, 1870 or 1871 – January 15, 1919, in Polish Róża Luksemburg) was a Jewish Polish-born Marxist political theorist, socialist philosopher, and revolutionary. ... Socialist feminism is a branch of feminism that focuses upon both the public and private spheres of a womans life and argues that liberation can only be achieved by working to end both the economic and cultural sources of womens oppression. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ...


Marx felt that when class oppression was overcome, gender oppression would vanish as well. According to socialist feminists, this view of gender oppression as a sub-class of class oppression is naive and much of the work of socialist feminists has gone towards separating gender phenomena from class phenomena.[91] Some contributors to socialist feminism have criticized these traditional Marxist ideas for being largely silent on gender oppression except to subsume it underneath broader class oppression.[92] Other socialist feminists, notably two long-lived American organizations Radical Women and the Freedom Socialist Party, point to the classic Marxist writings of Frederick Engels[93] and August Bebel[94] as a powerful explanation of the link between gender oppression and class exploitation. Radical Women is an international Trotskyist feminist group. ... Logo of Freedom Socialist newspaper: Voice of Revolutionary Feminism The Freedom Socialist Party is a socialist political party with a unique program of revolutionary feminism that emerged from a split in the United States Socialist Workers Party in 1966. ... Friedrich Engels Friedrich Engels (November 28, 1820 - August 5, 1895) was a German Socialist philosopher and the co-founder of modern Communist theory with Karl Marx. ... August Ferdinand Bebel (February 22, 1840 – March 18, 1913) was a German social democrat and one of the founders of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. ...


In the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century both Clara Zetkin and Eleanor Marx were against the demonization of men and supported a proletarian revolution that would overcome as many male-female inequalities as possible.[95] The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is called a proletarian. ...

See also: Gender roles in Eastern Europe after Communism

Anarcha-feminism

Main article: anarcha-feminism

Another offshoot of radical feminism is anarcha-feminism (also called anarchist feminism or anarcho-feminism), an ideology which combines feminist and anarchist beliefs. Anarcha-feminists view patriarchy as a manifestation of hierarchy, believing that the fight against patriarchy is an essential part of the class struggle and the anarchist struggle against the state.[96] Anarcha-feminists such as Susan Brown see the anarchist struggle as a necessary component of the feminist struggle. In Brown's words, "anarchism is a political philosophy that opposes all relationships of power, it is inherently feminist".[97] Recently, Wendy McElroy has defined a position (she describes it as "ifeminism" or "individualist feminism") that combines feminism with anarcho-capitalism or libertarianism, arguing that a pro-capitalist, anti-state position is compatible with an emphasis on equal rights and empowerment for women.[98] Individualist anarchist-feminism has grown from the US-based individualist anarchism movement.[99] Anarcha-feminism combines anarchism with feminism. ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... The South African Police Crush Another Demonstration by the Shack dwellers Movement Abahlali baseMjondolo, 28 September, 2007 Class struggle is the active expression of class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective. ... Wendy McElroy is a Canadian individualist anarchist and individualist feminist. ... Anarcho-capitalism refers to an anti-statist philosophy that embraces capitalism as one of its foundational principles. ... This article is about the political philosophy based on private property rights. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Individualist anarchism (also anarchist individualism, anarcho-individualism, individualistic anarchism) refers to any of several traditions that hold that individual conscience and the pursuit of self-interest should not be constrained by any collective body or public...


Individualist feminism

Individualist feminism is defined in opposition to, what writers such as Wendy McElroy and Christina Hoff Sommers term, political or gender feminism.[100][49] Some individualist feminists trace the movement's roots to the classical liberal tradition.[101] It is closely linked to the libertarian ideas of individuality and personal responsibility for both women and men. Some other feminists believe that it reinforces patriarchal systems because it does not view the rights or political interests of men and women as being in conflict nor does it rest upon class or gender analysis.[102] Individualist feminists attempt to change legal systems in order to eliminate class privileges and gender privileges and to ensure that individuals have equal rights, including an equal claim under the law to their own persons and property. Individualist feminism encourages women to take full responsibility for their own lives. It also opposes any government interference into the choices adults make with their own bodies, because it contends such interference creates a coercive hierarchy (such as patriarchy).[103][104] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Wendy McElroy is a Canadian individualist anarchist and individualist feminist. ... In politics, individualist anarchism is a variety of anarchism that emphasises the importance of the individual. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Gender feminism is a phrase coined by Christina Hoff Sommers in her book Who Stole Feminism (Simon & Schuster, 1994) to critique the mainstream of the contemporary feminist movement, which she felt was unduly gynocentric. ... See also Libertarianism and Libertarian Party Libertarian,is a term for person who has made a conscious and principled commitment, evidenced by a statement or Pledge, to forswear violating others rights and usually living in voluntary communities: thus in law no longer subject to government supervision. ...


Post-structural and postmodern feminism

For more details on this topic, see Postmodern feminism.

Post-structural feminism, also referred to as French feminism, uses the insights of various epistemological movements, including psychoanalysis, linguistics, political theory (Marxist and post-Marxist theory), race theory, literary theory, and other intellectual currents for feminist concerns.[105] Many post-structural feminists maintain that difference is one of the most powerful tools that females possess in their struggle with patriarchal domination, and that to equate the feminist movement only with equality is to deny women a plethora of options because equality is still defined from the masculine or patriarchal perspective.[105][106] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) Epistemology (from Greek επιστήμη - episteme, knowledge + λόγος, logos) or theory of knowledge is a branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...

Judith Butler at a lecture at the University of Hamburg.
Judith Butler at a lecture at the University of Hamburg.

Postmodern feminism is an approach to feminist theory that incorporates postmodern and post-structuralist theory. The largest departure from other branches of feminism, is the argument that gender is constructed through language.[107] The most notable proponent of this argument is Judith Butler. In her 1990 book, Gender Trouble, she draws on and criticizes the work of Simone de Beauvoir, Michel Foucault and Jacques Lacan. Butler criticizes the distinction drawn by previous feminisms between biological sex and socially constructed gender. She says that this does not allow for a sufficient criticism of essentialism. For Butler "woman" is a debatable category, complicated by class, ethnicity, sexuality, and other facets of identity. She suggests that gender is performative. This argument leads to the conclusion that there is no single cause for women's subordination and no single approach towards dealing with the issue.[20] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 465 pixelsFull resolution (1638 × 952 pixel, file size: 888 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Judith Butler at a lecture at the University of Hamburg. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 465 pixelsFull resolution (1638 × 952 pixel, file size: 888 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Judith Butler at a lecture at the University of Hamburg. ... The University of Hamburg was founded on the 1 April 1919 by Wilhelm Stern and others. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, or philosophical, ground. ... Postmodern philosophy is an eclectic and elusive movement characterized by its criticism of Western philosophy. ... Post-structuralism encompasses the intellectual developments of continental philosophers and critical theorists that wrote with tendencies of twentieth-century French philosophy. ... A social construction, social construct or social concept is an institutionalized entity or artifact in a social system invented or constructed by participants in a particular culture or society that exists because people agree to behave as if it exists, or agree to follow certain conventional rules, or behave as... Image:J Butler. ... Gender Trouble is a 1990 book by Judith Butler that is highly influential in academic feminism and queer theory. ... La Beauvoir redirects here; also see: Beauvoir (disambiguation). ... Michel Foucault (pronounced ) (15 October 1926–25 June 1984) was a French philosopher, historian, critic and sociologist. ... Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (French pronounced ) (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor, who made prominent contributions to the psychoanalytic movement. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In philosophy, essentialism is the view, that, for any specific kind of entity it is at least theoretically possible to specify a finite list of characteristics —all of which any entity must have to belong to the group defined. ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... Gender Performativity is a term created by feminist philosopher Judith Butler in her 1990 book Gender Trouble. ...

Donna Haraway, author of A Cyborg Manifesto, with her dog Cayenne
Donna Haraway, author of A Cyborg Manifesto, with her dog Cayenne

In A Cyborg Manifesto Donna Haraway criticizes traditional notions of feminism, particularly its emphasis on identity, rather than affinity. She uses the metaphor of a cyborg in order to construct a postmodern feminism that moves beyond dualisms and the limitations of traditional gender, feminism, and politics.[108] Haraway's cyborg is an attempt to break away from Oedipal narratives and Christian origin-myths like Genesis. She writes: "The cyborg does not dream of community on the model of the organic family, this time without the oedipal project. The cyborg would not recognize the Garden of Eden; it is not made of mud and cannot dream of returning to dust."[108] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Donna Haraway, born in 1944 in Denver, Colorado, is currently a professor and former chair of the History of Consciousness Program at the University of California, Santa Cruz, United States. ... For other uses, see Cyborg (disambiguation). ... The term dualism is the state of being dual, or having a twofold division. ... The Oedipus complex is a concept developed by Sigmund Freud, who was inspired by Carl Jung (he described the concept and coined the term Complex), to explain the maturation of the infant through identification with the father and desire for the mother. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ...


A major branch in postmodern feminist thought has emerged from the contemporary psychoanalytic French feminism. Other postmodern feminist works highlight stereotypical gender roles, only to portray them as parodies of the original beliefs. The history of feminism is not important in these writings—only what is going to be done about it. The history is dismissed and used to depict how ridiculous past beliefs were. Modern feminist theory has been extensively criticized as being predominantly, though not exclusively, associated with Western middle class academia. Mainstream feminism has been criticized as being too narrowly focused and inattentive to related issues of race and class.[109] French feminism (which is a phrase mostly used in English-speaking countries) refers to the work of a group of feminists in France from the 1970s to the early 1990s. ... A bagpiper in military uniform. ... Academia is a collective term for the scientific and cultural community engaged in higher education and research, taken as a whole. ...

See also: French feminism, Deconstruction, Poststructuralism, and Postmodernism

French feminism (which is a phrase mostly used in English-speaking countries) refers to the work of a group of feminists in France from the 1970s to the early 1990s. ... Deconstruction is a term in contemporary philosophy, literary criticism, and the social sciences, denoting a process by which the texts and languages of Western philosophy (in particular) appear to shift and complicate in meaning when read in light of the assumptions and absences they reveal within themselves. ... Post-structuralism is a body of work that followed in the wake of structuralism, and sought to understand the Western world as a network of structures, as in structuralism, but in which such structures are ordered primarily by local, shifting differences (as in deconstruction) rather than grand binary oppositions and... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated Po-mo[1]) is a term originating in architecture, literally after the modern, denoting a style that is more ornamental than modernism, and which borrows from previous architectural styles, often in a playful or ironic fashion. ...

Ecofeminism

Janet Biehl is one of the premier authors on social ecology
Janet Biehl is one of the premier authors on social ecology
Main article: Ecofeminism

Ecofeminism links ecology with feminism. Ecofeminists see the domination of women as stemming from the same ideologies that bring about the domination of the environment. Patriarchal systems, where men own and control the land, are seen as responsible for the oppression of women and destruction of the natural environment. Since the men in power control the land, they are able to exploit it for their own profit and success. In this same situation, women are exploited by men in power for their own profit, success, and pleasure. Women and the environment are both exploited as passive pawns in the race to domination. Those people in power are able to take advantage of them distinctly because they are seen as passive and rather helpless. Ecofeminism connects the exploitation and domination of women with that of the environment. As a way of repairing social and ecological injustices, ecofeminists feel that women must work towards creating a healthy environment and ending the destruction of the lands that most women rely on to provide for their families.[110] Image File history File links Biehl. ... Image File history File links Biehl. ... Ecofeminism is a minor social and political movement which unites environmentalism and feminism[1], with some currents linking deep ecology and feminism. ... Ecofeminism is a minor social and political movement which unites environmentalism and feminism[1], with some currents linking deep ecology and feminism. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ...


Ecofeminism argues that there is a connection between women and nature that comes from their shared history of oppression by a patriarchal Western society. Vandana Shiva explains how women's special connection to the environment through their daily interactions with it have been ignored. She says that "women in subsistence economies, producing and reproducing wealth in partnership with nature, have been experts in their own right of holistic and ecological knowledge of nature’s processes. But these alternative modes of knowing, which are oriented to the social benefits and sustenance needs are not recognized by the capitalist reductionist paradigm, because it fails to perceive the interconnectedness of nature, or the connection of women’s lives, work and knowledge with the creation of wealth.”[111] In economics, a capitalist is someone who owns capital, presumably within the economic system of capitalism. ...


However, feminist and social ecologist Janet Biehl has criticized ecofeminism for focusing too much on a mystical connection between women and nature and not enough on the actual conditions of women.[112] Social ecology is, in the words of its leading exponents, a coherent radical critique of current social, political, and anti-ecological trends as well as a reconstructive, ecological, communitarian, and ethical approach to society. Social Ecology is a radical view of ecology and of social/political systems. ... Janet Biehl (1953 - ) is one of the premier authors on social ecology. ...

See also: Environmentalism

The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ...

Feminism and society

For more details on this topic, see Feminist movement.
Woman Suffrage Headquarters, Cleveland, 1912
Woman Suffrage Headquarters, Cleveland, 1912

The feminist movement has effected change in Western society, including women's suffrage; the right to initiate divorce proceedings and "no fault" divorce; and the right of women to make individual decisions regarding pregnancy (including access to contraceptives and abortion); and the right to own property.[13][12] The feminist movement (also known as the Womens Movement or Womens Liberation) is a series of campaigns on issues such as reproductive rights (including abortion), domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, sexual harassment, and sexual violence. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 747 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1280 × 1028 pixel, file size: 126 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Woman suffrage headquarters in Upper Euclid Avenue, Cleveland--A. (at extreme right) is Miss Belle Sherwin, President, National League of Women Voters; B. is... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 747 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1280 × 1028 pixel, file size: 126 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Woman suffrage headquarters in Upper Euclid Avenue, Cleveland--A. (at extreme right) is Miss Belle Sherwin, President, National League of Women Voters; B. is... The feminist movement (also known as the Womens Movement or Womens Liberation) is a series of campaigns on issues such as reproductive rights (including abortion), domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, sexual harassment, and sexual violence. ... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... Birth control is the practice of preventing or reducing the probability of pregnancy without abstaining from sexual intercourse; the term is also sometimes used to include abortion, the ending of an unwanted pregnancy, or abstinence. ...


Civil rights

Feminism has effected many changes in Western society, including women's suffrage, broad employment for women at more equitable wages, the right to initiate divorce proceedings and the introduction of "no fault" divorce, the right to obtain contraception and safe abortions, and access to university education. The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... No-fault divorce is the dissolution of a marriage, upon petition to the court by either party, without the requirement that the petitioner show fault on the part of the other party. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ...


The United Nations Human Development Report 2004 estimated that when both paid employment and unpaid household tasks are accounted for, on average women work more than men. In rural areas of selected developing countries women performed an average of 20% more work than men, or an additional 102 minutes per day. In the OECD countries surveyed, on average women performed 5% more work than men, or 20 minutes per day.[113] At the UN's Pan Pacific Southeast Asia Women's Association 21st International Conference in 2001 it was stated that "in the world as a whole, women comprise 51% of the population, do 66% of the work, receive 10% of the income and own less than one percent of the property".[114] The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ...


Language

For more details on this topic, see Gender-neutral language in English.

Gender-neutral language is a description of language usages which are aimed at minimizing assumptions regarding the biological sex of human referents. The advocacy of gender-neutral language reflects, at least, two different agendas: one aims to clarify the inclusion of both sexes or genders (gender-inclusive language); the other proposes that gender, as a category, is rarely worth marking in language (gender-neutral language). Gender-neutral language is sometimes described as non-sexist language by advocates and politically-correct language by opponents.[115] Gender-neutral language is a description of language usages which are aimed at minimizing assumptions regarding the biological sex of human referents. ... Word Usage is how a word, phrase, or concept is used in a language. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ...


Heterosexual relationships

The increased entry of women into the workplace beginning in the twentieth century has affected gender roles and the division of labor within households. Sociologist Arlie Russell Hochschild in The Second Shift and The Time Bind presents evidence that in two-career couples, men and women, on average, spend about equal amounts of time working, but women still spend more time on housework.[116][117] Division of labour is the breakdown of labour into specific, circumscribed tasks for maximum efficiency of output in the context of manufacturing. ... Arlie Russell Hochschild is professor of sociology at the University of California-Berkeley. ...


Feminist criticisms of men's contributions to child care and domestic labor in the Western middle class are typically centered around the idea that it is unfair for women to be expected to perform more than half of a household's domestic work and child care when both members of the relationship also work outside the home. Several studies provide statistical evidence that the financial income of married men does not affect their rate of attending to household duties.[118][119]


In Dubious Conceptions, Kristin Luker discusses the effect of feminism on teenage women's choices to bear children, both in and out of wedlock. She says that as childbearing out of wedlock has become more socially acceptable, young women, especially poor young women, while not bearing children at a higher rate than in the 1950s, now see less of a reason to get married before having a child. Her explanation for this is that the economic prospects for poor men are slim, hence poor women have a low chance of finding a husband who will be able to provide reliable financial support.[120] Kristin Luker is a professor of sociology and a professor in the Jurisprudence and Social Policy Program at the Boalt Hall School of Law, at the University of California, Berkeley. ...


Although research suggests that to an extent, both women and men perceive feminism to be in conflict with romance, studies of undergraduates and older adults have shown that feminism has positive impacts on relationship health for women and sexual satisfaction for men, and found no support for negative stereotypes of feminists.[121]


Religion

For more details on this topic, see Feminist theology.
See also: God and gender
Related terms:
Christian feminism,
Difference feminism,
New feminism,
Islamic feminism,
Jewish feminism
Wiccan feminism

Feminist theology is a movement that reconsiders the traditions, practices, scriptures, and theologies of religions from a feminist perspective. Some of the goals of feminist theology include increasing the role of women among the clergy and religious authorities, reinterpreting male-dominated imagery and language about God, determining women's place in relation to career and motherhood, and studying images of women in the religion's sacred texts.[122] Feminist theology is a movement, generally in the Western religious traditions (mostly Christianity and Judaism), to reconsider the traditions, practices, scriptures, and theologies of those religions from a feminist perspective. ... This entry discusses how the Abrahamic faiths of Judaism, Christianity and Islam deal with God and gender. ... Christian feminism, a branch of feminist theology, seeks to interpret and understand Christianity in the scope of the equality of men and women morally, socially, spiritually and in leadership. ... Difference feminism is a philosophy that stresses that men and women are ontologically different versions of the human being. ... New feminism is a predominantly Catholic philosophy, and is a form of difference feminism. ... A symbol of Islamic feminism, incorporating the Crescent Moon and Star of Islam into the female symbol Islamic feminism is a form of feminism that aims for the full equality of all Muslims, regardless of sex or gender, in public and private life. ... Jewish feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious, legal, and social status of women within Judaism and to open up new opportunities for religious experience and leadership for Jewish women. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Feminist theology is a movement, generally in the Western religious traditions (mostly Christianity and Judaism), to reconsider the traditions, practices, scriptures, and theologies of those religions from a feminist perspective. ...


Christian feminism is a branch of feminist theology which seeks to interpret and understand Christianity in light of the equality of women and men. Because this equality has been historically ignored, Christian feminists believe their contributions are necessary for a complete understanding of Christianity. While there is no standard set of beliefs among Christian feminists, most agree that God does not discriminate on the basis of biologically-determined characteristics such as sex. Their major issues are the ordination of women, male dominance in Christian marriage, and claims of moral deficiency and inferiority of abilities of women compared to men. They also are concerned with the balance of parenting between mothers and fathers and the overall treatment of women in the church.[123][124] Christian feminism, a branch of feminist theology, seeks to interpret and understand Christianity in the scope of the equality of men and women morally, socially, spiritually and in leadership. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... In general religious use, ordination is the process by which one is consecrated (set apart for the undivided administration of various religious rites). ...


Islamic feminism is concerned with the role of women in Islam and aims for the full equality of all Muslims, regardless of gender, in public and private life. Islamic feminists advocate women's rights, gender equality, and social justice grounded in an Islamic framework. Although rooted in Islam, the movement's pioneers have also utilized secular and Western feminist discourses and recognize the role of Islamic feminism as part of an integrated global feminist movement.[125] Advocates of the movement seek to highlight the deeply rooted teachings of equality in the Quran and encourage a questioning of the patriarchal interpretation of Islamic teaching through the Quran, hadith (sayings of Muhammad), and sharia (law) towards the creation of a more equal and just society.[126] A symbol of Islamic feminism, incorporating the Crescent Moon and Star of Islam into the female symbol Islamic feminism is a form of feminism that aims for the full equality of all Muslims, regardless of sex or gender, in public and private life. ... The complex relationship between women and Islam is defined by both Islamic texts and the history and culture of the Muslim world. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ...


Jewish feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious, legal, and social status of women within Judaism and to open up new opportunities for religious experience and leadership for Jewish women. Feminist movements, with varying approaches and successes, have opened up within all major branches of Judaism. In its modern form, the movement can be traced to the early 1970s in the United States. According to Judith Plaskow, who has focused on feminism in Reform Judaism, the main issues for early Jewish feminists in these movements were the exclusion from the all-male prayer group or minyan, the exemption from positive time-bound mitzvot, and women's inability to function as witnesses and to initiate divorce.[127] Jewish feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious, legal, and social status of women within Judaism and to open up new opportunities for religious experience and leadership for Jewish women. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Judith Plaskow Judith Plaskow is a Jewish feminist theologian and a professor of religious studies at Manhattan College. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... A minyan (Hebrew: plural minyanim) is traditionally a quorum of ten or more adult (over the age of Bar Mitzvah) male Jews for the purpose of communal prayer; a minyan is often held within a synagogue, but may be (and often is) held elsewhere. ... This article is about commandments in Judaism. ... Judaism considers marriage to be the ideal state of existence; a man without a wife, or a woman without a husband, are considered incomplete. ...


The Dianic Wicca or Wiccan eminism is a female focused, Goddess-centered Wiccan sect; also known as a feminist religion that teaches witchcraft as every woman’s right. It is also one sect of the many practiced in Wicca.[128] This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Wicca (disambiguation). ...


Feminism and culture

See also: Women's cinema and Women's music

The term womens cinema usually refers to the work of women film directors. ... Womens music (or womyns music, wimmins music) is the music by women, for women, and about women (Garofalo 1992:242). ...

Women's writing

For more details on Women's literature written in English, see Women's writing in English.

Women's writing came to exist as a separate category of scholarly interest relatively recently. In the West, second-wave feminism prompted a general reevaluation of women's historical contributions, and various academic sub-disciplines, such as women's history and women's writing, developed in response to the belief that women's lives and contributions have been underrepresented as areas of scholarly interest.[129] Virginia Balisn et al. characterize the growth in interest since 1970 in women's writing as "powerful".[129] Much of this early period of feminist literary scholarship was given over to the rediscovery and reclamation of texts written by women. Studies such as Dale Spender's Mothers of the Novel (1986) and Jane Spencer's The Rise of the Woman Novelist (1986) were ground-breaking in their insistence that women have always been writing. Commensurate with this growth in scholarly interest, various presses began the task of reissuing long-out-of-print texts. Virago Press began to publish its large list of nineteenth and early-twentieth-century novels in 1975 and became one of the first commercial presses to join in the project of reclamation. In the 1980s Pandora Press, responsible for publishing Spender's study, issued a companion line of eighteenth-century novels written by women.[130] More recently, Broadview Press has begun to issue eighteenth- and nineteenth-century works, many hitherto out of print and the University of Kentucky has a series of republications of early women's novels. There has been commensurate growth in the area of biographical dictionaries of women writers due to a perception, according to one editor, that "most of our women are not represented in the 'standard' reference books in the field".[129] (Adeline) Virginia Woolf (née Stephen; 25 January 1882 – 28 March 1941) was an English novelist and essayist regarded as one of the foremost modernist literary figures of the twentieth century. ... Mary Wollstonecraft, 1759-1797 Womens writing as a discrete area of literary studies is based on the notion that the experience of women, historically, has been shaped by their gender, and so women writers by definition are a group worthy of separate study. ... Womens history is a term that refers to information about the past in regard to the female human being. ... There are a large and ever growing number of biographical dictionaries of women writers. ... For other uses of M, see M (disambiguation). ...


Feminist science fiction

In the 1960s the genre of science fiction combined its sensationalism with political and technological critiques of society. With the advent of feminism, questioning women’s roles became fair game to this "subversive, mind expanding genre".[131] Two early texts are Ursula K. Le Guin's The Left Hand of Darkness (1969) and Joanna Russ' The Female Man (1970). They serve to highlight the socially constructed nature of gender roles by creating utopias that do away with gender.[132] Both authors were also pioneers in feminist criticism of science fiction in the 1960s and 70s, in essays collected in The Language of the Night (Le Guin, 1979) and How To Suppress Women's Writing (Russ, 1983). Other major works of feminist science fiction have been The Handmaid's Tale by Margaret Atwood[133] and Kindred by Octavia Butler. LeGuins Left Hand Of Darkness Feminist science fiction is a subgenre of science fiction that focuses on the examination of womens roles in society. ... Ursula Kroeber Le Guin [ˌɜɹsÉ™lÉ™ ËŒkɹobɜɹ ləˈgWɪn] (born October 21, 1929) is an American author. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Joanna Russ (born February 22, 1937), American writer and feminist, is the author of a number of works of Science Fiction (among other types of writing), including The Female Man, an aclaimed SF novel and pioneering meditation on how differing societies might produce very different versions of the same person... The Female Man is a feminist science fiction novel by Joanna Russ. ... For other uses, see Utopia (disambiguation). ... The Handmaids Tale is a dystopian novel by Canadian author Margaret Atwood, first published by McClelland and Stewart in 1985. ... Margaret Eleanor Atwood, OC (born November 18, 1939) is a Canadian writer. ... This article is about the 1976 novel. ... Octavia Estelle Butler (June 22, 1947 — February 24, 2006) was an American science fiction writer, one of very few African-American women in the field. ...


Riot grrrl movement

Kathleen Hanna was the lead singer of Bikini Kill, a riot grrrl band formed in 1990.
Kathleen Hanna was the lead singer of Bikini Kill, a riot grrrl band formed in 1990.
Main article: Riot Grrrl

Riot grrrl (or riot grrl) is an underground feminist punk movement that started in the 1990s and is often associated with third-wave feminism (it is sometimes seen as its starting point). It was Grounded in the DIY philosophy of punk values, riot grrls took an anti-corporate stance of self-sufficiency and self-reliance.[134] Riot grrrl's emphasis on universal female identity and separatism often appears more closely allied with second-wave feminism than with the third wave.[135] Riot grrrl bands often address issues such as rape, domestic abuse, sexuality, and female empowerment. Some bands associated with the movement are: Bikini Kill, Bratmobile, Excuse 17, Free Kitten, Heavens To Betsy, Huggy Bear, L7, and Team Dresch. In addition to a music scene, riot grrrl is also a subculture; zines, the DIY ethic, art, political action, and activism are part of the movement. Riot grrrls hold meetings, start chapters, and support and organize women in music.[136] Image File history File links Khanna. ... Image File history File links Khanna. ... Kathleen Hanna (b. ... Bikini Kill was a punk band of the Riot Grrrl movement formed in Olympia, Washington in October of 1990. ... Riot grrrl (or riot grrl) is an indie/punk feminist movement that reached its height in the 1990s but continues to exert influence over alternative cultures. ... Riot grrrl (or riot grrl) is an indie/punk feminist movement that reached its height in the 1990s but continues to exert influence over alternative cultures. ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Third-wave feminism is a term identified with several diverse strains of feminist activity and study beginning in the early 1990s. ... The DIY ethic (do it yourself ethic) refers to the ethic of being self-reliant and doing things yourself as opposed to paying others to do it. ... Punk ideologies are a group of varied social and political beliefs associated with the punk subculture. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. ... Self-Reliance is an essay by Ralph Waldo Emerson. ... Bikini Kill was a punk band of the Riot Grrrl movement formed in Olympia, Washington in October of 1990. ... Bratmobile was an American punk band. ... Excuse 17 is a punk rock queercore band from Olympia, Washington that performed and recorded in the mid 1990s. ... Free Kitten was a 1990s collaboration between Sonic Youths Kim Gordon and Pussy Galores Julie Cafritz. ... This article is about the British riot grrrl band. ... L7 was an all-female grunge band that was active between 1985 and 2000. ... Team Dresch are a queercore band who performed and recorded in the 1990s and made a significant impression on that movement, as well as on the independent music scene. ... In sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a set of people with a set of behaviors and beliefs, culture, which could be distinct or hidden, that differentiate them from the larger culture to which they belong. ... This article or section should be merged with Zine This article needs cleanup. ... See also: DIY Network, a cable TV network. ...


The riot grrrl movement sprang out of Olympia, Washington and Washington, D.C. in the early 1990s. It sought to give women the power to control their voices and artistic expressions (Rowe-Finkbeiner 2004:85). Riot grrrls took a growling double or triple r, placing it in the word girl as a way to take back the derogatory use of the term .[134] Coordinates: , Country State County Thurston Incorporated January 28, 1859 Government  - Mayor Mark Foutch Area  - Total 18. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


The Riot Grrrl’s links to social and political issues are where the beginning rumblings of the third-wave feminism can be seen. The music and zine writings produced are strong examples of "cultural politics in action, with strong women giving voice to important social issues though an empowered, a female oriented community, many people link the emergence of the third-wave feminism to this time".[134] The movement encouraged and made "adolescent girls’ standpoints central," allowing them to express themselves fully.[137]


Feminism and pornography

For more details on this topic, see Feminist sex wars.

The "Feminist Sex Wars" is a term for the acrimonious debates within the feminist movement in the late 1970s through the 1980s around the issues of feminism. sexuality, sexual representation, pornography, sadomasochism, the role of transwomen in the lesbian community, and other sexual issues. The debate pitted anti-pornography feminism against sex-positive feminism, and parts of the feminist movement were deeply divided by these debates.[138][139][140][141][142] The Feminist Sex Wars, Lesbian Sex Wars, or simply the Sex Wars or Porn Wars, refers to the acrimonious debates within the feminist movement and lesbian community in the late 1970s through the 1980s around the issues of pornography, sex work, sadomasochism, gender identity, sex roles, and other sexual issues. ... Porn redirects here. ... Flogging demonstration at Folsom Street Fair 2004. ... Transwomen or trans women are transsexual or transgendered people who were assigned male sex at birth (or, in some cases of intersexuality, later) and feel that this is not an accurate or complete description of themselves. ... A sign outside an Adult store. ... Sex-positive feminism, sometimes known as pro-sex feminism, sex-radical feminism, or sexually liberal feminism, is a movement that was formed in the early 1980s. ...


Anti-pornography feminism

For more details on this topic, see Anti-pornography#Feminist objections.

Anti-pornography feminists, such as Catharine MacKinnon, Andrea Dworkin, Robin Morgan and Dorchen Leidholdt, to put pornography at the center of a feminist explanation of women's oppression.[143] A sign outside an Adult store. ... Catherine MacKinnon Catharine Alice MacKinnon (born 7 October 1946) is an American feminist, scholar, lawyer, teacher, and activist. ... Andrea Dworkin speaking to a federal commission on pornography in New York in January 1986 Andrea Rita Dworkin (September 26, 1946 – April 9, 2005) was an American radical feminist and writer best known for her criticism of pornography, which she linked with rape and other forms of violence against women. ... Robin Morgan (born January 3, 1941) is an American radical feminist activist, writer, and editor of Sisterhood is Powerful and . ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Porn redirects here. ...


Some feminists, such as Diana Russell, Andrea Dworkin, Catharine MacKinnon, Susan Brownmiller, Dorchen Leidholdt, Ariel Levy, and Robin Morgan, argue that pornography is degrading to women, and complicit in violence against women both in its production (where, they charge, abuse and exploitation of women performing in pornography is rampant) and in its consumption (where, they charge, pornography eroticizes the domination, humiliation, and coercion of women, and reinforces sexual and cultural attitudes that are complicit in rape and sexual harassment).[144] Diana E. H. Russell is a radical feminist writer and activist. ... Andrea Dworkin speaking to a federal commission on pornography in New York in January 1986 Andrea Rita Dworkin (September 26, 1946 – April 9, 2005) was an American radical feminist and writer best known for her criticism of pornography, which she linked with rape and other forms of violence against women. ... Catherine MacKinnon Catharine Alice MacKinnon (born 7 October 1946) is an American feminist, scholar, lawyer, teacher, and activist. ... Susan Brownmiller (b. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ariel Levy is a contributing editor at New York magazine and author of the book Female Chauvinist Pigs: Women and the Rise of Raunch Culture. ... Robin Morgan (born January 3, 1941) is an American radical feminist activist, writer, and editor of Sisterhood is Powerful and . ... Sexual harassment is harassment or unwelcome attention of a sexual nature. ...


Beginning in the late 1970s, anti-pornography radical feminists formed organizations such as Women Against Pornography that provided educational events, including slide-shows, speeches, and guided tours of the sex industry in Times Square, in order to raise awareness of the content of pornography and the sexual subculture in pornography shops and live sex shows.[145] Andrea Dworkin and Robin Morgan began articulating a vehemently anti-porn stance based in radical feminism beginning in 1974, and anti-porn feminist groups, such as Women Against Pornography and similar organizations, became highly active in various US cities during the late 1970s.[144] Radical feminism is a branch of feminism that views womens oppression (which radical feminists refer to as patriarchy) as a basic system of power upon which human relationships in society are arranged. ... Women Against Pornography (WAP) was a radical feminist activist group based out of New York City and an influential force in the anti-pornography movement of the late 1970s and 1980s. ... For other uses, see Times Square (disambiguation). ...

See also: Women Against Pornography and Women Against Violence in Pornography and Media

Women Against Pornography (WAP) was a radical feminist activist group based out of New York City and an influential force in the anti-pornography movement of the late 1970s and 1980s. ... Women Against Violence in Pornography and Media (WAVPM) was a radical feminist activist group based out of San Francisco and an influential force in the anti-pornography movement of the late 1970s and 1980s. ...

Sex-positive feminism

Main article: Sex-positive feminism

Sex-positive feminism is a movement that was formed in order to address issues of women's sexual pleasure, freedom of expression, sex work, and inclusive gender identities. Ellen Willis' 1981 essay, "Lust Horizons: Is the Women's Movement Pro-Sex?" is the origin of the term, "pro-sex feminism"; the more commonly-used variant, "sex positive feminism" arose soon after.[146] Sex-positive feminism, sometimes known as pro-sex feminism, sex-radical feminism, or sexually liberal feminism, is a movement that was formed in the early 1980s. ... A sex worker is anyone who earns their living by providing sexual services. ... Ellen Willis is best known as the first pop music critic for the New Yorker, working there during the 1960s. ...


Although some sex-positive feminists, such as Betty Dodson, were active in the early 1970s, much of sex-positive feminism largely began in the late 1970s and 1980s as a response to the increasing emphasis in radical feminism on anti-pornography activism, and to the ideas of anti-pornography feminists like Robin Morgan, Andrea Dworkin, and Catharine MacKinnon, who argued that sexual expressions such as pornography, sadomasochism, transexualism, and other "male" modes of sexuality are a central cause of women's oppression.[10][98] Betty Dodson, Ph. ... Robin Morgan (born January 3, 1941) is an American radical feminist activist, writer, and editor of Sisterhood is Powerful and . ... Andrea Dworkin speaking to a federal commission on pornography in New York in January 1986 Andrea Rita Dworkin (September 26, 1946 – April 9, 2005) was an American radical feminist and writer best known for her criticism of pornography, which she linked with rape and other forms of violence against women. ... Catherine MacKinnon Catharine Alice MacKinnon (born 7 October 1946) is an American feminist, scholar, lawyer, teacher, and activist. ... Porn redirects here. ... Flogging demonstration at Folsom Street Fair 2004. ... A transsexual (sometimes transexual) person establishes a permanent identity with the opposite gender to their assigned (usually at birth) sex. ...


Sex-positive feminists are also strongly opposed to radical feminist calls for legislation against pornography, a strategy they decried as censorship, and something that could, they argued, be used by social conservatives to censor the sexual expression of women, gay people, and other sexual minorities. The initial period of intense debate and acrimony between sex-positive and anti-pornography feminists during the early 1980s is often referred to as the Feminist Sex Wars. Other sex-positive feminists became involved not in opposition to other feminists, but in direct response to what they saw as patriarchal control of sexuality.[citation needed] For other uses, see Censor. ... The Feminist Sex Wars, Lesbian Sex Wars, or simply the Sex Wars or Porn Wars, refers to the acrimonious debates within the feminist movement and lesbian community in the late 1970s through the 1980s around the issues of pornography, sex work, sadomasochism, gender identity, sex roles, and other sexual issues. ...

See also: Samois

SAMOIS was a lesbian-feminist BDSM organization based in San Francisco and founded in 1978, taking its name from the estate of Anne-Marie, a lesbian dominatrix in Story of O who pierces and brands O. Samois-sur-Seine is a village found south of Paris, near Fontainebleau. ...

Feminism and political movements

Feminism and socialism

Main article: The left and feminism

Some early twentieth century feminists allied with socialism. In 1907 there was an International Conference of Socialist Women in Stuttgart where suffrage was described as a tool of class struggle. Clara Zetkin of the Social Democratic Party of Germany called for women's suffrage to build a "socialist order, the only one that allows for a radical solution to the women's question".[147][148][149] Early feminists and advocates of women’s rights were closely connected to positions that were politically radical and of the left in their time. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... For other uses, see Stuttgart (disambiguation). ... Stamp Clara Zetkin, maiden name Eissner (5 July 1857 - 20 June 1933) was an influential socialist German politician and a fighter for womens rights. ... SPD redirects here. ...


In Britain, the women's movement was allied with the Labour party. In America, Betty Friedan emerged from a radical background to take command of the organized movement. Radical Women, founded in 1967 in Seattle is the oldest (and still active) socialist feminist organization in the U.S.[150] During the [[Spanish Civil War], Dolores Ibárruri (La Pasionaria) led the Communist Party of Spain. Although she supported equal rights for women, she opposed women fighting on the front and clashed with the anarcho-feminist Mujeres Libres.[151] The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Betty Friedan, 1960 Betty Friedan (February 4, 1921 – February 4, 2006) was an American feminist, activist and writer, best known for starting what is commonly known as the Second Wave of feminism through the writing of her book The Feminine Mystique. ... Radical Women is an international Trotskyist feminist group. ... Dolores Ibárruri Gómez, also known as La Pasionaria (the passion flower) (November 12, 1895–December 9, 1989) was a Spanish political leader. ... PCE symbol The Communist Party of Spain (Partido Comunista de España or PCE) is the third largest political party of Spain. ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... Mujeres Libres (English:Free Women) was an anarchist womens organization in Spain that aimed to empower working class women. ...


Revolutions in Latin America brought changes in women's status in countries such as Nicaragua where Feminist ideology during the Sandinista Revolution was largely responsible for improvements in the quality of life for women but fell short of achieving a social and ideological change.[152] VIoleta Chamorro- President elect in 1990. ...

See also: Post-Communism Gender Roles in Eastern Europe and Role of women in Nicaraguan Revolution

Hungary Poland Serbia Gender roles are complex in any society, but after the fall of the communist state many Eastern European men and woman felt as though the roles they had played for years were suddenly changing. ... It has been suggested that Women and the Armed Struggle in Nicaragua be merged into this article or section. ...

Feminism and fascism

Scholars have argued that Nazi Germany and the other fascist states of the 1930s and 1940s illustrates the disastrous consequences for society of a state ideology that, in glorifying women, becomes antifeminist,[153] In Germany after the political shift of 1933, there was a rapid dissolution of the political rights and economic opportunities that feminists had fought for during the prewar period and to some extent during the 1920s. In Franco's Spain, the right wing Catholic conservatives undid the work of feminists during the Republic. Fascist society was hierarchical with an emphasis and idealization of virility, with women maintaining a largely subordinate position to men.[149] Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ...


Feminism and science

Feminists has been critical of traditional scientific discourse, arguing that the field has historically been biased towards a masculine perspective.[11] Evelyn Fox Keller argues that the rhetoric of science reflects a masculine perspective, and she questions the idea of scientific objectivity. Primatologist Sarah Blaffer Hrdy notes the prevalence of masculine-coined stereotypes and theories, such as the non-sexual female, despite "the accumulation of abundant openly available evidence contradicting it".[154] Some natural and social scientists have examined feminist ideas using scientific methods. Evelyn Fox Keller (*1936) is an American physicist, author and feminist and is currently a Professor of History and Philosophy of Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Primatology is the study of primates. ... Sarah Blaffer Hrdy (note: Hrdy is Czech for proud) (born July 11, 1946) is a U.S. anthropologist who has made several major contributions to evolutionary psychology and sociobiology. ...


Feminism and the biology of gender

Related terms:
Biology of gender

Modern feminist science is based on the view that many differences between the sexes are based on socially constructed gender identities rather than on biological sex differences. For example, Anne Fausto-Sterling's book Myths of Gender explores the assumptions embodied in scientific research that purports to support a biologically essentialist view of gender.[155] However, in The Female Brain, Louann Brizendine argues that brain differences between the sexes are a biological reality with significant implications for sex-specific functional differences.[156] Steven Rhoads' book Taking Sex Differences Seriously illustrates sex-dependent differences across a wide scope.[157] Human Brain The biology of gender is the physical basis for behavioural differences between men and women. ... Anne Fausto-Sterling, Ph. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Carol Tavris, in The Mismeasure of Woman, uses psychology and sociology to critique theories that use biological reductionism to explain differences between men and women. She argues rather than using evidence of innate gender difference there is an over-changing hypothesis to justify inequality and perpetuate stereotypes.[158] Carol Tavris is an American social psychologist and author. ... Descartes held that non-human animals could be reductively explained as automata — De homines 1622. ...


Feminism and evolutionary biology

Related terms:
Evolutionary biology

Sarah Kember—drawing from numerous areas such as evolutionary biology, sociobiology, artificial intelligence, and cybernetics in development with a new evolutionism—discusses the biologization of technology. She notes how feminists and sociologists have become suspect of evolutionary psychology, particularly inasmuch as sociobiology is subjected to complexity in order to strengthen sexual difference as immutable through pre-existing cultural value judgments about human nature and natural selection. Where feminist theory is criticized for its "false beliefs about human nature," Kember then argues in conclusion that "feminism is in the interesting position of needing to do more biology and evolutionary theory in order not to simply oppose their renewed hegemony, but in order to understand the conditions that make this possible, and to have a say in the construction of new ideas and artefacts."[159] Evolutionary biology is a sub-field of biology concerned with the origin of species from a common descent, and descent of species; as well as their change, multiplication, and diversity over time. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... AI redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cybernetics (disambiguation). ... Evolutionary psychology (EP) attempts to explain mental and psychological traits—such as memory, perception, or language—as adaptations, that is, as the functional products of natural selection or sexual selection. ... Complexity in general usage is the opposite of simplicity. ... For other uses, see Human nature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ...


Men and feminism

Main article: Men and feminism
Anti-suffragists in 1911
Anti-suffragists in 1911

The relationship between men and feminism has been complex. Men have taken part in significant responses to feminism in each 'wave' of the movement. There have been positive and negative reactions and responses, depending on the individual man and the social context of the time.[160] These responses have varied from pro-feminism to masculism to anti-feminism.[161][162][163] In the twenty-first century new reactions to feminist ideologies have emerged including a generation of male scholars involved in gender studies,[164][165] and also men's rights activists who promote of male equality (rights to equal treatment in family, divorce and anti-discrimination law).[50] Image File history File links Antisuffragists. ... Image File history File links Antisuffragists. ... Pro-feminism refers to support of the cause of feminism without implying that the supporter is a member of the feminist movement. ... Masculism (also referred to as masculinism) consists of social theories, political movements, and moral philosophies primarily based on the experiences of men. ... Antifeminism refers to disbelief regarding the economic, political, and or social equality of females as a sex. ... This box:      Mens Rights involves the promotion of male equality, rights, and freedoms in society. ... This article is about discrimination in the social science sense. ...


Historically a number of men have engaged with feminism. Philosopher Jeremy Bentham demanded equal rights for women in the eighteenth century. In 1866, philosopher John Stuart Mill (author of “The Subjection of Women”) presented a women’s petition to the British parliament; and supported an amendment to the 1867 Reform Bill. Others have lobbied and campaigned against feminism. Today, academics like Michael Flood, Michael Messner and Michael Kimmel are involved with men's studies and pro-feminism.[164][166][50][167][168] Jeremy Bentham (IPA: ) (26 February [O.S. 15 February 15] 1748) – June 6, 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... The Subjection of Women is the title of an essay written by John Stuart Mill in 1869, possibly jointly with his wife Harriet Taylor Mill, stating an argument in favor of equality between the sexes. ... Dr Michael Flood is an Australian sociologist. ... Michael Alan Messner (*1952) is an American sociologist. ... Michael S. Kimmel is an american sociologist. ... Mens studies - also sometimes called masculinity studies - is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to topics concerning men, gender, and politics. ... Pro-feminism refers to support of the cause of feminism without implying that the supporter is a member of the feminist movement. ...


A number of feminist writers maintain that identifying as a feminist is the strongest stand men can take in the struggle against sexism. They have argued that men should be allowed, or even be encouraged, to participate in the feminist movement.[169][35] Other female feminists argue that men cannot be feminists simply because they are not women. They maintain that men are granted inherent privileges that prevent them from identifying with feminist struggles, thus making it impossible for them to identify with feminists.[170] Fidelma Ashe has approached the issue of male feminism by arguing that traditional feminist views of male experience and of "men doing feminism" have been monolithic.[171][172] She explores the multiple political discourses and practices of pro-feminist politics, and evaluates each strand through an interrogation based upon its effect on feminist politics.[172][171]


Pro-feminism

Main article: Pro-feminism

Pro-feminism is the support of feminism without implying that the supporter is a member of the feminist movement. The term is most often used in reference to men who are actively supportive of feminism and of efforts to bring about gender equality. The activities of pro-feminist men's groups include anti-violence work with boys and young men in schools, offering sexual harassment workshops in workplaces, running community education campaigns, and counseling male perpetrators of violence. Pro-feminist men also are involved in men's health, activism against pornography including anti-pornography legislation, men's studies, and the development of gender equity curricula in schools. This work is sometimes in collaboration with feminists and women's services, such as domestic violence and rape crisis centers. Some activists of both genders will not refer to men as "feminists" at all, and will refer to all pro-feminist men as "pro-feminists".[164][160] Pro-feminism refers to support of the cause of feminism without implying that the supporter is a member of the feminist movement. ... Pro-feminism refers to support of the cause of feminism without implying that the supporter is a member of the feminist movement. ... The feminist movement (also known as the Womens Movement or Womens Liberation) is a series of campaigns on issues such as reproductive rights (including abortion), domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, sexual harassment, and sexual violence. ... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ... Sexual harassment is harassment or unwelcome attention of a sexual nature. ... Mens studies - also sometimes called masculinity studies - is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to topics concerning men, gender, and politics. ...


Anti-feminism

Main article: Anti-feminism

Antifeminism is opposition to feminism in some or all of its forms.[173] Feminists such as Camille Paglia, Christina Hoff Sommers, Jean Bethke Elshtain and Elizabeth Fox-Genovese have been labeled "anti-feminists" by other feminists.[174][175] Daphne Patai and Noretta Koertge argue that in this way the term "anti-feminist" is used to silence academic debate about feminism.[176] Paul Nathanson and Katherine K. Young's books Spreading Misandry and Legalizing Misandry explore what they argue is feminist-inspired misandry.[177] Christina Hoff-Sommers argues feminist misandry leads directly to misogyny by what she calls "establishment feminists" against (the majority of) women who love men in Who Stole Feminism: How Women Have Betrayed Women.[49] "Marriage rights" advocates criticize feminists like Sheila Cronan who take the view that marriage constitutes slavery for women, and that freedom for women cannot be won without the abolition of marriage.[178] Antifeminism refers to disbelief regarding the economic, political, and or social equality of females as a sex. ... Camille Anna Paglia (born April 2, 1947 in Endicott, New York) is an American social critic, author and teacher. ... It has been suggested that Equity feminism be merged into this article or section. ... Dr. Jean Bethke Elshtain is a prolific feminist political philosopher with the University of Chicago Divinity School and a contributing editor for The New Republic. ... Elizabeth Fox-Genovese (*1941) is a feminist american historian. ... Daphne Patai (born 1943) is a feminist thinker who is currently a professor in the Department of Languages, Literatures, and Cultures at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. ... Authors Paul Nathanson and Katherine K. Young are collaborators on a series of books on the subject of misandry, which they consider to be a form of prejudice and discrimination that has become institutionalized in North American society. ... Look up Misandry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Christina Hoff Sommers (born 1950) is an American author who researches culture, adolescents, and morality in American society. ... In Eva Prima Pandora, by Jean Cousin (Louvre Museum), Eve, the equivalent of Pandora embodies Original Sin Misogyny (pronounced ) is hatred or strong prejudice against women; an antonym of philogyny. ...


See also

Equal pay for women is an issue involving pay inequality between men and women. ... The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) was a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution intended to guarantee equal rights under the law for Americans regardless of sex. ... Feminist Therapy Code of Ethics* (Revised, 1999) Preamble Feminist therapy evolved from feminist philosophy, psychological theory and practice, and political theory. ... . ... Masculism (also referred to as masculinism) consists of social theories, political movements, and moral philosophies primarily based on the experiences of men. ... The sex/gender distinction is a concept in feminist theory, political feminism, and sociology which distinguishes sex, a natural or biological feature, from gender, the cultural or learned significance of sex. ... Social criticism analyzes (problematic) social structures and aims at practical solutions by specific measures, radical reform or even revolutionary change. ... For other uses, see Human trafficking (disambiguation). ... The Womens Environment & Development Organization is an international non-governmental organization based in New York, U.S. that advocates women’s equality in global policy. ...

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Feminism (6967 words)
Graglia explicitly opposes feminism as such, except perhaps the "social feminism" of the 19th century, on the principle that identical laws for men and women, which were opposed by the "social feminism," are harmful to women who chose a traditional domestic occupation.
Feminism presented the family as a kind of prison, with a working career on the outside as a kind of liberation.
Feminism can grudgingly admit the former qualities [2] but is adamant that the latter qualities are merely the result of social conditioning.
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