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Encyclopedia > Felt
A selection of 4 different felt cloths.

Felt is a non-woven cloth that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing fibers. The fibers form the structure of the fabric. Some types of felt are very soft, but some are tough enough to form construction materials. Felt can be of any color, and made into any shape or size. felt. ... felt. ...


Felt is the oldest form of fabric known to humankind. It predates weaving and knitting, although there is archaeological evidence from the British Museum that the first known thread was made by winding vegetable fibers on the thigh. In Turkey, the remains of felt have been found dating back at least to 6,500 BC. Highly sophisticated felted artifacts were found preserved in permafrost in a tomb in Siberia and dated to 600AD. Fabric may mean: Cloth, a flexible artificial material made up of a network of natural or artificial fibres Fabric (club), a London dance club Fibre Channel fabric, a network of Fibre Channel devices enabled by a Fibre Channel switch using the FC-SW topology This is a disambiguation page, a... Tweed loom, Harris, 2004 Woven sheet Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn made of fiber called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. ... Knit hat, yarn, and knitting needles Knitting is a craft by which thread or yarn may be turned into cloth. ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... Yarn Spools of thread Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibers, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery and ropemaking. ... During the 6th millennium BC, agriculture spreads from the Balkans to Italy and Eastern Europe and from Mesopotamia to Egypt. ... In archaeology, an artifact or artefact is any object made or modified by a human culture, and often one later recovered by some archaeological endeavor. ... In geology, permafrost or permafrost soil is a thermal condition where ground material stays at or below 0°C for two or more years. ... It has been suggested that Western Siberia be merged into this article or section. ... The population of the Earth rises to about 208 million people. ...


Many cultures have legends as to the origins of feltmaking. Sumerian legend claims that the secret of feltmaking was discovered by Urnamman of Lagash.[citation needed] The story of Saint Clement and Saint Christopher relates that while fleeing from persecution, the men packed their sandals with wool to prevent blisters. At the end of their journey, the movement and sweat had turned the wool into felt socks.[citation needed] Sumer (or Å umer) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (southeastern Iran) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term Sumerian applies... Urnamman was a Sumerian warrior hero. ... Lagash or Sirpurla was one of the oldest cities of Sumer and later Babylonia. ... Clement is an adjective for clemency, and also the name of a number of notable figures: Saint Clement of Alexandria Saint Clement of Ohrid Pope Clement I Pope Clement II Pope Clement III Pope Clement IV Pope Clement V Pope Clement VI Pope Clement VII Pope Clement VIII Pope Clement... For other uses, see Saint Christopher (disambiguation). ...


Feltmaking is still practiced by nomadic peoples in Central Asia, where rugs, tents and clothing are regularly made. Some of these are traditional items, such as the classic yurt, while others are designed for the tourist market, such as decorated slippers. In the Western world, felt is widely used as a medium for expression in textile art as well as design, where it has significance as an ecological textile. Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Look up Rug in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Military tents U.S. Army tent with constructed wooden entrance, climate control unit and sandbags for protection. ... Clothing protects the vulnerable nude human body from the extremes of weather, other features of our environment, and for safety reasons. ... A Yurt is a portable felt dwelling structure used by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia. ... “fabric” redirects here. ...

Contents

Manufacture

Felt is made by a process called wet felting, where the natural wool fiber is stimulated by friction and lubricated by moisture (usually soapy water), and the fibers move at a 90 degree angle towards the friction source and then away again, in effect making little "tacking" stitches. Only 5% of the fibers are active at any one moment, but the process is continual, and so different 'sets' of fibers become activated and then deactivated in the continual process. Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Boonesville, Arizona Wool is the fiber derived from the fur of animals and people of the Caprinae family, principally sheep, but the hair of certain species of other mammals such as goats and rabbits and oxes...


This "wet" process utilizes the inherent nature of wool and other animal hairs, because the hairs have scales on them which are directional. The hairs also have kinks in them, and this combination of scales (like the structure of a pine cone) is what reacts to the stimulation of friction and causes the phenomenon of felting. It tends to work well only with woolen fibers as their scales, when aggravated, bond together to form a cloth. A cone (in formal botanical usage: strobilus, plural strobili) is an organ on plants in the division Pinophyta (conifers) that contains the reproductive structures. ...


Felting is done by a chemical process in industry. It is also sometimes done with special felting needles, which grab individual fibers and drag them against their neighbors, thereby binding them. Felting may also be done in a domestic washing machine on a hot cycle.


From the mid-17th to the mid-20th centuries, a process called "carroting" was used in the manufacture of good quality felt for making men's hats. Rabbit or hare skins were treated with a dilute solution of the mercury compound mercuric nitrate. The skins were dried in an oven when the thin fur at the sides went orange - carrot color. Pelts were stretched over a bar in a cutting machine and the skin sliced off in thin shreds, the fleece coming away entirely. The fur was blown onto a cone-shaped colander, treated with hot water to consolidate it, the cone peeled off and passed through wet rollers to cause the fur to felt. These 'hoods' were then dyed and blocked to make hats. This toxic solution and the vapors it produced resulted in widespread cases of mercury poisoning among hatters, which may have been the origin behind the phrase "mad as a hatter" and the character of the the Mad Hatter in Alice in Wonderland. The United States Public Health Service banned the use of mercury in the felt industry in December 1941. General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... Mercury(II) nitrate is a toxic colorless or white soluble crystalline compound of mercury. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mercury_toxicity. ... A hatter is a maker or seller of hats. ... The Hatter as depicted by Tenniel The Hatter, popularly known as The Mad Hatter (though he is never actually given that name in the book) is a fictional character encountered at a tea party and later as a witness at a trial in Lewis Carrolls Alices Adventures in... Alice in Wonderland is the widely known and used title for Alices Adventures in Wonderland, a book written by Lewis Carroll -- as well as several movie adaptations of the book -- and is also the setting for several short stories. ... Template:Higher standard // History of the United States Public Health Service The United States Public Health Service (PHS) was founded first by President John Adams in 1798 as a loose network of hospitals to support the health of American seamen. ...


Felting differs from fulling in the sense that fulling is done to fabric that is constructed before continuing with the felting process as noted above. Fulling is a step in clothmaking which involves the cleansing of cloth (particularly wool) to get rid of oils, dirt, and other impurities. ...


Knitted woolen garments which shrink in a hot machine wash can be said to have felted ( it is actually "fulled") — an example of how the fibers bond together when combined with the movement of the washing machine, the heat of the water, and the addition of soap. Therefore, woolen clothes should only be hand-washed or machine-washed in cold water.


Cheaper felt is usually artificial. Artificial felt, if made using the wet method, has a minimum of 30% of wool fibers combined with other artificial fibers. This is the minimum required to hold a fabric together with the fibers alone. It would be difficult to achieve a stable fabric by hand at this ratio. All other wholly artificial felts are actually needle-felts.


Loden is a type of felt originally worn in the Alpine regions, which has recently gained worldwide acceptance as a textile for fine and durable clothing. water resisting material for clothing made from sheep wool; usually green and used in bavarian traditional clothing. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “fabric” redirects here. ... Clothing protects the vulnerable nude human body from the extremes of weather, other features of our environment, and for safety reasons. ...


Other Uses of Felt

Needle felting is a popular fiber arts craft.


Felt is used in music on drum cymbal stands to protect the cymbal from cracking.


Piano hammers are made of wool felt around a wooden core. The density and springiness of the felt is a major part of what creates a piano's tone. As the felt becomes grooved and "packed" with use and age, the tone will suffer.


Felt cloth is commonly used to cover the slate surface of a billiards table. Larger tables may require multiple lamps to properly light the playing surface. ...


Also used in automotive industry to dampen vibrations between interior panels and also to stop ingress of dirt into some ball/cup joints (especially Citroen Xantia height correctors)


See also

Fuzzy Felt was a popular toy for very young children in the 1950s created by Lois Allan of the UK in 1920. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Tar paper. ... An unrubbered Russian valenok produced by the Condor group Valenki (rus. ...

External links

  • Read more about the history of feltmaking on 1-art-1.com - the website of UK textile artist and feltmaker Mary-Clare Buckle
  • Home of Georgian Felt
  • International Feltmakers Association
  • Find out about traditional felt making in Kyrgyzstan.
  • Learn about needle felting.
  • Felt boots: rustic? No, a fashion statement!
  • Needle Felting in 3 Easy Steps.

“fabric” redirects here. ... Barkcloth is a soft, thick, slightly textured fabric so named because it has a rough surface like that of tree bark. ... Batiste is the softest of the lightweight opaque fabrics. ... Bemberg or Bemberg silk is the trade name for a special kind of rayon. ... Bombazine, or bombasine, is a fabric originally made of silk or silk and wool, and now also made of cotton and wool or of wool alone. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Burlap is a dense woven fabric, usually made of jute and allied vegetable fibers. ... Buckram is available in many colors. ... Calico is a textile made from unbleached, and often not fully processed, cotton. ... Cambric is a lightweight cotton cloth used as fabric for lace and needlework. ... Look up Canvas in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Chambray is a commune of the Eure département in France. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary using the Transwiki process. ... Cheesecloth is a loosewoven cotton cloth, such as is used in pressing cheese curds. ... Chiffon, which is a French word for rag, is a lightweight sheer material with a slightly rough feel to it. ... Chino cloth is a kind of twill fabric, usually made primarily from cotton. ... Cloth of gold is a fabric woven with a gold-wrapped or spun weft - referred to as a spirally spun gold strip. In most cases, the core yarn is silk wrapped with a band/ or strip of high content gold filé. In rarer instances, fine linen and wool have been... Cotton duck (from Dutch doek,linen canvas), also simply duck, sometimes duck cloth or duck canvas is a heavy cotton fabric. ... Coutil (or Coutille) is woven twill cloth created specifically for making corsets. ... Crape (an anglicized version of the Fr. ... Denim as used for blue jeans, with a copper rivet to strengthen the pocket. ... Dimity is a lightweight, sheer cotton fabric having at least two warp threads thrown into relief to form fine cords. ... Dowlas is the name given to a plain cloth, similar to sheeting, but usually coarser. ... Drill is a strong, durable cotton fabric with a strong bias (diagonal) in the weave. ... A foulard is a lightweight fabric, either twill or plain-woven, made of silk or a mix of silk and cotton. ... A young man wearing a tartan flannel shirt. ... Gabardine is a tough, tightly woven fabric used to make suits, overcoats and trousers, or a garment made from the material. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gingham is a fabric made from dyed cotton yarn. ... Haircloth is a stiff, unsupple fabric typically made from horsehair and/or from the wooly hair of a camel. ... All Harris Tweed items are hand woven on the islands off the Northern coast of Scotland (outer Hebrides). ... Hodden is a coarse kind of cloth made of undyed wool, formerly much worn by the peasantry of Scotland. ... Irish linen is the brand name given to linen produced in Ireland. ... Jamdani is a kind of fine cloth made in Bangladesh. ... A man weaves kente cloth using a traditional loom in Bonwire village, Ashanti region, Ghana. ... Lamé is a type of fabric woven or knit with metallic yarns. ... Lawn cloth, Lawn is a plain weave cloth, produced from cotton. ... Linsey-Woolsey is a fabric that has been in use since colonial times. ... water resisting material for clothing made from sheep wool; usually green and used in bavarian traditional clothing. ... Madras is a lightweight cotton fabric with patterned texture, used primarily for summer clothing -- pants, shorts, dresses and jackets. ... This article is about the fabric. ... Muslin is a type of finely-woven cotton fabric, introduced to Europe from the Middle East in the 17th century. ... A sheer fabric of silk, rayon, or nylon made in a variety of tight smooth weaves or open lacy patterns. ... Oilskin jacket (left) and high trousers (right). ... Organdy is the sheerest cotton cloth made. ... Organza fabric Organza is a thin, plain weave, sheer fabric traditionally made from silk, the continuous filament of silkworms. ... Oxford refers to a type of weave employed to make the fabric in oxford shirts. ... Percale refers to a closely woven fabric often used for bed linens. ... Poplin, also called tabinet, is a heavy, durable fabric consisting of a silk warp with a weft of worsted yarn. ... Rep, Repp, or Reps is a cloth made of silk, wool, or cotton. ... Ripstop (also incorrectly called ripstock and also ribstock) is a woven fabric that has another type of single or double thread woven into it. ... Ripstop nylon is the primary material used in Hot air balloons Rip-stop Nylon is a light-weight, water-repellent nylon fabric with inter-woven ripstop reinforcement threads in a crosshatch pattern, so the material resists ripping or tearing. ... Russell cord is a corded fabric which is woven using equal quantities of cotton and wool. ... Sateen is a cotton fabric with a satin-like finish, often found in bed sheets. ... Satin used in bedding Look up Satin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Scarlet was a type of fine and expensive woolen cloth common in mediaeval England. ... Seersucker is a thin, all-cotton fabric, commonly striped, used to make clothing for summer wear. ... Serge is a type of twill fabric that has diagonal lines or ridges on both sides, made with a two-up, two-down weave. ... The word selvage comes from the phrase self-edge and denotes denim made on old-school shuttle looms. ... Stuff was a type of coarse woven cloth manufactured in various places, formerly including Kidderminster. ... Taffeta (sometimes spelled taffety) is a crisp, smooth woven fabric made from silk or synthetic fibers. ... Tweed is a rough, unfinished woolen fabric, of a soft, open, flexible texture resembling cheviot or homespun, but more closely woven. ... A twill weave can easily be identified by its diagonal lines. ... Via Gellia is a steep sided wooded dry valley and road in Derbyshire. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (725 × 725 pixel, file size: 1 MB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Brocade can stands for: thick heavy fabric into which raised patterns have been woven. ... Camlet, also commonly known as camelot or camblet, is a woven fabric that might have originally been made of camel or goats hair, now chiefly of goats hair and silk, or of wool and cotton. ... Italian silk damask, 1300s. ... Songket is fabric which belongs to the brocade family of textiles. ... Baize is a coarse woollen or cotton cloth, often coloured red or green. ... Chenille may refer to either a type of cored yarn or fabric made from it. ... Corduroy is a fabric composed of twisted fibers that when woven lie parallel (similar to twill) to one another to form the cloths distinct pattern, a cord. ... Fustian is a term for a variety of heavy woven cotton fabrics, chiefly prepared for menswear. ... Plush (from French peluche) is a textile fabric having a cut nap or pile the same as fustian or velvet. ... Polar fleece is a soft napped insulating synthetic wool fabric made from PET. It was created in 1979 by Malden Mills; it was a new, light and strong pile fabric meant to mimic and in some ways surpass wool. ... Terry cloth. ... Velours du Kasaï Velours du Kasaï (Kasaï velvet) is a kind of textile fabric made in Kasai, a province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaïre). ... Velvet is a type of tufted fabric in which the cut threads are very evenly distributed, with a short dense pile, giving it its distinct feel. ... Velveteen is a cotton cloth made in imitation of velvet. ... Zibeline is a thick, soft fabric with a long nap. ... Nonwoven textiles are those which are neither woven nor knit, for example felt. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A modern industrial knitting machine in action The knitting machine, sometimes called knitting frame, knitting loom, or hand knitting machine, is used to produce knit fabrics on a fixed bed of hooked needles. ... Velour is a textile, a knitted counterpart of velvet. ... Net or netting is any textile in which the warp and weft yarns are looped or knotted at their intersections, resulting in a fabric with large open spaces between the yarns. ... Bobbinet is a specific type of tulle netting which has been made in the UK since the invention of the bobbinet machine in 1806 by John Heathcoat. ... Carbon fiber composite is a strong, light and very expensive material. ... This article is about the article of clothing. ... Lace appliqué and bow at the bust-line of a nightgown. ... A mesh is similar to fabric or a web in that it has many connected or weaved pieces. ... Needlerun Net refers to a family of laces created by using a needle to embroider on a net ground. ... A sheer fabric of silk, rayon, or nylon made in a variety of tight smooth weaves or open lacy patterns. ... Tulle is a netting, which is often starched, made of various fibers, including silk, nylon, and rayon, that is most commonly used for veils, gowns (particularly wedding gowns) and ballet tutus. ... Gore-tex is a proprietary teflonized textile material owned by W.L. Gore & Associates. ... SmartWool is a company founded by ski instructors Peter and Patty Duke in New England in 1994 and acquired by the Timberland Company in 2005. ... Silnylon, a contraction of Silicone impregnated nylon, is a synthetic fabric used mainly in lightweight outdoor gear. ... Spandex or elastane is a synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity (stretchability). ... SympaTex or Sympa-Tex or Sympatex is a textile trademark. ... Houndstooth is a duotone textile pattern, characterized by broken checks or abstract four-pointed shapes. ... Paisley wallpaper Paisley or Paisley pattern is a droplet-shaped vegetal motif of Persian origin, similar to half of the Yin yang symbol, or the leaf of the Indian bodhi tree or the mango tree. ... Several plaid patterns on modern day uniforms Plaid is a Scots language word meaning blanket, usually referring to patterned woollen cloth; it is unclear if the Gaelic word Plaide came first. ... A tartan is type of pattern, originating in woven cloth, but now used in many materials. ... Toile is a type of decorating pattern, consisting of a white or off-white background on which a repeated pattern depicting a fairly complex scene, generally of a pastoral theme such as (for example) a couple having a picnic by a lake. ... Acrylic fibers are synthetic fibers made from a polymer with a weight average molecular weight of ~100,000. ... This article is about a breed of domesticated ungulates. ... Angora was the name of the city of Ankara and the surrounding Ankara Province (vilayet) in Turkey and the Ottoman Empire prior to 1930. ... It has been suggested that Asbestos fibers be merged into this article or section. ... Carbon fiber composite is a strong, light and very expensive material. ... Cashmere may refer to: Cashmere wool, wool from the Cashmere goat, which is a type of Asian goat. ... Catgut is the name applied to cord of great toughness and tenacity prepared from the intestines of sheep/goat, or occasionally from those of the hog, horse, mule, pig, and donkey. ... Coir (Etymological origin: from Tamil and Malayalam - kayar - cord) is a coarse fibre extracted from the fibrous outer shell of a coconut. ... Cotton ready for harvest. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The word Jute is also used in reference to the Germanic people, the Jutes. ... Chemical structure of Kevlar. ... Torn linen cloth, recovered from the Dead Sea Linen is a material made from the fibers of the flax plant. ... Mohair is a silk-like fabric made from the hair of the Angora goat, not to be confused with the angora rabbit whose fur is called angora. ... Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers first produced on February 28, 1935 by Wallace Carothers at DuPont. ... Microfibre is a term for fibres with strands thinner than one denier. ... A synonym for the more widely accepted term, alkene. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester is a category of polymers, or, more specifically condensation polymers, which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... Piña is a fiber derived from the leaves of a pineapple. ... Binomial name Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaudich. ... Rayon is a manufactured regenerated cellulosic fiber. ... Silk dresses Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. ... A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue, attached on one end to a muscle and on the other to a bone. ... Binomial name Agave sisalana Perrine Sisal or sisal hemp is an agave Agave sisalana that yields a stiff fiber used in making rope. ... Spandex or elastane is a synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity (stretchability). ... Spider silk is a fibre secreted by spiders. ... Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Boonesville, Arizona Wool is the fiber derived from the fur of animals and people of the Caprinae family, principally sheep, but the hair of certain species of other mammals such as goats and rabbits and oxes... Indonesian batik fabric Batik (Javanese-Indonesian-Malay pronunciation: , but often, in English, is or ) is an Indonesian word and refers to a generic wax-resist dyeing technique used on textile. ... Bògòlanfini (sometimes bogolan) is a traditional Malian fabric dyed with fermented mud, particularly associated with the Bambara. ... Fulling is a step in clothmaking which involves the cleansing of cloth (particularly wool) to get rid of oils, dirt, and other impurities. ... Mercerization is a treatment for cotton fabric and thread mostly employed to give cotton a lustrous appearance. ... Watered silk is a type of silk fabric which has been passed through a set of rollers as a fabric finishing process, to give the surface a moire pattern which looks like a water surface. ... Dyeing is the process of changing the colour of a yarn or cloth by treatment with a dye. ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class of materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... Textiles were invented in the Middle East during the late stone age. ... The history of silk begins, according to Chinese tradition, in the 27th century BC. The Chinese were able to continue making it exclusively for three millennia without ever divulging the secret process whereby it was made. ... Knit hat, yarn, and knitting needles Knitting is a craft by which thread or yarn may be turned into cloth. ... The manufacture of textiles is one of the oldest of mans technologies. ... Textile manufacturing is one of the oldest of mans technologies. ... Ainu ceremonial dress on display under glass in the British Museum. ... Tweed loom, Harris, 2004 Woven sheet Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn made of fiber called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. ... Yarn Spools of thread Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibers, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery and ropemaking. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
knitty.com (1803 words)
Felting, in the eye of the fiber arts purist, typically involves unspun wool/fleece that is turned into usable fabric by repeated stabbing with something known as a felting needle, which could double as a torture device.
Felting needes are very sharp, come in a variety of thicknesses/gauges, and have many barbs on them [sort of like a fish hook with lots of points ].
The current phase of his felting and experimenting involves taking hot water and agitation to a variety of fibers and blends, including silk and wool and mohair as well as combining non-felting yarns like cottons and man-mades with woolen fibers just for the texture of it all.
Felt - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (872 words)
Felt is the oldest form of fabric known to man. It predates weaving and knitting, although there is archaelogical evidence from the British museum that the first known thread was made by winding vegetable fibres on the thigh.
Felt is now widely used as a medium for expression in textile art as well as design, where it has significance as an ecological textile.
Felt is made by a process called wet felting, where the natural wool fibre is stimulated by friction and lubricated by moisture (usually water), and the fibres move at a 90 degree angle towards the friction source and then away again, in effect making little "tacking" stitches.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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