FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Felix the Cat
The famous Felix pace as seen in "Oceantics" (1930)
The famous Felix pace as seen in "Oceantics" (1930)

Felix the Cat is a cartoon character created in the silent-film era. His black body, white eyes, and giant grin, coupled with the surrealism of the situations in which his cartoons place him, combined to make Felix one of the most recognizable cartoon characters in the world. Felix was the first character from animation to attain a level of popularity sufficient to draw movie audiences based solely on his star power. Felix The Cat is the title of a video game released for the Nintendo Entertainment System. ... The famous Felix pace as seen in Oceantics (1930) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The famous Felix pace as seen in Oceantics (1930) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... An animated cartoon is a short, hand-drawn (or made with computers to look similar to something hand-drawn) film for the cinema, television or computer screen, featuring some kind of story or plot (even if it is a very short one). ... A silent film is a film which has no accompanying soundtrack. ... Max Ernst. ... A movie star or film star is a celebrity who is a person known for his or her roles in motion pictures. ...


Felix's origins remain disputed. Australian cartoonist and film entrepreneur Pat Sullivan and American animator Otto Messmer have both claimed to be his creator, and evidence seems to back up both claims. Some historians argue that Messmer ghosted for Sullivan. What is certain is that Felix emerged from Sullivan's studio, and cartoons featuring the character enjoyed unprecedented success and popularity in the 1920s. Cartoonist Jack Elrod at work. ... Cinema admissions in 1995 The film industry consists of the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking: i. ... Born Patrick OSullivan, Patrick Sullivan (February 2, 1887, Sydney, New South Wales – 15 February 1933, United States) was an Australian film producer, best known for producing the first Felix the Cat silent cartoons. ... An animator is an artist who creates multiple images called frames that form an illusion of movement called animation when rapidly displayed. ... Otto Messmer (August 16, 1892 - October 28, 1983) was an American animator, best known for his work on the Felix the Cat cartoons and comic strip produced by the Pat Sullivan studio. ...


From 1922, Felix enjoyed sudden, enormous popularity in international popular culture. He got his own comic strip (drawn by Messmer) and his image soon adorned all sorts of merchandise from ceramics to toys to postcards. There were several manufacturers who made stuffed Felix toys. Jazz bands such as Paul Whiteman's played songs about him. The most popular song of 1923 was "Felix Kept On Walking", and further songs followed. Popular culture, sometimes abbreviated to pop culture, consists of widespread cultural elements in any given society. ... This article is about the comic strip, the sequential art form as published in newspapers and on the Internet. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... 1928 Columbia Records label with caricature of Paul Whiteman Paul Whiteman (March 28, 1890 – December 29, 1967) was a popular american orchestral leader. ...


Nevertheless, Felix's success was fading by the late 1920s with the arrival of sound cartoons. These new shorts, particularly those of Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse, had made the silent offerings of Sullivan and Messmer, who were then unwilling to move to sound production, seem outdated. In 1929, Sullivan decided to finally make the transition and began distributing Felix sound cartoons through Copley Pictures. The sound Felix shorts proved to be a failure and the operation ended in 1930 with Sullivan himself passing away in 1933. Felix saw a brief three cartoon resurrection in 1936 by the Van Beuren Studios, but the glory of the old days had disappeared during the cat's short-lived stint in color and sound. 1902 poster advertising Gaumonts sound films, depicting an optimistically vast auditorium A sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image, as opposed to a silent film. ... For the company founded by Disney, see The Walt Disney Company. ... Mickey Mouse is an Academy Award-winning comic animal cartoon character who has become an icon for The Walt Disney Company. ... Van Beuren Studios was an animation studio that produced theatrical cartoons from 1928-1936. ...


Television would prove the cat's savior. Felix cartoons began airing on American TV in 1953. Meanwhile, Joe Oriolo, who was now directing the Felix comic strips, introduced a redesigned, "long-legged" Felix in a new animated series for TV. Oriolo also added new characters, and gave Felix a "Magic Bag of Tricks", which could assume an infinite variety of shapes at Felix's behest. The cat has since starred in other television programs and in a feature film. Felix is still featured on a wide variety of merchandise from clothing to toys. Oriolo's son, Don Oriolo, now controls creative work on Felix movies. Joe was a well noted Animater of Felix the Cat. ... A reel of film, which predates digital cinematography. ...

Contents

Creation

A scene of Felix "laffing" from "Felix in Hollywood" (1923).
A scene of Felix "laffing" from "Felix in Hollywood" (1923).

On November 9, 1919, Master Tom, a character resembling Felix, debuted in a Paramount Pictures short entitled Feline Follies.[1] Produced by the New York City-based animation studio owned by Pat Sullivan, the cartoon was directed by cartoonist and animator Otto Messmer. It was a success, and the Sullivan studio quickly set to work on producing another film featuring Master Tom, The Musical Mews (released November 16, 1919). It too proved to be successful with audiences. Paramount producer John King suggested that the cat ought to be renamed to "Felix", after the Latin words felis (cat) and felix (luck), which was used for the third film, The Adventures of Felix (released on December 14, 1919). In 1924, animator Bill Nolan redesigned the fledgling feline, making him both rounder and cuter. Felix's new looks, coupled with Messmer's mastery of character animation, would soon rocket Felix to international fame.[2] A scene of Felix laffing from Felix in Hollywood (1923). ... A scene of Felix laffing from Felix in Hollywood (1923). ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American motion picture production and distribution company, based in Hollywood, California. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Cartoonist Jack Elrod at work. ... An animator is an artist who creates multiple images called frames that form an illusion of movement called animation when rapidly displayed. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... A film producer creates the conditions for making movies. ... John King is the name of several notable individuals, including: John King, 19th century Australian explorer John King, White House correspondent for CNN John William King, one of the murderers of James Byrd, Jr. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Character animation is a special aspect of the animation process, in which life is breathed into an artificial character. ...

Felix and Charlie Chaplin share the screen in a memorable moment from "Felix in Hollywood" (1923).
Felix and Charlie Chaplin share the screen in a memorable moment from "Felix in Hollywood" (1923).

The question of who exactly created Felix remains a matter of dispute. Sullivan stated in numerous newspaper interviews that he created Felix and did the key drawings for the character. On a visit to Australia in 1925, Sullivan told The Argus newspaper that "The idea was given to me by the sight of a cat which my wife brought to the studio one day."[1] On other occasions, he claimed that Felix had been inspired by Rudyard Kipling's "The Cat that Walked by Himself" or by his wife's love for strays.[2] Members of the Australian Cartoonist Association have demonstrated that lettering used in Feline Follies matches Sullivan's handwriting.[2] Sullivan's claim is also supported by his March 18, 1917, release of a cartoon short entitled The Tail of Thomas Kat, more than two years prior to Feline Follies. Both an Australian ABC-TV documentary screened in 2004 and the curators of an exhibition at the State Library of New South Wales, in 2005, suggested that Thomas Kat was a prototype or precursor of Felix. However, few details of Thomas have survived. His fur color has not been definitively established, and the surviving copyright synopsis for the short suggests significant differences between Thomas and the later Felix. For example, whereas the later Felix magically transforms his tail into tools and other objects, Thomas is a non-anthropomorphized cat who loses his tail in a fight with a rooster, never to recover it. Image File history File links Felix-chaplin. ... Image File history File links Felix-chaplin. ... The Argus was a newspaper in Melbourne. ... This article is about the British author. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales The State Library of New South Wales is a large public library owned by the state of New South Wales. ... This dog has been dressed in human accessories for humorous effect. ...


Sullivan was the studio proprietor and — as is the case with almost all film entrepreneurs — he owned the copyright of any creative work by his employees. In common with many animators at the time, Messmer was not credited. After Sullivan's death in 1933, his estate in Australia took ownership of the character.


It was not until many years after Sullivan's death that Sullivan staffers such as Hal Walker, Al Eugster, and Sullivan's lawyer, Harry Kopp, credited Messmer with Felix's creation. They claimed that Felix was based on an animated Charlie Chaplin that Messmer had animated for Sullivan's studio earlier on. The down-and-out personality and movements of the cat in Feline Follies reflect key attributes of Chaplin's, and, although blockier than the later Felix, the familiar black body is already there (Messmer found solid shapes easier to animate). Messmer himself recalled his version of the cat's creation in an interview with animation historian John Canemaker: Alfred Eugster (February 11, 1909 - January 1, 1997) was an American animator and film director, regarded as one of the greatest of all time. ... Charles Chaplin redirects here. ... John Canemaker (b. ...

Sullivan's studio was very busy, and Paramount, they were falling behind their schedule and they needed one extra to fill in. And Sullivan, being very busy, said, "If you want to do it on the side, you can do any little thing to satisfy them." So I figured a cat would be about the simplest. Make him all black, you know — you wouldn't need to worry about outlines. And one gag after the other, you know? Cute. And they all got laughs. So Paramount liked it so they ordered a series.

Many animation historians (most of them American and English) back Messmer's claims. Among them are Michael Barrier, Jerry Beck, Colin and Timothy Cowles, Donald Crafton, David Gerstein, Milt Gray, Mark Kausler, Leonard Maltin, and Charles Solomon.[3] American actor, best known for appearances on Star Trek: The Original Series. ... Jerry Beck (born February 9, 1955) is a well known animation historian, with ten books and numerous articles to his credit. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Leonard Maltin (born December 18, 1950 in New York City) is a widely known and respected American film critic. ...


Regardless of who created Felix, Sullivan marketed the cat relentlessly, while the uncredited Messmer continued to produce a prodigious volume of Felix cartoons. Messmer did the animation directly on white paper with inkers tracing the drawings directly. The animators drew backgrounds onto pieces of celluloid, which were then laid atop the drawings to be photographed. Any perspective work had to be animated by hand, as the studio cameras were unable to perform pans or trucks. Messmer began a comic strip in 1923, distributed by King Features Syndicate.[2] Celluloid is the name of a class of compounds created from nitrocellulose and camphor, plus dyes and other agents, generally regarded to be the first thermoplastic. ... This article is about the comic strip, the sequential art form as published in newspapers and on the Internet. ... King Features 1951 Christmas card King Features Syndicate, a print syndication company owned by The Hearst Corporation, distributes about 150 comic strips, newspaper columns, editorial cartoons, puzzles and games to nearly 5000 newspapers around the world. ...


Popularity and distribution

The Felix the Cat comic strip debuted in England's Daily Sketch on August 1, 1923 and entered syndication in the United States on August 19 that same year. This particular strip was the second to appear (on August 26). Although this was Messmer's work, he was required to sign Sullivan's name to it. The strip includes a notable amount of 1920s slang that seems unusual today, such as "buzz this guy for a job" and "if you want a swell feed just foller me".Click to enlarge.
The Felix the Cat comic strip debuted in England's Daily Sketch on August 1, 1923 and entered syndication in the United States on August 19 that same year. This particular strip was the second to appear (on August 26). Although this was Messmer's work, he was required to sign Sullivan's name to it. The strip includes a notable amount of 1920s slang that seems unusual today, such as "buzz this guy for a job" and "if you want a swell feed just foller me".
Click to enlarge.

Paramount Pictures distributed the earliest films from 1919 to 1921. Margaret J. Winkler distributed the shorts from 1922 to 1925, the year when Educational Pictures took over the distribution of the shorts. Sullivan promised them one new Felix short every two weeks.[4] The combination of solid animation, skillful promotion, and widespread distribution sent Felix's popularity soaring to new heights.[2] Download high resolution version (1552x2013, 105 KB)Public domain copy of first Felix the Cat comic strip from http://felix. ... Download high resolution version (1552x2013, 105 KB)Public domain copy of first Felix the Cat comic strip from http://felix. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Ethnicity... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Slang (disambiguation). ... Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American motion picture production and distribution company, based in Hollywood, California. ... Margaret J. Winkler (or M. J. Winkler) was one of the key figures in silent animation history, having a crucial role to play in the histories of Max and Dave Fleischer, Pat Sullivan, Otto Messmer and Walt Disney. ... Educational Pictures (or Educational Film Exchanges, Inc. ...


By 1923, the cat was at the peak of his film career. Felix in Hollywood, a short released during this year, plays upon Felix's popularity, as he becomes acquainted with such fellow celebrities as Douglas Fairbanks, Cecil B. DeMille, Charlie Chaplin, Ben Turpin, and even censor Will H. Hays. His image could be seen on clocks, Christmas ornaments, and as the first giant balloon ever made for Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade. Felix also became the subject of several popular songs of the day, such as "Felix Kept Walking". Even Paul Whiteman, the king of jazz himself, did a bit on the frisky feline. Sullivan made an estimated $100,000 a year from toy licensing alone.[2] With the character's success also emerged a handful of new costars. These included Felix's master Willie Brown, a foil named Skiddoo the Mouse, Felix's nephews Inky, Dinky, and Winky, and his girlfriend Kitty. Douglas Fairbanks (May 23, 1883 – December 12, 1939) was an American actor, screenwriter, director and producer, who became noted for his swashbuckling roles in silent movies such as The Mark of Zorro (1920), The Three Musketeers (1921), Robin Hood (1922), The Thief of Bagdad (1924) and The Black Pirate (1926). ... Cecil Blount DeMille (August 12, 1881 – January 21, 1959) was one of the most successful filmmakers during the first half of the 20th century. ... Charles Chaplin redirects here. ... Ben Turpin (1869-1940) Ben Turpin (center) with two Mack Sennett Studios bathing beauties Ben Turpin (September 19, 1869 - July 1, 1940) was a comedian, best remembered for his work in silent films. ... Cover of Time Magazine (September 13, 1926) William Harrison Hays (November 5, 1879–March 7, 1954) was the namesake of the Hays Code, chairman of Republican National Committee and U.S. Postmaster General. ... “Macys Day Parade” redirects here. ... 1928 Columbia Records label with caricature of Paul Whiteman Paul Whiteman (March 28, 1890 – December 29, 1967) was a popular american orchestral leader. ...

Abstract surrealism was abundant in many of the classic Felix shorts. Shown here is a still from "Felix Woos Whoopee" (1930).

Most of the early Felix cartoons mirrored American attitudes of the "roaring twenties". Ethnic stereotypes appeared in such shorts as Felix Goes Hungry (1924). Recent events such as the Russian Civil War were depicted in shorts like Felix All Puzzled (1924). Flappers were caricatured in Felix Strikes It Rich (also 1924). He also became involved in union organizing with Felix Revolts (1923). In some shorts, Felix even performed a rendition of the Charleston. A frame from Felix Woos Whoopee (1930). ... A frame from Felix Woos Whoopee (1930). ... Max Ernst. ... A scene typical of the Follies of Florenz Ziegfeld, the most popular Broadway impresario of the decade. ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers. ... Josephine Baker dancing the Charleston at the Folies Bergère, Paris, in 1926 A USPS stamp from the Celebrate the Century series: Flappers Doing the Charleston by John Held Jr. ...


References to alcoholism and Prohibition were also commonplace in many of the Felix shorts, particularly Felix Finds Out (1924), Whys and Other Whys (1927), Felix Woos Whoopee (1930) to name a few. In Felix Dopes It Out (1924), Felix tries to help his hobo friend who is plagued with a red nose. By the end of the short, the cat finds the cure for the condition: "Keep drinking, and it'll turn blue." Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... The term Prohibition, also known as A Dry Law, refers to a law in a certain country by which the manufacture, transportation, import, export, and sale of alcoholic beverages is restricted or illegal. ...


In addition, Felix was the first image ever broadcast by television when RCA chose a papier-mâché Felix doll for a 1928 experiment via W2XBS New York in Van Cortlandt Park. The doll was chosen for its tonal contrast and its ability to withstand the intense lights needed. It was placed on a rotating phonograph turntable and photographed for approximately two hours each day. After a one-time payoff to Sullivan, the doll remained on the turntable for nearly a decade as RCA fine-tuned the picture's definition. RCA, formerly an acronym for the Radio Corporation of America, is now a trademark owned by Thomson SA through RCA Trademark Management S.A., a company owned by Thomson. ... Papier-mâché around a form such as a balloon to create a pig. ... WNBC may mean the following broadcast stations in the city of New York: WNBC-TV 4 WNBC AM 660, now WFAN WNBC-FM 97. ... This article is about the state. ... Van Cortlandt Park is a large urban park in the Bronx, NY. It has an area of 1,146 acres (4. ... Tonearm redirects here. ...


Felix's great success also spawned a host of imitators. The appearances and personalities of other 1920s feline stars such as Julius of Walt Disney's Alice Comedies, Waffles of Paul Terry's Aesop's Film Fables, and especially Bill Nolan's 1925 adaptation of Krazy Kat (distributed by the eschewed Winkler) all seem to have been directly patterned after Felix.[5] For the company founded by Disney, see The Walt Disney Company. ... The Alice Comedies are a series of animated cartoons created by Walt Disney, in which a real little girl named Alice and an animated cat named Julius have adventures in an animated landscape. ... Mighty Mouse, the signature character of the studio. ... Aesops Film Fables closing title Aesops Film Fables was a series of animated short subjects, created by American cartoonist, Paul Terry. ... Krazy Kat is a comic strip created by George Herriman that appeared in U.S. newspapers between 1913 and 1944. ...


Felix's cartoons were a hit with the critics as well. They have been cited as imaginative examples of surrealism in filmmaking. Felix has been said to represent a child's sense of wonder, creating the fantastic when it is not there, and taking it in stride when it is. His famous pace—hands behind his back, head down, deep in thought—became a trademark that has been analyzed by critics around the world.[6] Felix's expressive tail, which could be a shovel one moment, an exclamation mark or pencil the next, serves to emphasize that anything can happen in his world.[7] Aldous Huxley wrote that the Felix shorts proved that "What the cinema can do better than literature or the spoken drama is to be fantastic."[8] Max Ernst. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Aldous Leonard Huxley (July 26, 1894 – November 22, 1963) was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. ...


In 1928, Educational ceased releasing the Felix cartoons and several were reissued by First National Pictures. Copley Pictures distributed them from 1929 to 1930. He saw a brief three-cartoon resurrection in 1936 by the Van Beuren Studios (The Goose That Laid the Golden Egg, Neptune Nonsense and Bold King Cole), but the glory of the old days had disappeared during the cat's short-lived stint in color and sound. Sullivan did most of the marketing for the character in the 1920s. The First National Exhibitors Circuit was founded 1917 by the merger of 26 of the biggest First Run cinema chains in the United States of America, controlling more than 600 cinemas, more than 200 of them were First Run cinemas. ... Van Beuren Studios was an animation studio that produced theatrical cartoons from 1928-1936. ... For the magazine, see Marketing (magazine). ...

The U.S. Navy insignia for the VF-31 Tomcatters squadron from 1948. The squadron motto is "We get ours at night".
The U.S. Navy insignia for the VF-31 Tomcatters squadron from 1948. The squadron motto is "We get ours at night".

Image File history File links Felix_VF-31_logo. ... Image File history File links Felix_VF-31_logo. ... The VF-31 Tomcatters are the U.S. Navys second oldest operating fighter squadron, next to the VF-14 Tophatters. ...

Felix as mascot

Given the character's unprecedented popularity and the fact that his name was partially derived from the Latin word for "lucky", some rather notable individuals and organizations adopted Felix as a mascot. The first of these was a Los Angeles Chevrolet dealer and friend of Pat Sullivan named Winslow B. Felix who first opened his showroom in 1921. The three-sided neon sign of Felix Chevrolet, with its giant, smiling images of the character, is today one of LA's best-known landmarks, standing watch over both Figueroa Street and the Harbor Freeway. Others who adopted Felix included the 1922 New York Yankees and aviator Charles Lindbergh, who took a Felix doll with him on his historic flight across the Atlantic Ocean. Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Chevrolet (IPA: - French origin) (colloquially Chevy) is a brand of automobile, produced by General Motors (GM). ... Figueroa Street, according to the Guinness Book of World Records, is one of the longest continuous streets in the world. ... The Harbor Freeway goes under many bridges as it passes through downtown Los Angeles The Harbor Freeway is one of the principal north-south freeways in Los Angeles County, California. ... Major league affiliations American League (1901–present) East Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, 23, 32, 37, 44, 49 Name New York Yankees (1913–present) New York Highlanders (1903-1912) Baltimore Orioles (1901-1902) (Also referred to as... Charles Augustus Lindbergh (4 February 1902 – 26 August 1974), known as Lucky Lindy and The Lone Eagle, was an American pilot famous for the first solo, non-stop flight across the Atlantic, from Roosevelt Field, Long Island to Paris in 1927 in the Spirit of St. ...


This popularity persisted. In the late 1920s, the U.S. Navy's Bombing Squadron Two (VB-2B) adopted a unit insignia consisting of Felix happily carrying a bomb with a burning fuse. They retained the insignia through the 1930s when they became a fighter squadron under the designations VF-6B and, later, VF-3, whose members Edward O'Hare and John Thach became famous Naval Aviators in World War II. After the world war a US Navy fighter squadron currently designated VF-31 replaced its winged meat-cleaver logo with the same insignia, after the original Felix squadron had been disbanded. The carrier-based night-fighter squadron, nicknamed the "Tomcatters," remained active under various designations continuing through the present day and Felix still appears on both the squadron's cloth jacket patches and aircraft, carrying his bomb with its fuse that has yet to burn down. Lt. ... John Smith Thach (19 April 1905 - 15 April 1981) was a World War II naval aviator, air combat tactician, and Admiral in the United States Navy. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... The VF-31 Tomcatters are the U.S. Navys second oldest operating fighter squadron, next to the VF-14 Tophatters. ...


Felix is also the oldest high school mascot in the state of Indiana, chosen in 1926 after a Logansport High School player brought his plush Felix to a basketball game. When the team came from behind and won that night, Felix became the mascot of all the Logansport sports teams. For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ...


The pop punk band The Queers also use Felix as a mascot, often drawn to reflect punk sensibilities and attributes such as scowling, smoking, or playing the guitar. Felix adorns the covers of both the Surf Goddess EP and the Move Back Home album. Felix also appears in the music video for the single "Don't Back Down". Besides appearing on the covers and liner notes of various albums the iconic cat also appears in merchandise such as t-shirts and buttons. In an interview with bassist B-Face, he asserts that Lookout! Records is responsible for the use of Felix as a mascot.[9] Pop punk is used for two separate subgenres of punk rock music: the kind typically found on Lookout! Records, which stray very little from the three-chord formula that The Ramones pioneered, as well as a newer subgenre of melodic, more emotional punk, which includes by bands like NOFX and... The Queers are an American pop punk band formed in 1982 by Portsmouth, New Hampshire native Joe King (A.K.A. Joe Queer). ... Surf Goddess is an EP by pop-punk band The Queers. ... Move Back Home is the fourth album by pop-punk band The Queers released on Lookout! Records. ... Lookout! Records is an independent record label based in Berkeley, California. ...


From silent to sound

Felix and Inky and Winky in "April Maze" (1930)
Felix and Inky and Winky in "April Maze" (1930)

With the advent of The Jazz Singer in 1927, Educational Pictures, who distributed the Felix shorts at the time, urged Pat Sullivan to make the leap to "talkie" cartoons, but Sullivan refused. Further disputes led to a break between Educational and Sullivan. Only when Walt Disney's Steamboat Willie made cinematic history as the first talking cartoon with a synchronized soundtrack did Sullivan see the possibilities of sound. He managed to secure a contract with First National Pictures in 1928. However, for reasons unknown, this did not last, so Sullivan sought out Jacques Kopfstein and Copley Pictures to distribute his new sound Felix cartoons. On October 16, 1929, an advertisement appeared in Film Daily with Felix announcing, Jolson-like, "You ain't heard nothin' yet!" Image File history File links April-maze-copley. ... Image File history File links April-maze-copley. ... The Jazz Singer (1927) is a U.S. movie musical and the first feature-length motion picture with talking sequences. ... A sound film (or talkie) is a motion picture with synchronized sound, as opposed to a silent movie. ... Steamboat Willie (1928) is an animated cartoon featuring Mickey Mouse released on November 18, 1928. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Film Daily was a daily publication that existed from 1915 to 1970. ... Al Jolson was a highly acclaimed American singer, comedian and actor of Jewish heritage whose career lasted from 1911 until his death in 1950. ...


Unfortunately, nothing good was heard from Felix's transition to sound. The results were disastrous. More than ever, it seemed as though Disney's mouse was drawing audiences away from Sullivan's silent star. Not even entries such as the off-beat "Felix Woos Whoopee" or the Silly Symphony-esque April Maze (both 1930) could regain the franchise's audience. Kopfstein finally canceled Sullivan's contract. Subsequently, he announced plans to start a new studio in California, but such ideas never materialized. Things went from bad to worse when Sullivan's wife, Marjorie, died in March 1932. After this, Sullivan completely fell apart. He slumped into an alcoholic depression, his health rapidly declined, and his memory began to fade. He could not even cash checks to Messmer because his signature was reduced to a mere scribble. He died in 1933. Messmer recalled, A scene from The Skeleton Dance (1929). ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...

He left everything a mess, no books, no nothing. So when he died the place had to close down, at the height of popularity, when everybody, RKO and all of them, for years they tried to get hold of Felix . . . . I didn't have that permission [to continue the character] 'cause I didn't have legal ownership of it.[10]

In 1935, Amadee J. Van Beuren of the Van Beuren Studios called Messmer and asked him if he could return Felix to the screen. Van Beuren even stated that Messmer would be equipped with a full staff and all of the necessary utilities. However, Messmer declined his offer and instead recommended Burt Gillett, a former Sullivan staffer who was now heading the Van Beuren staff. So, in 1936, Van Beuren obtained approval from Sullivan's brother to license Felix to his studio with the intention of producing new shorts both in color and with sound. With Gillett at the helm, now with a heavy Disney influence, he did away with Felix's established personality and made him just another funny-animal character of the type popular in the day. The new shorts were unsuccessful, and after only three outings Van Beuren discontinued the series.[5] Burton F. Gillett (October 15, 1891 _ December 28, 1971) was an animation director. ... Bugs Bunny, a typical funny animal character Funny animal is a cartooning term for the genre of comics and animated cartoons in which the main characters are humanoid or talking animals. ...


The cat's comeback

Joe Oriolo's Felix

In 1953, Official Films purchased the Sullivan-Messmer shorts, added soundtracks to them, and distributed to the home movie and television markets. Messmer himself pursued the Sunday Felix comic strips until their discontinuance in 1943, when he began eleven years of writing and drawing monthly Felix comic books for Dell Comics. In 1954, Messmer retired from the Felix daily newspaper strips, and his assistant Joe Oriolo took over. Oriolo struck a deal with Felix's new owner, Pat Sullivan's nephew, to begin a new series of Felix cartoons on television. Oriolo went on to star Felix in 260 television cartoons distributed by Trans-Lux starting in 1958. Like the Van Beuren studio before, Oriolo gave Felix a more domesticated and pedestrian personality, geared more toward children, and introduced now-familiar elements such as Felix's Magic Bag of Tricks, a satchel that could assume the shape and characteristics of anything Felix wanted. The program is also remembered for its distinctive theme song written by Winston Sharples: Joe Oriolos Felix This is a screenshot of a copyrighted movie or television program. ... Joe Oriolos Felix This is a screenshot of a copyrighted movie or television program. ... Official Films was a home movie distributor founded by Leslie Winik in 1939 to produce educational shorts. ... Dell Comics was the comic book publishing arm of Dell Publications, which got its start in pulp magazines. ... Joe was a well noted Animater of Felix the Cat. ... Trans-Lux is a major manufacturer of real-time displays, and became known for their stock market tickers. ...

Felix the Cat,
The wonderful, wonderful cat!
Whenever he gets in a fix,
He reaches into his bag of tricks!

The show did away with Felix's previous supporting cast and introduced many new characters. These include the sinister, mustachioed Professor; his intelligent but bookish nephew Poindexter (with an IQ of 222); the Professor's bulldog-faced, bumbling sidekick Rock Bottom; an evil, cylindrical robot and "King of the Moon" named The Master Cylinder; and a small, unassuming and friendly Inuit named Vavoom, whose only vocalization is a literally earth-shattering shout of his own name. These characters were performed by voice actor Jack Mercer. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... IQ redirects here; for other uses of that term, see IQ (disambiguation). ... Rock Bottom can mean: Rock bottom, an all time low Rock Bottom (album), an album by Robert Wyatt Rock Bottom (SpongeBob SquarePants episode), the SpongeBob SquarePants Episode Rock Bottom Restaurants Inc. ... Master Cylinder is the ultimate bad guy bully. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... A voice actor (also a voice artist) is a person who provides voices for animated characters (including those in feature films, television series, animated shorts), voice-overs in radio and television commercials, audio dramas, dubbed foreign language films, video games, puppet shows, and amusement rides. ... Jack Mercer (January 13, 1909 – December 4, 1984), began his work in cartoons as an inbetweener, an apprentice animator at Fleicher Studios. ...

Felix by John Canemaker

Oriolo's plots revolve around the unsuccessful attempts of the antagonists to steal Felix's Magic Bag, though in an unusual twist, these antagonists are occasionally depicted as Felix's friends as well. The cartoons proved popular, but critics have dismissed them as paling in comparison to the earlier Sullivan-Messmer works, especially since Oriolo aimed the cartoons at children. Limited animation (required due to budgetary restraints) and simplistic storylines did nothing to diminish the series' popularity.[5] Image File history File links Felix-canemaker. ... Image File history File links Felix-canemaker. ... Limited animation is a process of making animated cartoons that does not follow a realistic approach. ...


Today, Oriolo's son, Don, continues to market the cat. In 1988, Felix starred in his first (and only) feature film, Felix the Cat: The Movie, in which he, the Professor and Poindexter visit an alternate reality. The film was a box-office failure. Additionally, it was not even released until 1991. In 1995 to 1997, Felix appeared on television again, in an off-beat series called The Twisted Tales of Felix the Cat. Baby Felix followed in 2000 for the Japanese market and the direct-to-video Felix the Cat Saves Christmas. Oriolo has also brought about a new wave of Felix merchandising, everything from mugs to a video game for the Nintendo Entertainment System. The Twisted Tales of Felix the Cat (called The New Adventures of Felix the Cat before release, which has led to it sometimes being referred to as The Twisted Adventures of Felix the Cat) is an animated series starring the classic animated character Felix the Cat, produced for television by... The Baby Felix and friends show was launched by Felix the Cat productions Inc. ... “NES” redirects here. ...

Felix in his very first screen appearance "Feline Follies" (1919)

Since the publication of John Canemaker's Felix: The Twisted Tale of the World's Most Famous Cat in 1991, there has been a renewed interest in the early Sullivan-Messmer shorts. In recent years, the films have seen lots of VHS and DVD exposure, most notably on the Presenting Felix the Cat compilations from Bosko Video, Felix! from Lumivision, Felix the Cat: The Collector's Edition from Delta Entertainment, Before Mickey from Inkwell Images Ink, the recent Felix the Cat and 1920's Rarities from Thunderbean Animation. Messmer Felix comic compilations have also begun to emerge including Nine Lives to Live: A Classic Felix Celebration by David Gerstein and more recently The Comic Adventures of Felix the Cat from Determined Productions. Image File history File links Felix_1919. ... Image File history File links Felix_1919. ... Bottom view of VHS cassette with magnetic tape exposed Top view of VHS cassette with front casing removed The Video Home System, better known by its abbreviation VHS, is a recording and playing standard. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Solomon, 34, says that the character was "the as yet unnamed Felix".
  2. ^ a b c d e Solomon 34.
  3. ^ Barrier 29 and Solomon 34.
  4. ^ Barrier 30.
  5. ^ a b c Solomon 37.
  6. ^ For example, Solomon, 34, quotes Marcel Brion on these points.
  7. ^ Solomon 36.
  8. ^ Quoted in Solomon 34.
  9. ^ http://www.thequeersrock.com/interviewsbface.html
  10. ^ Quoted in Solomon 37.

References

Felix unwittingly requests moonshine from a Prohibition-era bootlegger in "Felix Finds Out" (1924).
  • Canemaker, John (1991): Felix: The Twisted Tale of the World's Most Famous Cat. Pantheon, New York.
  • Crafton, Donald (1993): Before Mickey: The Animated Film, 1898–1928. University of Chicago Press.
  • Gerstein, David (1996): Nine Lives to Live. Fantagraphics Books.
  • Barrier, Michael (1999): Hollywood Cartoons. Oxford University Press.
  • Beck, Jerry (1998): The 50 Greatest Cartoons. JG Press.
  • Culhane, Shamus (1986): Talking Animals and Other People. St. Martin's Press.
  • Gifford, Denis (1990): American Animated Films: The Silent Era, 1897–1929. McFarland and Company.
  • Maltin, Leonard (1987): Of Mice and Magic: A History of American Animated Cartoons. Penguin Books.
  • Solomon, Charles (1994): The History of Animation: Enchanted Drawings. Outlet Books Company.

Image File history File links Felixfindsout. ... Image File history File links Felixfindsout. ... The term Prohibition, also known as A Dry Law, refers to a law in a certain country by which the manufacture, transportation, import, export, and sale of alcoholic beverages is restricted or illegal. ...

Further reading

  • Patricia Vettel Tom (1996): Felix the Cat as Modern Trickster.[3] American Art, Vol. 10, No. 1 (Spring, 1996), pp. 64–87

See also

An early Felix title card, 1922.


Felix the Cat in Felix Woos Whoopee (1930). ... A Kit-Cat Clock or Felix the Cat Clock is an art deco novelty style clock that resembles cartoon character Felix the Cat. ... Winsor McCay Winsor McCay (September 26, 1867(?) – July 26, 1934) was a prolific artist and pioneer in the art of comic strips and animation. ... Koko the Clown and Fitz Koko the Clown was an animated character created by animation pioneer Max Fleischer. ... Aesops Film Fables closing title Aesops Film Fables was a series of animated short subjects, created by American cartoonist, Paul Terry. ... Krazy Kat is a comic strip created by George Herriman that appeared in U.S. newspapers between 1913 and 1944. ... Mickey Mouse is an Academy Award-winning comic animal cartoon character who has become an icon for The Walt Disney Company. ... An Oswald the Lucky Rabbit movie poster from 1927. ... Image File history File links 1922felix. ... Image File history File links 1922felix. ...


External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Felix the Cat
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Felix the Cat
  • The Official Felix the Cat Website
  • [http://www.vixenmagazine.com/News.html Clues contradicting the Messmer and Canemaker account of the creation of Felix
  • Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 2004, Rewind "Felix the Cat" (Concerns the dispute over who created the character.)
  • State Library of New South Wales, 2005, "Reclaiming Felix the Cat" (PDF exhibition guide, including many pictures.)

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Don Markstein's Toonopedia: Felix the Cat (594 words)
Felix the Cat was animation's first superstar, far eclipsing Farmer Alfalfa, Bobby Bumps, Col.
Felix's success was a direct result of Messmer's great ability to create sight gags, and to express a character's personality through his own unique way of moving.
When the talkies came in, Felix was quickly eclipsed by Disney's Mickey Mouse, who had made an early and successful transition to sound.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m