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Encyclopedia > Feline panleukopenia
Feline panleukopenia virus
Virus classification
Group: Group II (ssDNA)
Family: Parvoviridae
Genus: Parvovirus
Species: Feline panleukopenia virus

Feline panleukopenia, more commonly known as feline distemper, is a viral infection affecting cats caused by feline parvovirus, a close relative of canine parvovirus. It is not related to canine distemper. Protection is offered by commercial feline distemper vaccine, which is usually a mixture of vaccines for several different diseases, including panleukopenia. Viruses can be classified in several ways, such as by their geometry, by whether they have envelopes, by the identity of the host organism they can infect, by mode of transmission, or by the type of disease they cause. ... A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and does not use an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Genera Subfamily Parvovirinae    Parvovirus    Erythrovirus    Dependovirus Subfamily Densovirinae    Densovirus    Iteravirus    Brevidensovirus The Parvoviridae family includes the smallest known viruses, and some of the most environmentally resistant. ... Species Canine minute virus Canine parvovirus Chicken parvovirus Feline panleukopenia virus Feline parvovirus HB virus H-1 virus Kilham rat virus Lapine parvovirus LUIII virus Mice minute virus Mink enteritis virus Mouse parvovirus 1 Porcine parvovirus Raccoon parvovirus RT parvovirus Tumor virus X Parvovirus, commonly called parvo, is a genus... Trinomial name Felis silvestris catus (Linnaeus, 1758) The cat, also called the domestic cat or house cat, is a small carnivorous mammal of the subspecies Felis silvestris catus. ... Species Canine minute virus Canine parvovirus Chicken parvovirus Feline panleukopenia virus Feline parvovirus HB virus H-1 virus Kilham rat virus Lapine parvovirus LUIII virus Mice minute virus Mink enteritis virus Mouse parvovirus 1 Porcine parvovirus Raccoon parvovirus RT parvovirus Tumor virus X Parvovirus, commonly called parvo, is a genus... Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a contagious virus affecting dogs. ... Canine distemper is a viral disease affecting animals in the families Canidae, Mustelidae, Mephitidae, Procyonidae, and possibly Felidae (though not domestic cats; feline distemper or panleukopenia is a similar, but different, virus exclusive to cats). ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by any natural or wild strain of the organism. ...

Transmission and symptoms

Panleukopenia is primarily spread through contact with an infected cat's bodily fluids, feces, or fleas. The virus may also sometimes spread through contact with bedding, food dishes, or even the handlers of infected cats. Rabbit feces are usually 8-10 mm in diameter, dry to the touch, and look similar to a raisin. ...

The virus primarily attacks the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, causing internal ulceration and, ultimately, total sloughing of the intestinal epithelium. This results in profuse, usually bloody diarrhea, causing severe dehydration, malnutrition, anemia, and often death. The gastrointestinal tract or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. ... Endoscopic images of a duodenal ulcer. ... Slough (pronounced ) is a town and unitary authority (Borough of Slough) in the county of Berkshire in the south of England. ... In zootomy, epithelium is a tissue composed of a layer of cells. ... Diarrhea or diarrhoea (see spelling differences) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the ancient Greek word διαρροή = leakage; lit. ... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydor in ancient Greek) from an object. ... Malnutrition is a general term for the medical condition caused by an improper or insufficient (undernourished) diet. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ... Death is the cessation of life. ...

The virus causes a decrease in the cat's white blood cells, thus compromising its immune system. Typically, infection causes a decrease in WBC, hematocrit and platelet counts on a CBC. This is often key in diagnosing panleukopenia. White Blood Cells is also the name of a White Stripes album. ... The immune system is the system of specialized cells and organs that protect an organism from outside biological influences. ... White blood cells (a. ... The hematocrit (Ht or HCT) and packed cell volume (PCV) are measures of the proportion of blood volume that is occupied by red blood cells. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... A complete blood count (CBC) or full blood count (FBC) is a test requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patients blood. ...

Symptoms include depression, lethargy, loss of appetite, a high fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and loss of skin elasticity. Sadness redirects here. ... Fatigue is a feeling of excessive tiredness or lethargy, with a desire to rest, perhaps to sleep. ... The appetite is the desire to eat food, felt as hunger. ... A medical/clinical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ...

If a pregnant cat is exposed during pregnancy, the virus can cause cerebellar hypoplasia in her offspring. This is why administering modified live feline panleukopenia vaccine during pregnancy is discouraged. Cerebellar hypoplasia is a disorder found in cats and dogs in which the cerebellum is not completely mature at birth. ...

Vaccination controversy

In recent years, vaccination has become a controversial topic among veterinarians and pet owners. Recent studies have demonstrated that many vaccines are effective for several years, despite the common practice of "boosting" vaccines every year. This has particularly been demonstrated for the most common vaccine for feline panleukopenia, which is a combined vaccine for feline viral rhinotracheitis, calicivirus, and panleukopenia (FVRCP). For this reason, the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) has stated that boosting the vaccine every three years is now often recommended by veterinarians who previously may have recommended annual vaccination. Feline viral rhinotracheitis (FVR) is a respiratory disease of cats caused by feline herpesvirus 1, of the family Herpesviridae. ... Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a virus of the family Caliciviridae that causes disease in cats. ... The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA), founded in 1863, is a not-for-profit association representing more than 73,000 US veterinarians working in academia, private and corporate practice, industry, government, and uniformed services. ...

FVRCP vaccines have also come under scrunity of late due to possible risks to long term health. A study at Colorado State University found potential for a link between panleukopenia vaccine and chronic renal failure due to the fact that the vaccine is often grown using a cell line derived from cat kidneys. It is thought by some researchers that the vaccine may inadvertently cause antibodies to develop to kidney cells. Combined with findings of effectiveness for multiple years, this has caused many veterinarians to become more cautious in administering the vaccine. Due to the extremely deadly and contagious nature of panleukopenia, the AVMA states that vaccination against panleukopenia is still strongly advised despite any potential risks.

External links

  Results from FactBites:
Feline Panleukopenia and Bordetella bronchiseptica bronchopneumonia (238 words)
Discussion:  Feline panleukopenia virus, a parvovirus, is cytolytic and targets rapidly dividing cells such as lymphoid cells and crypt epithelium.  The virus is also capable of altering the differentiation of the layers of the cerebellum during fetal development, producing cerebellar hypoplasia.
  Panleukopenia virus is highly contagious and transmission is commonly fecal-oral.  However, fomites are also an important source of transmission.  The virus is very resistant to extreme temperatures and conventional cleaning agents.  All of these factors contribute to the common occurrence of feline panleukopenia virus infection in animal shelters and humane societies.
  From July 29,2004 to August 31, 2004, there have been at least 19 diagnosed cases of feline panleukopenia at the ADDL.  This is one of the largest outbreaks of panleukopenia in recent ADDL history.  It is important for area clinicians to be aware of the increasing number of cats diagnosed with this disease.
Feline Panleukopenia Virus (1746 words)
Feline panleukopenia (also called feline infectious enteritis, feline "distemper," and feline ataxia or incoordination) is a highly contagious viral disease of cats characterized by its sudden onset, fever, inappetence (loss of appetite), dehydration, depression, vomiting, decreased numbers of circulating white blood cells (leukopenia), and often a high mortality rate.
All members of the cat family (Felidae) are susceptible to infection with feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), as are raccoons, coatimundis, and ringtails, in the family Procyoniclae.
Feline panleukopenia virus is a very small and very stable virus classified in the parvovirus group.
  More results at FactBites »



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