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Encyclopedia > Feedback

Feedback is a process whereby some proportion of the output signal of a system is passed (fed back) to the input. This is often used to control the dynamic behavior of the system. Examples of feedback can be found in most complex systems, such as engineering, architecture, economics, thermodynamics, and biology. Feedback can refer to: Feedback in control theory and related disciplines. ... Illustration of a physical process: a geyser in action. Process (lat. ... Input3 is the term denoting either an entrance or changes which are inserted into a system and which activate/modify a process. ... For other uses, see System (disambiguation). ... There are many definitions of complexity, therefore many natural, artificial and abstract objects or networks can be considered to be complex systems, and their study (complexity science) is highly interdisciplinary. ... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ... This article is about building architecture. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dynamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ...


Negative feedback was applied by Harold Stephen Black to electrical amplifiers in 1927, but he could not get his idea patented until 1937.[1] Arturo Rosenblueth, a Mexican researcher and physician, co-authored a seminal 1943 paper Behavior, Purpose and Teleology[2] that, according to Norbert Wiener (another co-author of the paper), set the basis for the new science of cybernetics. Rosenblueth proposed that behavior controlled by negative feedback, whether in animal, human or machine, was a determinative, directive principle in nature and human creations.[citation needed]. This kind of feedback is studied in cybernetics and control theory. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Harold Stephen Black (1898-1983) was an cock who revolutionized the field of applied electronics by inventing the buttplug in 1927. ... Arturo Rosenblueth (* October 2, 1900 in Ciudad Guerrero, Chihuahua- † September 20, 1970 in Mexico City) was a Mexican researcher, physician and physiologist. ... Norbert Wiener Norbert Wiener (November 26, 1894, Columbia, Missouri – March 18, 1964, Stockholm Sweden) was an American theoretical and applied mathematician. ... For other uses, see Cybernetics (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cybernetics (disambiguation). ... For control theory in psychology and sociology, see control theory (sociology). ...


In organizations, feedback is a process of sharing observations, concerns and suggestions between persons or divisions of the organization with an intention of improving both personal and organizational performance. Negative and positive feedback have different meanings in this usage, where they imply criticism and praise, respectively. For other uses, see Organization (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Overview

Feedback is both a mechanism, process and signal that is looped back to control a system within itself. This loop is called the feedback loop. A control system usually has input and output to the system; when the output of the system is fed back into the system as part of its input, it is called the "feedback." For other uses, see System (disambiguation). ... A control system is a device or set of devices to manage, command, direct or regulate the behaviour of other devices or systems. ...


Feedback and regulation are self related. The negative feedback helps to maintain stability in a system in spite of external changes. It is related to homeostasis. Positive feedback amplifies possibilities of divergences (evolution, change of goals); it is the condition to change, evolution, growth; it gives the system the ability to access new points of equilibrium. Homeostasis (from Greek: ὅμος, homos, equal; and ιστημι, histemi, to stand lit. ... Look up equilibrium in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


For example, in an organism, most positive feedback provide for fast autoexcitation of elements of endocrine and nervous systems (in particular, in stress responses conditions) and play a key role in regulation of morphogenesis, growth, and development of organs, all processes which are in essence a rapid escape from the initial state.[citation needed] Homeostasis is especially visible in the nervous and endocrine systems when considered at organism level. The nervous system is a highly specialized network whose principal components are nerves called neurons. ... The endocrine system is an integrated system of small organs that involve the release of extracellular signaling molecules known as hormones. ...


Types of feedback

Figure 1: Ideal feedback model. The feedback is negative if B < 0
Figure 1: Ideal feedback model. The feedback is negative if B < 0

Types of feedback are: Image File history File links Ideal_feedback_model. ... Image File history File links Ideal_feedback_model. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Positive feedback is a feedback system in which the system responds to the perturbation in the same direction as the perturbation (It is sometimes referred to as cumulative causation). ...

  • negative feedback: which tends to reduce output (but in amplifiers, stabilizes and linearizes operation),
  • positive feedback: which tends to increase output, or
  • bipolar feedback: which can either increase or decrease output.

Systems which include feedback are prone to hunting, which is oscillation of output resulting from improperly tuned inputs of first positive then negative feedback. Audio feedback typifies this form of oscillation. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Positive feedback is a feedback system in which the system responds to the perturbation in the same direction as the perturbation (It is sometimes referred to as cumulative causation). ... Bipolar is a term used to define things with two (usually opposing) poles. ... Oscillation is the variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states. ...


Bipolar feedback is present in many natural and human systems. Feedback is usually bipolar—that is, positive and negative—in natural environments, which, in their diversity, furnish synergic and antagonistic responses to the output of any system.


Applications

In biology

In biological systems such as organisms, ecosystems, or the biosphere, most parameters must stay under control within a narrow range around a certain optimal level under certain environmental conditions. The deviation of the optimal value of the controlled parameter can result from the changes in internal and external environments. A change of some of the environmental conditions may also require change of that range to change for the system to function. The value of the parameter to maintain is recorded by a reception system and conveyed to a regulation module via an information channel. For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ...


Biological systems contain many types of regulatory circuits, both positive and negative. As in other contexts, positive and negative don't imply consequences of the feedback have good or bad final effect. A negative feedback loop is one that tends to slow down a process, while the positive feedback loop tends to accelerate it. The mirror neurons are part of a social feedback system, when an observed action is ´mirrored´ by the brain - like a self performed action. Locations of mirror neurons A mirror neuron is a neuron which fires both when an animal performs an action and when the animal observes the same action performed by another (especially conspecific) animal. ...


Feedback is also central to the operations of genes and gene regulatory networks. Repressor (see Lac repressor) and activator proteins are used to create genetic operons, which were identified by Francois Jacob and Jacques Monod in 1961 as feedback loops. These feedback loops may be positive (as in the case of the coupling between a sugar molecule and the proteins that import sugar into a bacterial cell), or negative (as is often the case in metabolic consumption). For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... A gene regulatory network (also called a GRN or genetic regulatory network) is a collection of DNA segments in a cell which interact with each other (indirectly through their RNA and protein expression products) and with other substances in the cell, thereby governing the rates at which genes in the... A repressor is a DNA-binding protein that regulates the expression of one or more genes by decreasing the rate of transcription. ... Lac Repressor molecule more details. ... An activator is a DNA-binding protein that regulates one or more genes by increasing the rate of transcription. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... An operon is a group of key nucleotide sequences including an operator, a common promoter, and one or more structural genes that are controlled as a unit to produce messenger RNA (mRNA). ... François Jacob (born June 17, 1920) is a French biologist, who together with Jacques Monod, originated the idea that control of enzyme levels in all cells happens through feedback on transcription. ... See also Jacques-Louis Monod, French-born composer and cousin of Jacques Monod. ...


Any self-regulating natural process involves feedback and is prone to hunting. A well known example in ecology is the oscillation of the population of snowshoe hares due to predation from lynxes. For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Binomial name Lepus americanus Erxleben, 1777 The Snowshoe Hare (Lepus americanus) is a species of hare found in North America. ... For other uses, see Lynx (disambiguation). ...


In zymology, feedback serves as regulation of activity of an enzyme by its direct product(s) or downstream metabolite(s) in the metabolic pathway (see Allosteric regulation). For other uses, see Fermentation. ... In biochemistry, allosteric regulation is the regulation of an enzyme or protein by binding an effector molecule at the proteins allosteric site (that is, a site other than the proteins active site). ...


Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal and ovaraian or testicular axis is largely controlled by positive and negative feedback, much of which is still unknown. It has been suggested that HTPA be merged into this article or section. ...


In climate science

The climate system is characterized by strong feedback loops between processes that affect the state of the atmosphere, ocean, and land. A simple example is the ice-albedo positive feedback loop whereby melting snow exposes more dark ground (of lower albedo), which in turn absorbs heat and causes more snow to melt. This is part of the evidence of the danger of global warming. For other uses, see Albedo (disambiguation). ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ...


In control theory

Feedback is extensively used in control theory, using a variety of methods including state space (controls), pole placement and so forth. For control theory in psychology and sociology, see control theory (sociology). ... In control engineering, a state space representation is a mathematical model of a physical system as a set of input, output and state variables related by first-order differential equations. ...


The most common general-purpose controller using a control-loop feedback mechanism is a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. Each term of the PID controller copes with time. The proportional term handles the present state of the system, the integral term handles its past, and the derivative or slope term tries to predict and handle the future. A controller is a person or device that exercises or attempts to exercise control or influence. ... A proportional–integral–derivative controller (PID controller) is a generic control loop feedback mechanism widely used in industrial control systems. ...


In economics and finance

A system prone to hunting (oscillating) is the stock market, which has both positive and negative feedback mechanisms. This is due to cognitive and emotional factors belonging to the field of behavioral finance. For example, For other uses, see System (disambiguation). ... A stock market or (equity market) is a private or public market for the trading of company stock and derivatives of company stock at an agreed price; both of these are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. ... Economics Nobel Laureate Daniel Kahneman, was an important figure in the development of behavioral finance and economics and continues to write extensively in the field. ...

  • When stocks are rising (a bull market), the belief that further rises are probable gives investors an incentive to buy (positive feedback, see also stock market bubble); but the increased price of the shares, and the knowledge that there must be a peak after which the market will fall, ends up deterring buyers (negative feedback).
  • Once the market begins to fall regularly (a bear market), some investors may expect further losing days and refrain from buying (positive feedback), but others may buy because stocks become more and more of a bargain (negative feedback).

George Soros used the word "reflexism" to describe feedback in the financial markets and developed an investment theory based on this principle. A bull market is a prolonged period of time when prices are rising in a financial market faster than their historical average. ... A stock market bubble is a type of economic bubble taking place in stock markets when price of stocks rise and become overvalued by any measure of stock valuation. ... For other uses, see Stock (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Knowledge (disambiguation). ... A bear market is a prolonged period of time when prices are falling in a financial market. ... Soros redirects here. ...


The conventional economic equilibrium model of supply and demand supports only ideal linear negative feedback and was heavily criticized by Paul Ormerod in his book "The Death of Economics" which in turn was criticized by traditional economists. This book was part of a change of perspective as economists started to recognise that Chaos Theory applied to nonlinear feedback systems including financial markets. Price of market balance In economics, economic equilibrium is simply a state of the world where economic forces are balanced and in the abscence of external shocks the (equilibrium) values of economic variables will not change. ... The supply and demand model describes how prices vary as a result of a balance between product availability at each price (supply) and the desires of those with purchasing power at each price (demand). ... Theoretical Economist researching complexity, complex systems, nonlinear feedback, the boom and bust cycle of business and economic competition. ... The Death of Economics is a book written by Paul Ormerod attacking a particular form of economics, which remains dominant in the teaching of the subject. ... For other uses, see Chaos Theory (disambiguation). ...


In education

Young students will often look up to instructors as experts in the field and take to heart most of the things instructors say. Thus, it is believed that spending a fair amount of time and effort thinking about how to respond to students may be a worthwhile time investment. Here are some general types of feedback that can be used in many types of student assessment:

Confirmation

Your answer was incorrect.

Corrective

Your answer was incorrect. The correct answer was Jefferson.

Explanatory

Your answer was incorrect because Carter was from Georgia; only Jefferson called Virginia home.

Diagnostic

Your answer was incorrect. Your choice of Carter suggests some extra instruction on the home states of past presidents might be helpful.

Elaborative

Your answer, Jefferson, was correct. The University of Virginia, a campus rich with Jeffersonian architecture and writings, is sometimes referred to as Thomas Jefferson’s school.

(Adapted from Flemming and Levie[3].)


A different application of feedback in education is the system for "continuous improvement" of engineering curricula monitored by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET)[4]


In electronic engineering

The processing and control of feedback is engineered into many electronic devices and may also be embedded in other technologies. Surface mount electronic components Electronics is the study of the flow of charge through various materials and devices such as semiconductors, resistors, inductors, capacitors, nano-structures and vacuum tubes. ... Various components An electronic component is a basic electronic element usually packaged in a discrete form with two or more connecting leads or metallic pads. ... In mathematics, see embedding. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ...


If the signal is inverted on its way round the control loop, the system is said to have negative feedback; otherwise, the feedback is said to be positive. Negative feedback is often deliberately introduced to increase the stability and accuracy of a system. This scheme can fail if the input changes faster than the system can respond to it. When this happens, the lag in arrival of the feedback signal results in positive feedback, causing the output to oscillate or hunt[5] Positive feedback is usually an unwanted consequence of system behaviour. A negative feedback amplifier, or more commonly simply a feedback amplifier, is an amplifier which uses a negative feedback network, generally for improving performance (gain stability, linearity, frequency response etc. ... In electrical engineering, specifically signal processing and control theory, BIBO Stability is a form of stability for signals and systems. ... Oscillation is the variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states. ... Hunting is a self-exciting oscillation of a physical system, commonly that of systems incorporating feedback. ...


Harry Nyquist contributed the Nyquist plot for assessing the stability of feedback systems. An easier assessment, but less general, is based upon gain margin and phase margin using Bode plots (contributed by Hendrik Bode). Design to insure stability often involves frequency compensation, one method of compensation being pole splitting. Harry Nyquist (pron. ... A Nyquist plot is a graph used in signal processing in which the magnitude and phase of a frequency response are plotted on orthogonal axes. ... The Bode plot for a first-order Butterworth filter A Bode plot, named after Hendrik Wade Bode, is usually a combination of a Bode magnitude plot and Bode phase plot: A Bode magnitude plot is a graph of log magnitude against log frequency often used in signal processing to show... Hendrik Wade Bode Hendrik Wade Bode, (born 24 December 1905 in Madison, Wisconsin, died 21 June 1982 at his home in Cambridge, Mass. ... In electrical engineering, frequency compensation is a design technique for amplifiers which use negative feedback or those, such as operational amplifiers, that are intended for use with negative feedback. ...


In government

Examples of feedback in government are:

An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... For other uses, see Revolution (disambiguation). ... A curfew can be one of the following: An order by the government for certain persons to return home before a certain time. ...

In mechanical engineering

In ancient times, the float valve was used to regulate the flow of water in Greek and Roman water clocks; similar float valves are used to regulate fuel in a carburetor and also used to regulate tank water level in the flush toilet. A float valve is a mechanical feedback mechanism that regulates fluid level by using a float to drive an inlet valve such that a higher fluid level will force the valve closed whilst a lower fluid level will force the valve open. ... A water clock or clepsydra is a device for measuring time by letting water regularly flow out of a container usually by a tiny aperture. ... Bendix-Technico (Stromberg) 1-barrel downdraft carburetor model BXUV-3, with nomenclature A carburetor (North American spelling) or carburettor (Commonwealth spelling), is a device that blends air and fuel for an internal combustion engine. ... Close coupled cistern type flushing toilet. ...


The windmill was enhanced in 1745 by blacksmith Edmund Lee who added a fantail to keep the face of the windmill pointing into the wind. In 1787 Thomas Mead regulated the speed of rotation of a windmill by using a centrifugal pendulum to adjust the distance between the bedstone and the runner stone (i.e. to adjust the load). This article is about machines that convert wind energy into mechanical energy. ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... Thomas Mead 4 May 1918 - 22 January 2004 was an Australian politician, elected as a member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly representing the seat of Hurstville for the Liberal Party. ...


The use of the centrifugal governor by James Watt in 1788 to regulate the speed of his steam engine was one factor leading to the Industrial Revolution. Steam engines also use float valves and pressure release valves as mechanical regulation devices. A mathematical analysis of Watt's governor was done by James Clerk Maxwell in 1868. A centrifugal governor is a specific type of governor that controls the speed of an engine by regulating the amount of fuel admitted, so as to maintain a near constant speed whatever the load or fuel supply conditions. ... For other persons named James Watt, see James Watt (disambiguation). ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Analysis has its beginnings in the rigorous formulation of calculus. ... James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist. ...


The Great Eastern was one of the largest steamships of its time and employed a steam powered rudder with feedback mechanism designed in 1866 by J.McFarlane Gray. Joseph Farcot coined the word servo in 1873 to describe steam powered steering systems. Hydraulic servos were later used to position guns. Elmer Ambrose Sperry of the Sperry Corporation designed the first autopilot in 1912. Nicolas Minorsky published a theoretical analysis of automatic ship steering in 1922 and described the PID controller. The SS Great Eastern was an iron sailing steam ship designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel. ... Look up servo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Elmer Ambrose Sperry (born October 12, 1860 in Cincinnatus, New York; died June 16, 1930 in Brooklyn, New York) was an inventor and entrepreneur. ... Sperry Corporation was a major American equipment and electronics company whose existence spanned more than seven decades of the twentieth century. ... An autopilot is a mechanical, electrical, or hydraulic system used to guide a vehicle without assistance from a human being. ... A proportional–integral–derivative controller (PID controller) is a generic control loop feedback mechanism widely used in industrial control systems. ...


Internal combustion engines of the late 20th century employed mechanical feedback mechanisms such as vacuum advance (see: Ignition timing) but mechanical feedback was replaced by electronic engine management systems once small, robust and powerful single-chip microcontrollers became affordable. Ignition timing in an internal combustion engine is the process of setting the time that a spark will occur in the combustion chamber (during the power stroke) relative to piston position and crankshaft angular velocity. ... An engine control unit (ECU) is an electronic control unit which controls various aspects of an internal combustion engines operation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with embedded microprocessor. ...


In organizations

As an organization seeks to improve its performance, feedback helps it to make required adjustments. For other uses, see Organization (disambiguation). ...


Examples of feedback in organizations:

A financial audit, or more accurately, an audit of financial statements, is the examination by an independent third party of the financial statements of a company or any other legal entity (including governments), resulting in the publication of an independent opinion on whether or not those financial statements are relevant... Performance appraisal, also known as employee appraisal, is a method by which the performance of an employee is evaluated (generally in terms of quality, quantity, cost and time). ... It is a meeting, usually annual, of all shareholders of a corporation (although in large corporations only a small percentage attend) to elect the Board of Directors and hear reports on the companys business situation. ... Consumer research redirects here. ... In human resources, 360-degree feedback, also known as multi-rater feedback, multisource feedback, or multisource assessment, is employee development feedback that comes from all around the employee. ... Image:Http://www. ... A lockout is a work stoppage in which an employer prevents employees from working. ...

See also

Look up Feedback in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... A negative feedback amplifier, or more commonly simply a feedback amplifier, is an amplifier which uses a negative feedback network, generally for improving performance (gain stability, linearity, frequency response etc. ... Audio feedback (also known as the Larsen effect after the Danish scientist, Søren Larsen, who first discovered its principles) is a special kind of feedback which occurs when a sound loop exists between an audio input (for example, a microphone or guitar pickup) and an audio output (for example... For other uses, see Interaction (disambiguation). ... In human-computer interaction, low-key feedback is a type of output that is very subtle, sometimes nearly inperceivable. ... Optical feedback Credit: Profero Graphics Two Screenshots of optical feedback Credit: Profero Graphics Optical feedback is the optical equivalent of acoustic feedback. ... A perverse incentive is a term for an incentive that has the opposite effect of that intended. ... The Nyquist Stability Criterion is a unique and powerfull method for determining the stability of a closed-loop control system. ... Tactition is the sense of pressure perception. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about resonance in physics. ...

References

  1. ^ Richard R Spencer & Ghausi MS (2003). Introduction to electronic circuit design. Upper Saddle River NJ: Prentice Hall/Pearson Education, p. 661. ISBN 0-201-36183-3. 
  2. ^ Rosenblueth A, Wiener N & Bigelow J: Behavior, Purpose and Teleology
  3. ^ Fleming, M., & Levie, W.H. (1993). Instructional message design: principles from the behavioral and cognitive sciences, Second Edition, Englewood Cliffs NJ: Educational Technology Publications. ISBN 0877782539. 
  4. ^ Accreditation provides you with a structured mechanism to assess and improve the quality of your program: The two-loop feedback diagram
  5. ^ With mechanical devices, hunting can be severe enough to destroy the device.

Further reading

  • Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman. Rules of Play. MIT Press. 2004. ISBN 0-262-24045-9. Chapter 18: Games as Cybernetic Systems.
  • Korotayev A., Malkov A., Khaltourina D. Introduction to Social Macrodynamics: Secular Cycles and Millennial Trends. Moscow: URSS, 2006. ISBN 5-484-00559-0
Eric Zimmerman is a game designer and the co-founder and CEO of gameLab, a computer game development company. ... MIT Press Books The MIT Press is a university publisher affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Andrey Korotayev (born in 1961) is an anthropologist, economic historian, and sociologist. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Feedback - definition of Feedback in Encyclopedia (949 words)
Feedback is observed or used in various areas dealing with complex systems, such as engineering, economics, and biology.
Feedback may be negative, which tends to reduce output, or positive, which tends to increase output.
Negative feedback is often deliberately introduced to increase the stability and accuracy of a system, as in the feedback amplifier invented by Harold Stephen Black.
Feedback - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1451 words)
Feedback is observed or used in various areas dealing with complex systems, such as engineering, architecture, economics, and biology.
Feedback may be negative, which tends to reduce output (but in amplifiers, stabilises and linearises operation), or positive, which tends to increase output.
In zymology, feedback serves as regulation of activity of an enzyme by its direct product(s) or downstream metabolite(s) in the metabolic pathway.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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