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Encyclopedia > Federico García Lorca
Federico García Lorca
Federico García Lorca

Federico García Lorca (June 5, 1898August 19, 1936) was a Spanish poet and dramatist, also remembered as a painter, pianist, and composer. An emblematic member of the Generation of '27, he was murdered by Nationalist partisans at the age of 38 at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War. Today he is recognised as one of the great artists of modern Spain. Federico García Lorca File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... 1898 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Generation of 27 (Spanish Generación del 27) was an influential group of poets that arose in Spanish literary circles between 1923 and 1927, essentially out of a shared desire to experience and work with avant-garde forms of art and poetry. ... History of Spain Series -Timeline -Roman Spain -Visigothic Spain -Moorish Spain -Age of Reconquest -Age of Expansion -Age of Enlightenment -Reaction and Revolution -First Spanish Republic -The Restoration -Second Spanish Republic -Spanish Civil War -The Dictatorship -Modern Spain Topics -Economic History -Military History -Social History The Spanish Civil War (July...

Contents

Biography

Born into a family of minor landowners in the village of Fuente Vaqueros, Granada, García Lorca was a precocious child but did not excel at school. In 1909, he moved with his family to the city of Granada, where in time he became deeply involved in local artistic circles. His first collection of poems, Impresiones y paisajes, was published in 1918 to local acclaim but little commercial success. Granada is a province of southern Spain, in the eastern part of the autonomous community of Andalusia. ... 1909 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The City of Granada Alhambra, Courtyard of the Lions Granada is a city and the capital of the province of Granada, in Spain. ... 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Associations made at Granada's Arts Club were to stand him in good stead when he moved in 1919 to the famous Residencia de estudiantes in Madrid. At university he would befriend Luis Buñuel and Salvador Dalí, amongst many others who were or would become influential artists in Spain. Some have claimed he and Dalí were lovers, although serious critics tend to be very sceptical of this. Here he met Gregorio Martínez Sierra, the Director of Madrid's Teatro Eslava, at whose invitation he wrote and staged his first play, El maleficio de la mariposa, in 1919-20. A verse play dramatising the impossible love between a cockroach and a butterfly, with a supporting cast of other insects, it was laughed off stage by an unappreciative public after only four performances and soured Lorca's attitude to the theatre-going public for the rest of his career -- he would later claim that 1927's Mariana Pineda was his first play. 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Coat of arms The Plaza de España square Madrid, the capital of Spain, is located in the center of the country at 40°25′ N 3°45′ W. Population of the city of Madrid proper was 3,093,000 (Madrilenes, madrileños) as of 2003 estimates. ... Luis Buñuel (February 22, 1900 – July 29, 1983) was a Spanish-born surrealist filmmaker and poet. ... Salvador Dalí as photographed in 1934 by Carl Van Vechten Salvador Domenec Felip Jacint Dalí Domenech ( May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989) was an important Catalan- Spanish painter, best known for his surrealist works. ... Gregorio Martínez Sierra (1881-1947), Spanish writer, dramatist and theatre director. ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... 1927 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Over the next few years García Lorca became increasingly involved in his art and Spain's avant-garde. He published three further collections of poems including the Romancero Gitano (1928, translated as 'Gypsy Ballads', 1953), his best known book of poetry, and his second play Mariana Pineda opened to great acclaim in Barcelona in 1927. 1928 was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1927 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


However, towards the end of the 1920s, García Lorca fell victim to increasing depression, a situation exacerbated by his anguish over the increasingly unsuccessful concealment of his homosexuality from friends and family. In this he was deeply affected by the success of his Romancero Gitano, which increased—through the celebrity it brought him—the painful dichotomy of his life: he was trapped between the persona of the successful author, which he was forced to maintain in public, and the tortured self, which he could only acknowledge in private. Growing estrangement between Lorca and his closest friends reached its climax when the two Surrealists Dalí and Buñuel collaborated on the film Un chien andalou ("An Andalusian Dog", 1929), which Lorca interpreted, perhaps erroneously, as an allusion to or even attack on him. At the same time, his intensely passionate but fatally one-sided affair with the sculptor Emilio Aladrén was collapsing as the latter became involved with his future wife. Aware of these problems (though not perhaps of their causes), Lorca's family arranged for him to take a lengthy tour of the United States in 1929-30. Sometimes referred to as the Roaring Twenties. Events and trends Technology John T. Thompson invents Thompson submachine gun, also known as Tommy Gun. ... Un chien andalou (An Andalusian Dog in English) is a surrealist short film (16 min. ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ...


García Lorca's stay in America, particularly New York—his first adult experience of a democratic society, albeit one he considered to be dominated by rampant commercialism and the casual social oppression of minority groups—acted as a catalyst for some of his most daring work. His collection of poems, Poeta en Nueva York, explores his alienation and isolation through some graphically experimental poetic techniques, and the two plays Así que pasen cinco años and El público were far ahead of their time—indeed, El público was not published until the late 1970s. State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Events and trends Although in the United States and in many other Western societies the 1970s are often seen as a period of transition between the turbulent 1960s and the more conservative 1980s and 1990s, many of the trends that are associated widely with the Sixties, from the Sexual Revolution...


His return to Spain in 1930 coincided with the fall of the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and the re-establishment of the Spanish Republic. In 1931, Lorca was appointed Director of the government-sponsored student theatre company, La Barraca, whose remit was to tour Spain introducing (predominantly rural) audiences to 'classic' Spanish theatre. While touring with La Barraca, Lorca wrote his best-known plays, the 'rural trilogy' of Bodas de sangre ("Blood Wedding"), Yerma and La casa de Bernarda Alba. He distilled his theories on theatre and performance in his famous speech on The Theory and Function of the Duende, first given in Havana in 1933. 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Spanish dictator Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja (Jerez, January 8, 1870 - Paris, March 16, 1930) was a Spanish military official who ruled Spain as a dictator from 1923 to 1930, ending the turno system of alternating parties. ... 1931 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Havana (Spanish: San Cristóbal de La Habana) is the capital of Cuba and, with a population of 2. ... 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


When war broke out in 1936, García Lorca left Madrid for Granada, even though he was aware that he was almost certainly heading toward his death in a city reputed to have the most conservative oligarchy in Andalucía. García Lorca and his brother-in-law, who was also the socialist mayor of Granada, were soon arrested. He was executed, shot by Falange militia on August 19, 1936 and thrown into an unmarked grave in or around Víznar, near Granada. 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Motto: Dominator Hercules Fundator Andaluc a por s , para Espa a y la humanidad (Andalusia for herself, for Spain, and for humanity) Capital Seville Area  - total  - % of Spain Ranked 2nd 87 268 km 17,2% Population  - Total (2003)  - % of Spain  - Density Ranked 1st 7 478 432 17,9% 85,70... Falange was a totalitarian clerical fascist political organization founded by José Antonio Primo de Rivera in 1933 in opposition to the Second Spanish Republic. ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The Franco regime placed a general ban on his work, which was not rescinded until 1953 when a (heavily censored) Obras completas was released. That Obras did not include his late Sonnets of Dark Love, written in November 1935 and performed only for close friends - these were lost until 1983/4 when they were finally published. It was only after Franco's death in 1975 that Lorca's life and death could be openly discussed in Spain. It took until the 1990s for his sexual orientation to be acknowledged, and then only by scholars and biographers. Francisco Franco, late in life Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde Salgado Pardo de Andrade (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), abbreviated Francisco Franco Bahamonde and sometimes known as Generalísimo Francisco Franco, was dictator of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975. ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Francisco Franco, late in life Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde Salgado Pardo de Andrade (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), abbreviated Francisco Franco Bahamonde and sometimes known as Generalísimo Francisco Franco, was dictator of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975. ... 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... Events and trends Technology Explosive growth of the Internet; decrease in the cost of computers and other technology Reduction in size and cost of mobile phones leads to a massive surge in their popularity Year 2000 problem (commonly known as Y2K) Microsoft Windows operating system becomes virtually ubiquitous on IBM...


In 1986, Leonard Cohen's English translation of the poem "Pequeño vals vienés" by Lorca reached #1 in the Spanish single charts (as "Take This Waltz", music by Cohen). 1986 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Leonard Cohen Leonard Norman Cohen (born September 21, 1934 in Montreal, Quebec) is a Canadian poet and novelist, and a well-known singer/songwriter. ...


Today, García Lorca is honored by a statue prominently located in Madrid's Plaza de Victoria. Political philosopher David Crocker reports that "the statue, at least, is still an emblem of the contested past: each day, the Left puts a red kerchief on the neck of the statue, and someone from the Right comes later to take it off." [1] (http://www.cceia.org/viewMedia.php/prmTemplateID/3/prmID/957)


Major works

Poetry

  • Impresiones y paisajes ("Impressions and Landscapes", 1918)
  • Libro de poemas ("Book of Poems", 1921)
  • Canciones ("Songs", 1927)
  • Primer romancero gitano ("Gypsy Ballads", 1928)
  • Poema del cante jondo ("Poem of Deep Song", 1931)
  • Sonetos del amor oscuro ("Sonnets of Dark Love", 1935)
  • Primeras canciones ("First Songs", 1936)
  • Poeta en Nueva York (published posthumously in 1940, first translation into English as "A Poet in New York", 1988)

Theatre

El maleficio de la mariposa (The Butterflys Evil Spell) was the first play by the Spanish dramatist Federico García Lorca. ... Mariana Pineda is a play by the Spanish playwright Federico García Lorca. ... La zapatera prodigiosa (The Shoemakers Wonderful Wife) is a play by the Spanish playwright Federico García Lorca. ... Amor de Don Perlimpín con Belisa en su jardín (Love of Don Perlimpín with Belisa in the Garden) is a play by the Spanish playwright Federico García Lorca. ... Bodas de Sangre (Blood Wedding) is a play by the Spanish playwright Federico García Lorca. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Doña Rosita la soltera (Doña Rosita the Spinster) is a play by the Spanish playwright Federico García Lorca. ... Retablillo de Don Cristóbal (The Puppet-Play of Don Cristóbal) is a play for puppet theatre by the Spanish playwright Federico García Lorca. ... Así que pasen cinco años (When Five Years Pass) is a play by the Spanish playwright Federico García Lorca. ... La casa de Bernada Alba (The House of Bernada Alba) is a play by the Spanish playwright Federico García Lorca. ... El público (The Public or The Audience) is a highly experimental avant-garde play by the Spanish playwright Federico García Lorca. ... Comedia sin título (Untitled Play) is an unfinished experimental play by the Spanish playwright Federico García Lorca. ...

Playlets

  • El paseo de Buster Keaton ("Buster Keaton goes for a stroll", 1928)
  • La doncella, el marinero y el estudiante ("The Maiden, the Sailor and the Student", 1928)
  • Quimera ("Dream", 1928)

Joseph Francis Keaton (October 4, 1895 – February 1, 1966), always known as Buster Keaton, was a popular and influential American silent_film comic actor and filmmaker. ...

Filmscripts

  • Viaje a la luna ("Trip to the Moon", 1929)

Quotes

  • "In Spain, the dead are more alive than the dead of any other country in the world."

External links

  • Lorca on CyberSpain.com (http://www.cyberspain.com/passion/lorca.htm) with photographs
  • Lorca biography on boppin.com (http://boppin.com/lorca/) with photo and translations of some poems

 
 

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