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Encyclopedia > Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland



1953 – 1963


Flag
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem
God Save the Queen
The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
Capital Salisbury
Language(s) English
Government Constitutional monarchy
Monarch
 - 1953-1963 Elizabeth II
Governor-General
 - 1953-1957 Lord Llewellin
 - 1957-1963 The Earl of Dalhousie
 - 1963 Sir Humphrey Gibbs
Prime Minister
 - 1953-1956 Sir Godfrey Huggins
 - 1956-1963 Sir Roy Welensky
History
 - Established 1 August, 1953
 - Disestablished 31 December, 1963
Currency Pound
Malawi
This article is part of the series:
History of Malawi
British Central Africa
Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
Nyasaland
Malawi -
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Zambia
This article is part of the series:
History of Zambia
Early history -1888
Colonial era 1888-1964
Federation 1953-1963
Independence 1964-
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Zimbabwe
This article is part of the series:
History of Zimbabwe
Matabeleland ; Mashonaland
Southern Rhodesia
Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
Rhodesia
Zimbabwe Rhodesia
History of Zimbabwe -
WP:AFRICA -  This box: view  talk  edit 
Shield of the CAF arms: Rising sun representing Nysasland, the lion passant representing Southern Rhodesia, and the Black and White wavy lines representing Northern Rhodesia

The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, also known as Central African Federation (CAF), was a semi-independent state in southern Africa that existed from 1953 to the end of 1963, comprising the former British protectorates of Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia, and Nyasaland. It was a federal realm of the British Crown -- not a colony, and not a dominion although the British Sovereign was represented by a Governor-General, as usual for dominions. It was intended to eventually become a dominion in the Commonwealth of Nations. Flag of Northern Rhodesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Northern_Rhodesia-1939. ... Southern Rhodesia was the name of the British colony situated immediately to the north of South Africa, known today as Zimbabwe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Southern_Rhodesia. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Image File history File links Nyasaland_flag. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Northern_Rhodesia-1939. ... Flag of Northern Rhodesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Rhodesia_(1964). ... Southern Rhodesia was the name of the British colony situated immediately to the north of South Africa, known today as Zimbabwe. ... Image File history File links Nyasaland_flag. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Federation_of_Rhodesia_and_Nyasaland. ... Image File history File links Caf-badge. ... Flag of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland The Flag of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland was a defaced British Blue Ensign. ... Image:Caf-coa. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Publication of an early version in The Gentlemans Magazine, 15 October 1745. ... Image File history File links CAF-map-2. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Harare (pronounced , formerly Salisbury) is the capital city of Zimbabwe. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the head of state of the United Kingdom and in the British overseas territories. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... This is a list of the men who served as Governor-General of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (also known as the Central African Federation). ... John Jestyn Llewellin, 1st Baron Llewellin, PC (February 6, 1893 - January 24, 1957) was a British army officer, Conservative politician and minister in Winston Churchills war government. ... The Right Honourable Simon Ramsay, 16th Earl of Dalhousie, KT, GCVO, GBE, MC, DL (17 October 1914–15 July 1999) was a British land-owner, statesman and politician. ... Sir Humphrey Gibbs, c1965. ... The Prime Minister of Rhodesia (until 1963 Prime Minister of Southern Rhodesia) was the head of government in the colony of Rhodesia. ... Sir Godfrey Huggins Godfrey Martin Huggins, 1st Viscount Malvern CH KCMG PC (July 6, 1883 - May 8, 1971) was a Rhodesian politician and physician. ... Sir Roy Welensky (January 20, 1907 - December 5, 1991) was a white African politician and the second and final prime minister of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. ... August 1 is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The pound was the currency of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. ... Hominid remains and stone implements have been identified in Malawi dating back more than one million years, and early humans inhabited the vicinity of Lake Malawi 50,000 to 60,000 years ago. ... Flag of British Central Africa The British Central Africa Protectorate existed in the area of present-day Malawi between 1891 and 1907. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... This article deals with the history of the country now called Zambia from prehistoric times to the present. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Flag of Northern Rhodesia. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... This is the history of Zimbabwe, a country in southern Africa. ... Matabeleland is a region in the west and south-west of Zimbabwe, between the Limpopo and Zambezi rivers. ... Mashonaland is a region in northern Zimbabwe. ... Southern Rhodesia was the name of the British colony situated immediately to the north of South Africa, known today as Zimbabwe. ... Flag of Southern Rhodesia, (BSA) chartered company administration. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Southern_Rhodesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Federation_of_Rhodesia_and_Nyasaland. ... Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... Image File history File links Flag of Rhodesia, 1965–1968. ... Zimbabwe Rhodesia was the (largely unrecognised) name of Zimbabwe during 1979, adopted by Rhodesia soon after an Internal Settlement between the white minority Rhodesian Government led by Ian Smith and small, moderate African nationalist parties not involved in the war that had been raging in the country since 1977. ... Image File history File links Zimbabwe-Rhodesia_Flag. ... This is the history of Zimbabwe, a country in southern Africa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Zimbabwe. ... Image File history File links Caf-badge. ... Image File history File links Caf-badge. ... A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Southern Rhodesia was the name of the British colony situated immediately to the north of South Africa, known today as Zimbabwe. ... Flag of Northern Rhodesia. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1999)  -  Ransford Smith Establishment  -  as British Commonwealth 1926   -  as the Commonwealth 1949  Membership 53 sovereign states Website thecommonwealth. ...


The Federation was established on August 1, 1953, with goal to create a middle way between the newly independent and socialist black independent states and the white-dominated governments of South Africa, Angola, and Mozambique. It was intended to be a perpetual entity, but ultimately crumbled because the black African nationalists wanted a greater share of power than the dominant white population was willing to concede. August 1 is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ...


Newly independent black African states were united in wanting to end all forms of colonialism in Africa. With most of the world moving away from colonialism during this time (late 1950's - early 1960's), the United Kingdom (UK) was subjected to much pressure from the United Nations and the Organization of African Unity, which supported the aspirations of the black African nationalists. The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Flag of the Organisation of African Unity, later also used by the African Union. ...


The Federation officially collapsed on 31 December 1963, when Northern Rhodesia gained independence from UK as the new nation of Zambia and Nyasaland gained independence as the new nation of Malawi. Southern Rhodesia became known as Rhodesia and is now Zimbabwe. December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ...

Contents

Constitutional origins

It was commonly understood that S. Rhodesia would be the dominant territory in the federation -- economically, electorally, and militarily. How much so defined much of the lengthy constitutional negotiations and modifications that followed. African political opposition and nationalist aspirations, for the time, were mute.


Decisive factors in both the creation and dissolution of the Federation were the significant difference between the number of Africans and Europeans in the Federation, and the difference between the number Europeans in S. Rhodesia compared to the Northern Protectorates. Compounding this was the significant growth in S. Rhodesia's European settler population (overwhelmingly British migrants), unlike in the Northern Protectorates. This was to greatly shape future developments in the Federation. In 1939, approximately 60,000 Europeans resided in S. Rhodesia; shortly before the Federation was established there were 135,000; by the time the Federation was dissolved they reached 223,000 (though newcomers could only vote after three years of residency). Nyasaland showed the least European and greatest African population growth.

Numbers of white and black inhabitants before the CAF
Year Southern Rhodesia Northern Rhodesia Nyasaland
White Black White Black White Black
1927 38,200 922,000 4,000 1,000,000 1,700 1,350,000
1946 80,500 1,640,000 20,000 1,600,000 2300 2,340,000

The dominant role played by the Southern Rhodesian European population within the CAF is reflected in that played by its first leader, Godfrey Martin Huggins, 1st Viscount Malvern, prime minister of the Federation for its first three years, and prior to that, prime minister of S. Rhodesia for an uninterrupted 23 years. Image File history File links Low resolution image of Sir Godfrey Martin Huggins, 1st Viscount Malvern, Prime Minister of Southern Rhodesia and the Central African Federation. ... Sir Godfrey Martin Huggins, 1st Viscount Malvern (July 6, 1883 - May 8, 1971) was a Rhodesian politician and physician. ... Sir Godfrey Martin Huggins, 1st Viscount Malvern (July 6, 1883 - May 8, 1971) was a Rhodesian politician and physician. ...


Rather than a federation, Huggins favoured an amalgamation, creating a single state. But after World War II, Britain opposed this because S. Rhodesia's would dominate the property and income franchise (which excluded the vast majority of Africans) due to its much larger European population. A federation was intended to curtail this. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A map displaying todays federations. ...


The fate of the Federation was contested in the British government by two principal organisations in deep ideological, personal and professional rivalry -- Colonial Office (CO) and the Commonwealth Relations Office (CRO; and previously with it the Dominion Office, abolished in 1947). The CO ruled the northern territories of Nyasaland and N. Rhodesia, while the CRO was formally but indirectly in charge of S. Rhodesia. The Northern Territories opposed a S. Rhodesian hegemony, one that the CRO promoted. Significantly, the CO tended to be more sympathetic to African rights than the CRO, which tended to promote the interests of the S. Rhodesian (and to a lesser extent, N. Rhodesian) European settler populations. The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet official in charge of managing the various British colonies. ... The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for promoting the interests of the United Kingdom abroad. ... The position of Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs was a British cabinet level position created in 1925 to deal with British relations with the Dominions — Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Newfoundland, and the Irish Free State. ...


It was convenient to have all three territories colonised by Cecil Rhodes under one constitution. But, for Huggins and the Rhodesian establishment, the central economic motive behind the CAF (or amalgamation) had always been the abundant copper deposits of N. Rhodesia. Unlike the Rhodesias, Nyasaland had no sizable deposits of minerals and its tiny community of Europeans, largely Scottish, was relatively sympathetic to African aspirations. Its inclusion in the Federation was always more a symbolic gesture than a practical necessity. Ironically, it was to be largely Nyasaland and its African population where the impetus for destabilization of the CAF arose, leading to its dissolution. General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Standard atomic weight 63. ... “Scot” redirects here. ...


Arduous negotiations

On 8 November 1950, the first negotiations for a federal state for the Rhodesias and Nyasaland began. While many points of contention were worked out in the conferences that followed, several proved to be acute, and some, seemingly insurmountable. The negotiations and conferences were arduous. S. Rhodesia and the Northern Territories had very different traditions for the 'Native Question' (black Africans) and the roles they were designed to play in civil society. November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...


An agreement would likely not have been reached without Sir Andrew Cohen, CO Assistant Undersecretary for African Affairs. He became one of the central architects and driving forces behind the creation of the Federation, often seemingly single-handedly untangling deadlocks and outright walkouts on the part of the respective parties. Sir Andrew Benjamin Cohen (1909-1968) was Governor of Uganda from 1952 to 1957. ...


Cohen, who was Jewish and traumatized by the Holocaust, was an anti-racialist and an advocate of African rights. But he compromised his ideals to avoid what he saw as an even greater risk than the continuation of the paternalistic white ascendancy system of S. Rhodesia -- its becoming an even less flexible, radical white supremacy, like the National Party government in South Africa. Historian Robert Blake writes, "In that sense, Apartheid can be regarded as the father of Federation." For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... ... Robert Norman William Blake, Baron Blake (December 23, 1916 - September 20, 2003) was an English historian, best known for his 1966 biography of Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ...


It took nearly three years for the CAF to be established.


Elaborate structure

Following the insistences and reassurances of S. Rhodesian Prime Minister, Sir Godfrey Martin Huggins, nearly 25,000 white S. Rhodesians voted in a referendum for federation, versus nearly 15,000 against. Africans in all three territories were resolutely against it. A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Sir Godfrey Martin Huggins, 1st Viscount Malvern (July 6, 1883 - May 8, 1971) was a Rhodesian politician and physician. ...


The semi-independent Federation was finally established, with five branches of government: one Federal, three Territorial, and one British (with its insipid CO-CRO rivalry). This often translated into confusion and jurisdictional rivalry among various levels of government. According to Blake, it proved to be "one of the most elaborately governed countries in the world."


Huggins became the first Prime Minister (PM) from 1953 to 1956, followed by Sir Roy Welensky from 1956 to the Federation's dissolution in 1963. Sir Roy Welensky (January 20, 1907 - December 5, 1991) was a white African politician and the second and final prime minister of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. ...


Huggins resigned as S. Rhodesia's PM to become PM of the Federation. The position of S. Rhodesian PM was one again, as prior to Britain's Ministerial Titles Act of 1933, reduced to a Premier and taken by the soon-to-be controversial Sir Garfield Todd. The Honourable Rev Sir Garfield Todd (July 13, 1908 - October 13, 2002) was prime minister of Southern Rhodesia from 1953 to 1958 and later became an opponent of white minority rule in Rhodesia. ...


In S. Rhodesia, most United Rhodesia Party (UP) cabinet members joined Huggins. There was a marked exodus to the more prestigious realm of Federal politics, and it was considered that Todd's position and Territorial politics in general had become relatively unimportant, a place for the less ambitious politician. In fact, it was to prove decisive both to the future demise of the CAF, and to the rise of the Rhodesian Front. The name United Rhodesia Party and the acronym, URP, refer to two political parties in Southern Rhodesia. ...


Economic growth and political liberalism

Federation Five Pound Note (1961)
Federation Five Pound Note (1961)

Despite its convoluted government structure, the CAF economy was a success. In the first year of the federation, its GDP was an impressive £350 million; two years later it was nearly £450 million. Yet the average income of a European remained approximately ten times that of an African employed in the cash economy, and only one third of Africans were. Image File history File links Fed-money. ... Image File history File links Fed-money. ...


In 1955, the creation of the Kariba hydro-electric power station was announced. It was a remarkable feat of engineering creating the largest human-built dam on the planet at the time and costing £78 million. Its location highlighted the rivalry among Southern and Northern Rhodesia, with the former attaining its favoured location for the dam. Lake Kariba The Kariba Dam is a hydroelectric dam in the Kariba Gorge of the Zambezi river basin in Southern Africa. ... Hydroelectricity is the worlds most important renewable energy source The Nagarjuna dam & hydro-electric plant, India Hydroelectricity is electricity produced by hydropower. ...


The CAF brought a decade of liberalism with respect to African rights. There were African junior ministers in the S. Rhodesia-dominated CAF, while a decade earlier only 70 Africans qualified to vote in the S. Rhodesian elections.


The property and income-qualified franchise of the CAF was, therefore, now much more loose. While this troubled many whites, they continued to follow Huggins with the CAF’s current structure, in largely due to the economic growth. But to Africans, this increasingly proved dissatisfactory and their leaders began to voice demands for majority rule.


Rise of African nationalism

Rhodesia and Nyasaland half penny, 1958
Rhodesia and Nyasaland half penny, 1958

African dissent in the CAF grew, and at the same time British circles expressed objections to its structure and purpose -- full Commonwealth membership leading to independence. Image File history File links ZWE006. ... Image File history File links ZWE006. ...


In June 1956, Southern Rhodesia’s Governor, Sir Arthur Benson, wrote a highly confidential letter heavily criticizing the Federation in general (and the new constitution planned for it) and Federal Prime Minister, Sir Roy Welensky, in particular. Nearly two years later, Huggins (now Lord Malvern) somehow obtained a copy of it and disclosed its contents to Welensky.


Relations between Whitehall and the CAF cabinet were never to recover. These events, for the first time brought the attention of British Tory Prime Minister, Harold Macmillan, to a crisis emerging in the CAF, but apparently he did not fully comprehend the gravity of the situation, attributing the row to the old CO-CRO rivalry and to Welensky taking personal offence to the letter’s contents. For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation). ... Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986), was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ...


The issues of this specific row were in the immediate sense resolved quietly with some constitutional amendments, but it is now known that Welensky was seriously considering contingencies for a Unilateral Declaration of Independence for the CAF, though he ended up opting against it. The Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) was signed on November 11, 1965 by the white minority government of Ian Smith, whose Rhodesian Front party opposed rushed moves by the United Kingdom towards black majority rule in the then British colony. ...


Meanwhile, towards the end of the decade, in the Northern Territories, Africans protested the white minority rule of CAF. In July 1958, Dr. Hastings Banda, the leader of African National Congress (ANC) of Nyasaland (later Malawi Congress Party) returned to Nyasaland, while in October the militant Kenneth Kaunda became the leader of the Zambian African National Congress (ZANC), a faction from the Northern Rhodesian ANC. The increasingly-rattled CAF authorities banned ZANC in March 1959, and imprisoned Kaunda for nine months in June. While Kaunda was in jail, his loyal lieutenant Mainza Chona worked with other African nationalists to create the United National Independence Party (UNIP), a successor to ZANC. In early 1959, unrest broke out in Nyasaland, which, according to historian Robert Blake, was "economically the poorest, politically the most advanced and numerically the least Europeanized of the three Territories." Hastings Kamuzu Banda (1896? – 25 November 1997) was the President of Malawi, from 1966 to 1994. ... The Malawi Congress Party is a political party in Malawi, mainly strong in the central region populated by ethnic Chewa and Nyanja. ... Kenneth Kaunda Kenneth David Kaunda, commonly known as KK (born April 28, 1924) was the first President of Zambia (1964–1991). ... The Zambian African National Congress was a political organisation dedicated to promoting the rights of black people in Zambia. ... A faction is a special interest group. ... Mainza Mathias Chona (21 June 1930–11 December 2001) was a Zambian politician. ... The United National Independence Party is a political party in Zambia. ...


The CAF government declared a state of emergency. Banda and the rest of Nyasaland’s ANC leadership were arrested and their party outlawed. Southern Rhodesian troops were deployed to bring order. British Labour MP John Stonehouse, was expelled from Southern Rhodesia shortly before the state of emergency was proclaimed in Nyasaland, which outraged the British Labour Party. The Labour Party is a centre-left or social democratic political party in Britain (see British politics), and one of the United Kingdoms three main political parties. ...


The affair drew the whole concept of the CAF into question and even Macmillan began to express misgivings about its political viability (though, economically, he felt it was sound). A Royal Commission to advise Macmillan on the future of the CAF, to be led by Walter Monckton, was in the works. Commonwealth Secretary, Sir Alec Douglas-Home (later Lord Home), was sent to prepare Welensky, who was distinctly displeased about the arrival of the Commission.


Welensky at least found Douglas-Home in support to the existence of the CAF. By contrast, Douglas-Home’s rival, Colonial Secretary Ian Macleod favoured African rights and dissolving the CAF. Although Macmillan at the time supported Douglas-Home, the changes were already on the horizon. In Britain, Macmillan said that it was essential "to keep the Tory party on modern and progressive lines", noting electoral developments and especially the rise of the Liberal Party.


Dissolution

By the early 1960s, Macmillan went on his famous African tour leading to his Wind of Change speech in the parliament of the Cape. Change was well underway. By 1960, French African colonies had already become independent. Belgium more hastily vacated its colony and thousands of European refugees fled the Belgian Congo (later called Zaire, later the Democratic Republic of Congo) from the brutalities of the civil war and into S. Rhodesia. The Wind of Change speech was a historically-important address made by British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan to the Parliament of South Africa, on 3 February 1960 in Cape Town. ... The Parliament of South Africa is South Africas legislature and is composed of the National Assembly of South Africa and the National Council of Provinces. ... Combatants Congo  UN troops Katanga  Belgium Mercenaries The Congo Crisis (1960-1965) was a period of turmoil in the First Republic of the Congo that began with national independence from Belgium and ended with the seizing of power by Joseph Mobutu. ... Motto: Travail et Progres (Work and Progress) The Belgian Congo Capital Léopoldville/Leopoldstad Political structure Colony Governor  - 1908-1910 Baron Wahis  - 1946-1951 Eugène Jacques Pierre Louis Jungers  - 1958-1960 Henri Arthur Adolf Marie Christopher Cornelis History  - Established 15 November, 1908  - Congolese independence 30 June, 1960 The Belgian...


During the Congolese crisis, Africans increasingly viewed CAF Prime Minister, Sir Roy Welensky, as an arch-reactionary and his support for Katanga separatism added to this. Ironically, a few years later, in his by-election campaign against Ian Smith’s Rhodesian Front, RF supporters heckled the comparatively moderate Welensky with cries of 'bloody Jew,' 'Communist,' and 'traitor'. Country Democratic Republic of the Congo Capital Lubumbashi Largest city Lubumbashi National language Swahili, Tshiluba Land area¹ 496. ... The Rt Hon Ian Smith, Prime Minister of Rhodesia, 1964 (official portrait) Ian Douglas Smith GCLM ID (born 8 April 1919) was the Premier of the British Crown Colony of Southern Rhodesia from 13 April 1964 to 11 November 1965, and Prime Minister of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) from 11 November... The Rhodesian Front (RF) was a political party in Southern Rhodesia, later known as Rhodesia, now called Zimbabwe, when the country was under white minority rule. ...


The new Commonwealth Secretary, Duncan Sandys, negotiated the '1961 Constitution', a new constitution for the CAF which greatly reduced Britain's powers over it. But by 1962, the British and the CAF cabinet had agreed that Nyasaland should be allowed to secede, though S. Rhodesian Premier, Sir Edgar Whitehead, committed the British to keep this secret until after the 1962 election in the territory. A year later, the same status was given to N. Rhodesia, decisively ending the Federation in the immediate future.


In 1963, the Victoria Falls conference was held, partly as a last effort to save the CAF, and partly as a forum to dissolve it. After nearly collapsing several times, it ended by 5 July 1963, and the Federation was virtually dissolved. Only the appropriation of its assets remained as a formality. Victoria Falls entrance Africas Victoria Falls or Mosi-oa-Tunya (the smoke that thunders) are, by some measures, the largest waterfall on the planet, as well as being among the most unusual in form, and having arguably the most diverse and easily-seen wildlife of any major waterfall site. ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 179 days remaining. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ...


By 31 December, the CAF was formally dissolved and its assets distributed among the Territorial governments. S. Rhodesia obtained the vast majority of these including the assets of the Federal army, to which it had overwhelmingly contributed. Soon N. Rhodesia gained independence as Zambia under majority rule, led by Kenneth Kaunda, and Nyasaland as Malawi led by Hastings Banda. December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Majoritarianism (often also called majority rule) is a political philosophy or agenda which asserts that a majority (sometimes categorized by religion, language or some other identifying factor) of the population is entitled to a certain degree of primacy in society, and has the right to make decisions that affect the... Kenneth Kaunda Kenneth David Kaunda, commonly known as KK (born April 28, 1924) was the first President of Zambia (1964–1991). ... Hastings Kamuzu Banda (1896? – 25 November 1997) was the President of Malawi, from 1966 to 1994. ...


On November 11, 1965 S. Rhodesia made a unilateral declaration of independence (UDI) from Britain, while under the Rhodesian Front government led by Prime Minister Ian Smith. This attracted the world's attention. In time, Zambia and Malawi became single-party states. November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... The Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) was signed on November 11, 1965 by the white minority government of Ian Smith, whose Rhodesian Front party opposed rushed moves by the United Kingdom towards black majority rule in the then British colony. ... The Rhodesian Front (RF) was a political party in Southern Rhodesia, later known as Rhodesia, now called Zimbabwe, when the country was under white minority rule. ... The Rt Hon Ian Smith, Prime Minister of Rhodesia, 1964 (official portrait) Ian Douglas Smith GCLM ID (born 8 April 1919) was the Premier of the British Crown Colony of Southern Rhodesia from 13 April 1964 to 11 November 1965, and Prime Minister of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) from 11 November... States in which the constitution mandates power to a sole party are colored brown. ...


Historical legacy

Although CAF lasted only 10 years, it had an important impact on Central Africa.


Its white minority-rule, having several hundred thousand Europeans (in S. Rhodesia) versus millions of Africans, was largely driven by anachronistic reformism. It was a paternalistic, mild racialism as exhibited by Huggins, which had more in common with the late 19th than the mid-20th century.


At the same time, the British influenced and affiliated CAF, contrasted with the only other regional power, the explicitly racist Republic of South Africa. The dissolution of the CAF highlighted the independent African-led nations of Zambia and Malawi, while S. Rhodesia remained ruled by a white minority government until Zimbabwean independence in 1980. Much of that period was marked by civil war.


Following S. Rhodesia's unilateral declaration of independence, a growing conflict emerged between two of the former CAF territories -- Zambia (supporting African nationalists) and S. Rhodesia (supported by South Africa) -- with much heated diplomatic rhetoric, and at times, outright military hostility.


Postage stamps from the Federation

CAF issued stamp

The Federation issued its first postage stamps in 1954, all with a portrait of Queen Elizabeth II in three kinds of designs, and inscribed "RHODESIA & NYASALAND". The first to appear was the 2 1/2 pence, on 15 February. The remainder were 15 values from a halfpenny to one pound, on 1 July. Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... A selection of Hong Kong postage stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... A variety of low value coins, including an Irish 2p piece and many U.S. pennies. ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A variety of low value coins, including an Irish 2p piece and many U.S. pennies. ... ISO 4217 Code GBP User(s) United Kingdom, Crown Dependencies Inflation 2. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 183 days remaining. ...


A pair of commemorative stamps in 1955 signaled the 100th anniversary of David Livingstone's discovery of Victoria Falls, and a definitive series in 1959 consisted of 15 stamps depicting local scenery and industries. The Common Man featured in a commemorative golden postage stamp released by the Indian Postal Service on the 150th anniversary of the Times of India - 1988 A commemorative stamp is a postage stamp issued to honor or commemorate a place, event or person. ... David Livingstone (19 March 1813 – 4 May 1873) was a Scottish Presbyterian pioneer medical missionary with the London Missionary Society and explorer in central Africa. ... Victoria Falls entrance Africas Victoria Falls or Mosi-oa-Tunya (the smoke that thunders) are, by some measures, the largest waterfall on the planet, as well as being among the most unusual in form, and having arguably the most diverse and easily-seen wildlife of any major waterfall site. ... A definitive postage stamp is a regular issue stamp that is part of a definitive issue or definitive series consisting of a range of denominations sufficient to cover all postal rates usefully. ...


Six additional special issues appeared in subsequent years. The last was issued 11 September 1963 to mark the World Council of the Young Men's Service Clubs that was held at the University College of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ...


Nearly all of the stamps of Rhodesia and Nyasaland are cheaply available today, except of the highest values of the 1954 and 1959 series, which go for US$10-$20.


See also

This is a list of the men who served as Governor-General of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (also known as the Central African Federation). ... The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland general election of December 15, 1953 was the first election to the legislative assembly of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, which had been formed a few months before. ... Flag of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland The Flag of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland was a defaced British Blue Ensign. ... The Government of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland was established in 1953 and ran the Federation until its dissolution at the end of 1963. ... The Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) was signed on November 11, 1965 by the white minority government of Ian Smith, whose Rhodesian Front party opposed rushed moves by the United Kingdom towards black majority rule in the then British colony. ...

References

  • Franklin, Henry. Unholy wedlock: the failure of the Central African Federation (G. Allen & Unwin, London, 1963).
  • Blake, Robert. A History of Rhodesia (Eyre Methuen, London 1977).
  • Hancock, Ian. White Liberals, Moderates, and Radicals in Rhodesia, 1953-1980 (Croom Helm, Sydney, Australia, 1984).
  • Mason, Phillip Year of Decision: Rhodesia and Nyasaland in 1960 (Oxford University Press, 1961).
  • Phillips, C. E. Lucas. The vision splendid: the future of the Central African Federation (Heinemann, London, 1960).
  • Leys, Colin and Pratt Cranford (eds.). A new deal in Central Africa (Heinemann, London, 1960).
  • Clegg, Edward Marshall. Race and politics: partnership in the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. (Oxford University Press, 1960).
  • Gray, Richard. The two nations: aspects of the development of race relations in the Rhodesias and Nyasaland (Greenwood Press, Westport, Conn., 1960).
  • Rogaly, Joe. Rhodesia: Britain's deep south. (The Economist, London, 1962).
  • Hall, Richard. The High Price of Principles: Kaunda and the White South (Hodder and Stoughton, London, 1969).
  • Guy Clutton-Brock. Dawn in Nyasaland (Hodder and Stoughton, London 1959).
  • Dorien, Ray. Venturing to the Rhodesias and Nyasaland (Johnson, London, 1962)
  • Hanna, Alexander John. The story of the Rhodesias and Nyasaland. (Faber and Faber, 1965).
  • Black, Colin. The lands and peoples of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (Macmillan, NY, 1961).
  • Sanger, Clyde. Central African emergency (Heinemann, London 1960).
  • Gann, Lewis H. Huggins of Rhodesia: the man and his country (Allen & Unwin, London, 1964).
  • Gann, Lewis H. Central Africa: the former British states (Englewood Cliffs, N. J., Prentice-Hall, 1971).
  • Haw, Richard C. (fwd. by Sir Godfrey Huggins) No other home: Co-existence in Africa (S. Manning, Bulawayo, Southern Rhodesia, 1960?).
  • Taylor, Don. The Rhodesian: the life of Sir Roy Welensky. (Museum Press, London 1965).
  • Wood, J.R.T. The Welensky papers: a history of the federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (Graham Pub., Durban, 1983).
  • Welensky, Roy, Sir. Welensky's 4000 days: the life and death of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (Collins, London, 1964).
  • Allighan, Garry. The Welensky story (Macdonald, London, 1962).
  • Alport, Cuthbert James McCall, Lord. The sudden assignment: being a record of service in central Africa during the last controversial years of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, 1961-1963. (Hodder and Stoughton, London, 1965).
  • Thompson, Cecil Harry. Economic development in Rhodesia and Nyasaland (D. Dobson, Publisher London, 1954)
  • Walker, Audrey A. The Rhodesias and Nyasaland: a guide to official publications (General Reference and Bibliography Division, Reference Dept., Library of Congress: for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1965).
  • Irvine, Alexander George. The balance of payments of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, 1945-1954. (Oxford University Press, 1959.)
  • United States Bureau of Foreign Commerce, Near Eastern and African Division. Investment in the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland: basic information for United States businessmen. (U. S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign Commerce, 1956)
  • Standard Bank of South Africa, Ltd. The federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland: general information for business organisations. (London, 1958).
  • Sowelem, R. A. Toward financial independence in a developing economy: an analysis of the monetary experience of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, 1952-63. (Allen & Unwin, London, 1967).

  Results from FactBites:
 
Rhodesia (172 words)
Rhodesia (after Cecil Rhodes) is the former name of the region of Africa corresponding to modern-day Zimbabwe (Southern Rhodesia) and Zambia (Northern Rhodesia).
In 1961, faced with the independence of African states, Great Britain attempted to create the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland[?], which consisted of the current nations of Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Malawi which at the time were called Southern Rhodesia[?], Northern Rhodesia[?] and Nyasaland respectivelu.
The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland was dissolved on January 1, 1964 upon the independence of Malawi and Zambia.
Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (1505 words)
The Federation was dissolved on 31 December 1963, and Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland gained independence in 1964 as Zambia and Malawi respectively.
Rhodesia reached an impasse between the governments of Southern Rhodesia and the United Kingdom, leading the white minority regime to declare its Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) on 11 November 1965.
The illustration in Znamierowski for the G-G of the Federation of Rhodesian and Nyasaland is incorrect.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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