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Encyclopedia > Federation
A map displaying today's federations.
A map displaying today's federations.

A federation (Latin: foedus, covenant) is a union comprising a number of partially self-governing states or regions united by a central ("federal") government. In a federation, the self-governing status of the component states is typically constitutionally entrenched and may not be altered by a unilateral decision of the central government. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Federation can refer to: Federation - a state governed under the system of federalism. ... Image File history File links Map_of_federal_states. ... Image File history File links Map_of_federal_states. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... A Political Union is a type of state which is composed of smaller states. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Look up Unilateralism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The form of government or constitutional structure found in a federation is known as federalism (see also federalism as a political philosophy). It can be considered the opposite of another system, the unitary state. The government of Germany with sixteen federated Länder is an example of a federation, whereas neighboring Austria and its Bundesländer is a unitary state with administrative divisions that became federated, and neighboring France is by contrast fully unitary, though its subnational entities appear similar to states of a federation government. GOVERNEMENT IS NOT A VIRGIN! Its F***ed Up We Pray To god that he give virginity back Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A form of government is a term that refers to the set of political institutions by which a state... For theological federalism, see Covenant Theology. ... A map showing the unitary states. ... Bundesland (plural Bundesländer), also known as Land (plural Länder) is the German language name for the federal states of Austria and Germany. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Subnational entity is a generic term for an administrative region within a country — on an arbitrary level below that of the sovereign state — typically with a local government encompassing multiple municipalities, counties, or provinces with a certain degree of autonomy in a varying number of matters. ...


Federations may be multi-ethnic, or cover a large area of territory, although neither is necessarily the case. Federations are often founded on an original agreement between a number of sovereign states. This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ...


The international organization for federal countries, the Forum of Federations [1], is based in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. It helps share best practices amongst countries with federal systems of government, and currently includes nine countries as partner governments. This article is about the capital city of Canada. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The term best practice generally refers to the best possible way of doing something; it is used in the fields of business management, software engineering, and medicine. ...

Contents

Federations and other forms of state

A map of the United States of America, showing its fifty constituent states.
A map of the United States of America, showing its fifty constituent states.
A map of the United Mexican States (Mexico), showing its thirty one constituent states and the Federal District.
A map of the United Mexican States (Mexico), showing its thirty one constituent states and the Federal District.

In a federation the component states are regarded as in some sense sovereign, insofar as certain powers are reserved to them that may not be exercised by the central government. However, a federation is more than a mere loose alliance of independent states. The component states of a federation usually possess no powers in relation to foreign policy and so they enjoy no independent status under international law. Image File history File links Map_of_USA_with_state_names. ... Image File history File links Map_of_USA_with_state_names. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Federations usually exhibit a single, two-tier structure of government across an entire jurisdiction. Exceptions may occur in which certain parts of the federation are under more direct control of the federal government, as is the case with the autonomous 'territories' of Canada and Australia, with Union Territories in India and with the United States District of Columbia, as well as with the Federal District of Mexico. In this latter case, the federal government has special constitutional faculties in regards to the appointment and destitution of the local government. However it is not characteristic in a federation for small peripheral regions to be self-governing, while a central, much larger metropolitan region remains under the direct control of the central government.[clarify] ...


Some federations are called asymmetric because some states have more autonomy than others, although they have the same constitutional status. Asymmetric federalism is found in a federation in which different constituent states possess different powers. ...


A federation often emerges from an initial agreement between a number of separate states. The purpose can be the will to solve mutual problems or to provide for mutual defence, or to create a nation state for an ethnicity spread over several states. The former was the case with the United States and Switzerland, the latter with Germany.[clarify] In other cases, like Brazil, the federation comes after a unitary state, as a new model in order to decentralize powers and functions, dividing the territory based in ethnical and cultural diversity[clarify] . Australia is unique in that it came into existence as a nation by the democratic vote of the citizens of each State who voted "yes" in referendums to adopt the Australian Constitution. A nation-state is a specific form of state, which exists to provide a sovereign territory for a particular nation, and which derives its legitimacy from that function. ...


Eight of ten of the World's largest countries by area are governed as Federations. This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ...


Unitary states

A unitary state is sometimes one with only a single, centralised, national tier of government. However, unitary states often also include one or more self-governing regions. The difference between a federation and this kind of unitary state is that in a unitary state the autonomous status of self-governing regions exists by the sufferance of the central government, and may be unilaterally revoked. While it is common for a federation to be brought into being by agreement between a number of formally independent states, in a unitary state self-governing regions are often created through a process of devolution, where a formerly centralised state agrees to grant autonomy to a region that was previously entirely subordinate. Thus federations are often established voluntarily from 'below' whereas devolution grants self-government from 'above'. A map showing the unitary states. ... Look up Devolution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


It is often part of the philosophy of a unitary state that, regardless of the actual status of any of its parts, its entire territory constitutes a single sovereign entity or nation-state, and that by virtue of this the central government exercises sovereignty over the whole territory as of right. In a federation, on the other hand, sovereignty is often regarded as residing notionally in the component states, or as being shared between these states and the central government. The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ...


De facto federations

The distinction between a federation and a unitary state is often quite ambiguous. A unitary state may closely resemble a federation in structure and, while a central government may possess the theoretical right to revoke the autonomy of a self-governing region, it may be politically difficult for it to do so in practice. The self-governing regions of some unitary states also often enjoy greater autonomy than those of some federations. For these reasons, it is sometimes argued that some modern unitary states are de facto federations. De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...


Spain is suggested as one possible de facto federation as it grants more self-government to its autonomous communities than most federations allow their constituent parts. For the Spanish parliament to revoke the autonomy of regions such as Galicia, Catalonia or the Basque Country, or for the United Kingdom government unilaterally to abolish the legislatures of Wales, Northern Ireland or Scotland, would be a political near-impossibility[citation needed], though nothing bars it legally. Additionally, some regions such as Navarra or the Basque Country have full control over taxation and spending, transferring a small payment to the central government for the common services (army, foreign relations, macroeconomic policy). Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article is about the Spanish Autonomous Community. ... Pays Basque) see Northern Basque Country. ... A Legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to create, amend and ratify laws. ... This article is about the country. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... This article is about the country. ... Navarra is the Spanish name for Navarre (Basque: Nafarroa), an ancient kingdom in the Pyrenees, and now a province and an autonomous community in Spain. ...


In the People's Republic of China, a form of de facto federation has evolved without formal legislation. This has occurred as largely informal grants of power to the provinces, to handle economic affairs and implement national policies. This has resulted in a system some have termed "de facto federalism with Chinese characteristics" (in reference to Deng Xiaoping's policy of socialism with Chinese characteristics). Constitutionally, the power vested in the special administrative regions of the People's Republic is granted from the Central People's Government, through decision by the National People's Congress. To revoke the autonomy of the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau is a great political challenge if not impossible altogether. Deng Xiaoping   (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904 – February 19, 1997) was a prominent Chinese politician and reformer, and the late leader of the Communist Party of China (CCP). ... This article is about the term itself and its relationships. ... Special administrative region may be: Peoples Republic of China Special administrative regions, present-day administrative divisions (as of 2006) set up by the Peoples Republic of China to administer Hong Kong (since 1997) and Macau (since 1999) Republic of China Special administrative regions, also translated as special administrative... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with State Council of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Great Hall of the People, where the NPC convenes The National Peoples Congress (全国人民代表大会 in Pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì, literally Pan-Nation Congress of the Peoples Representatives), abbreviated PNCOTPR, is the highest legislative body in the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Other forms of state

The Swiss Confederation and its 26 cantons.
The Swiss Confederation and its 26 cantons.
Confederation
While distinct from a unitary state, a federation is often said to be distinguished from a confederation. By connotation, a confederation is similar in structure to a federation but with a weaker central government. Over time these terms acquired distinct connotations leading to the present difference in definition. An example of this is the United States under the Articles of Confederation. The Articles established a national government under what today would be defined as a federal system (albeit with a comparatively weaker federal government). However, Canada, designed with a stronger central government than the U.S. in the wake of the Civil War of the latter, has always been called a Confederation by Canadians (also a Dominion and/or a Realm, but these do not bear on the current discussion). Ironically, legal reforms, court rulings, and political compromises have greatly decentralised Canada in practice since its formation in 1867.
Empire
An empire is a multi-ethnic state or group of nations with a central government established usually through coercion (on the model of the Roman Empire). An empire will often include self-governing regions but these will possess autonomy only at the sufferance of the central government. The term empire, except where used metaphorically, is usually reserved for an entity headed by an emperor, although his or her constitutional role may be purely ceremonial. An empire may, in some cases, also consist of multiple kingdoms organised together with a high king designated as an emperor. One example of this was Imperial Germany.
Remnants of colonial empires
Colonialism has left behind still other forms of federations. For instance, by charter the Kingdom of the Netherlands is a federation of three countries ("landen"): the Netherlands (in Europe), the Netherlands Antilles, and Aruba. Each country has its own constitution. The Netherlands Antilles and Aruba each has full autonomy in its internal affairs. [2] The Dutch government in The Hague remains responsible for defense and foreign affairs of the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba. With federations of this type, the center of gravity — de jure or de facto — lies in one of the constituent parts, the "mother" country, although unmentioned as such.

Download high resolution version (1000x712, 102 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1000x712, 102 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, commonly known as the Articles of Confederation, was the first governing document, or constitution, of the United States of America. ... This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... This article is about the political and historical term. ... For other uses, see Coercion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... An emperorrefers to Nick Herringshaw, a title, empress may only indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... A high king is a king who holds a position of seniority over a group of other kings. ... This article or section should include material from German Monarchy The term German Empire (the translation from German of Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... The Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands (in Dutch: Statuut voor het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden; in Papiamentu: Statuut pa e Reino di Hulanda) describes the political relationship between the three different countries that form the Kingdom of the Netherlands: the Netherlands in Europe and the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Netherlands Antilles (Dutch: Nederlandse Antillen), previously known as the Netherlands West Indies, are part of the Lesser Antilles and consist of two groups of islands in the Caribbean Sea that form an autonomous part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (none of the other Antilles use this term in... Hague redirects here. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...

European Union

The European Union (EU) possesses some of the attributes of a federal state. However, its central government is far weaker than that of most federations so it is usually characterised as an unprecedented form of supra-national union or confederation. The EU has responsibility for important areas such as trade and monetary union, and today around sixty per cent of the legislation in member-states originates in the institutions of the Union.[citation needed] Nonetheless, EU member-states retain the right to act independently in matters of foreign policy and defence, and also enjoy a near monopoly over other major policy areas such as criminal justice and taxation. Furthermore, member-states are separate, sovereign entities under international law and, currently at least, possess a de facto if not explicit de jure right of secession. The proposed Treaty of Lisbon would codify the Member States' right to leave the Union, but would at the same time also provide the European Union with significantly more power in many areas. The European Union is being given 'legal personality' and taking unto itself powers that it formerly exercised only in a representative capacity for the Member States. A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into European Union. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Treaty of Lisbon (disambiguation). ...


Russian Federation

An interesting example is provided by the Russian Federation. It has inherited its structure from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic that was one of the 15 republics of the Soviet Union and itself was considered a federation. The RSFSR, however, consisted of "autonomous republics" which had a certain degree of autonomy, at least de jure, and of other types of administrative units (mostly oblasts and krays) whose status was the same as that of oblasts in other - unitary - Soviet republics. In today's Russia, republics, oblasts and krays, cities of federal importance, as well as one "autonomous oblast" and "autonomous districts" are equal in legal terms, save some symbolic features of a republic (constitution, president, national language). Some regions have concluded agreements with the Federation so as to modify the degree of their autonomy. It is also to be noted that several "autonomous districts" are part of the territory of a kray, a complicated system that is now being gradually abolished through referendums on merging certain regions. State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 December 30, 1922 December 12, 1991 (independence) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Since 2004, governors of each region, who were previously elected by popular vote, have been appointed by local parliaments upon the proposals by the President of Russia. Local parliaments theoretically have authority not agree with the candidate, but if this occurs twice the parliament must be dissolved and new elections held. This lets some argue that the Russian Federation is not a federation in the strictest sense and that it has rather a government representing a unitary system. [3][not in citation given] Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... The President of Russia (Russian: ) is the Head of State and highest office within the Government of Russia. ...


Soviet Union (USSR)

The constitution of the 1922-1991 Soviet Union (USSR) theoretically provided for a voluntary federation or confederation of soviet socialist republics. Each was notionally governed by its own supreme council and had the right to secede. Furthermore, some republics themselves possessed further nominally self-governing units. Two of them, Belarus and Ukraine, were even members of the United Nations, some other republics had their own foreign ministries. In practice, the system of one-party government found in the Soviet Union meant that governance of the Union was highly centralised, with important decisions taken by the leaders of the Communist Party in Moscow and merely 'rubber stamped' by local institutions. Nonetheless, with the introduction of free, competitive elections in the final years of the Soviet Union, the Union's theoretically federal structure became a reality in practice; this occurred only for a brief interim period, as the elected governments of many republics demanded their right to secede and became independent states. Thus the Soviet Union's de jure federal structure played a key role in its dissolution. Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... A soviet (Russian: , IPA: , council[1]) originally was a workers local council in late Imperial Russia. ... The term socialist state (or socialist republic, or workers state) can carry one of several different (but related) meanings: Strictly speaking, any real or hypothetical state organized along the principles of socialism may be called a socialist state. ... UN redirects here. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Myanmar

Myanmar (formerly Burma) is claimed to have adopted federation status (the country's official name is "Union of Myanmar"). However, after General Ne Win seized power Burma in 1962 and abolished the Constitution of the Union of Burma, the country adopted a unitary system under his military dictatorship. Anthem Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw Largest city Yangon Official languages Burmese Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Than Shwe  -  Prime Minister Soe Win  -  Acting Prime Minister Thein Sein Establishment  -  Bagan 849–1287   -  Taungoo Dynasty 1486–1752   -  Konbaung Dynasty 1752–1885   -  Colonial rule... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... A map showing the unitary states. ... A military dictatorship is a form of government wherein the political power resides with the military; it is similar but not identical to a stratocracy, a state ruled directly by the military. ...


Constitutional structure

Division of powers

In a federation, the division of power between federal and regional governments is usually outlined in the constitution. It is in this way that the right to self-government of the component states is usually constitutionally entrenched. Component states often also possess their own constitutions which they may amend as they see fit, although in the event of conflict the federal constitution usually takes precedence.


In almost all federations the central government enjoys the powers of foreign policy and national defense. Were this not the case a federation would not be a single sovereign state, per the UN definition. Beyond this the precise division of power varies from one nation to another. The United States Constitution provides that all powers not specifically granted to the federal government are retained by the states. The Constitution of Canada, on the other hand, states that powers not explicitly granted to the provincial governments are retained by the federal government. In Germany, the division of powers is less one of content than of administration: the federal government often merely issues broad directives to the Länder (self-governing regions), which then have broad discretion as to how to implement them. Much like the US system, the Australian Constitution allocates to the Federal government (the Commonwealth of Australia) the power to make laws about certain specified matters which were considered too difficult for the States to manage, so that the States retain all other areas of responsibility. Under the division of powers in the Treaty On The Functioning Of The European Union, which forms the second part of the Lisbon Treaty, the only exclusive list of powers are powers given to the European Union; the remaining powers are all to be 'shared' between the new central government and the new provinces. The exact formula for 'sharing' is left open, and may be subject to change. Unlike the Constitutions of the United States and Canada, this leaves open the possibility that with time the 'sharing' could result in more powers being shifted to the central government, possibly one day allowing the creation of a European unitary state. Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada; the countrys constitution is an amalgam of codified acts and uncodified traditions and conventions. ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ...

In Canada, the provincial governments derive all their powers directly from the constitution. In contrast, the territories are subordinate to the federal government and are delegated powers by it.
In Canada, the provincial governments derive all their powers directly from the constitution. In contrast, the territories are subordinate to the federal government and are delegated powers by it.

Where every component state of a federation possesses the same powers, we are said to find 'symmetric federalism'. Asymmetric federalism exists where states are granted different powers, or some possess greater autonomy than others do. This is often done in recognition of the existence of a distinct culture in a particular region or regions. In Spain, "historical communities" such as Navarre, Galicia, Catalonia, and the Basque Country have more powers than other autonomous communities, partly to deal with their distinctness and to appease nationalist leanings, partly out of respect of privileges granted earlier in history. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x1107, 295 KB) Summary Canada: political map – depicting provinces/territories and capital cities. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x1107, 295 KB) Summary Canada: political map – depicting provinces/territories and capital cities. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      Canada is a federation which consists of ten provinces that, with three territories, make up the worlds second largest country in total area. ... Asymmetric federalism is a form of federalism where different constituent states possess different powers. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article is about the Spanish Autonomous Community. ... Pays Basque) see Northern Basque Country. ...


It is common that during the historical evolution of a federation there is a gradual movement of power from the component states to the centre, as the federal government acquires additional powers, sometimes to deal with unforeseen circumstances. The acquisition of new powers by a federal government may occur through formal constitutional amendment or simply through a broadening of the interpretation of a government's existing constitutional powers given by the courts.


Usually, a federation is formed at two levels: the central government and the regions (states, provinces, territories), and little to nothing is said about second or third level administrative political entities. Brazil is an exception, because the 1988 Constitution included the municipalities as autonomous political entities making the federation tripartite, encompassing the Union, the States, and the municipalities. Each state is divided into municipalities (municípios) with their own legislative council (câmara de vereadores) and a mayor (prefeito), which are partly autonomous from both Federal and State Government. Each municipality has a “little constitution”, called “organic law” (lei orgânica). Mexico is an intermediate case, in that municipalities are granted full-autonomy by the federal constitution and their existence as autonomous entities (municipio libre, "free municipality") is established by the federal government and cannot be revoked by the states' constitutions. Moreover, the federal constitution determines which powers and competencies belong exlusively to the municipalities and not to the constituent states. However, municipalities do not have an elected legislative assembly. The United Mexican States are a federation made up by thirty-one free and sovereign states. ...


Federations often employ the paradox of being a union of states, while still being states (or having aspects of statehood) in themselves. For example, James Madison (author of the US Constitution) wrote in Federalist Paper No. 39 that the US Constitution "is in strictness neither a national nor a federal constitution; but a composition of both. In its foundation, it is federal, not national; in the sources from which the ordinary powers of the Government are drawn, it is partly federal, and partly national...." This paradox stems from the fact that states in a federation maintain all sovereignty that they do not yield to the federation by their own consent. (Example: see the Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution or Article 3 of the Constitution of the Swiss Confederation.) The sharing of sovereignty between a federation and its constituent states sometimes makes it difficult to differentiate between a sovereign state and a non-sovereign state. Look up paradox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article discusses states as sovereign political entities. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... In Federalist 39, Publius attempts to describe the nature of the U.S. Government as proposed by the Constitution. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... For Ireland, see Tenth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland. ... The Swiss Constitution (Bundesverfassung in German) is at the highest level of Switzerlands judicial system. ... This article discusses states as sovereign political entities. ... In some federations, a province (subnational entity) is called a state. ...


Organs of government

The structures of most federal governments incorporate mechanisms to protect the rights of component states. One method, known as 'intrastate federalism', is to directly represent the governments of component states in federal political institutions. Where a federation has a bicameral legislature the upper house is often used to represent the component states while the lower house represents the people of the nation as a whole. A federal upper house may be based on a special scheme of apportionment, as is the case in the senates of the United States and Australia, where each state is represented by an equal number of senators irrespective of the size of its population. In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... For the demesne in The Keys to the Kingdom series, see The House An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ... A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... Apportionment, or reapportionment, is the process of determining representation in politics within a legislative body by creating constituencies. ... For the band, see Senate (band). ...


Alternatively, or in addition to this practice, the members of an upper house may be indirectly elected by the government or legislature of the component states, as occurred in the United States prior to 1913, or be actual members or delegates of the state governments, as, for example, is the case in the German Bundesrat. The lower house of a federal legislature is usually directly elected, with apportionment in proportion to population, although states may sometimes still be guaranteed a certain minimum number of seats. Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Bundesrat (federal council) is the representation of the 16 Germany at the federal level. ...


In Canada, the provincial governments represent regional interests and negotiate directly with the central government. A First Ministers conference of the prime minister and the provincial premiers is the de facto highest political forum in the land, although it is not mentioned in the constitution. In Canada a First Ministers conference is a meeting between of the provincial and territorial premiers and the Prime Minister. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...


Federations often have special procedures for amendment of the federal constitution. As well as reflecting the federal structure of the state this may guarantee that the self-governing status of the component states cannot be abolished without their consent. An amendment to the constitution of the United States must be ratified by three-quarters of either the state legislatures, or of constitutional conventions specially elected in each of the states, before it can come into effect. In referendums to amend the constitutions of Australia and Switzerland it is required that a proposal be endorsed not just by an overall majority of the electorate in the nation as a whole, but also by separate majorities in each of a majority of the states or cantons. In Australia, this latter requirement is known as a double majority.


Some federal constitutions also provide that certain constitutional amendments cannot occur without the unanimous consent of all states or of a particular state. The US constitution provides that no state may be deprived of equal representation in the senate without its consent. In Australia, if a proposed amendment will specifically impact one or more states, then it must be endorsed in the referendum held in each of those states. Any amendment to the Canadian constitution that would modify the role of the monarchy would require unanimous consent of the provinces. The German Basic Law provides that no amendment is admissible at all that would completely abolish the federal system. This article is about the monarchy of Canada, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see Commonwealth realm... The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of modern Germany. ...


Other technical terms

  • Fiscal federalism - federalism involving the transfer of funds between different levels of government.
  • Formal federalism (or 'constitutional federalism') - the delineation of powers is specified in a written constitution.
  • Executive federalism (also known as 'administrative federalism').

Fiscal federalism is the system of transfer payments or grants by which a federal government shares its revenues with lower levels of government. ...

Federalism as a political philosophy

Main articles: Federalism and Federalist

The meaning of federalism, as a political movement, and of what constitutes a 'federalist', varies with country and historical context. Movements associated with the establishment or development of federations can be either centralising or decentralising. For example, at the time those nations were being established, 'federalists' in the United States and Australia were those who advocated the creation of strong central government. Similarly, in European Union politics, federalists are mostly those who seek greater EU integration. In contrast, in Spain and post-war Germany, federal movements have sought decentralisation: the transfer of power from central authorities to local units. In Canada, where Quebec separatism has been a political force for several decades, the 'federalist' force is dedicated to keeping the federation intact and adapting the federal structure to better suit Quebec interests. For theological federalism, see Covenant Theology. ... The term federalist refers to several sets of political beliefs around the world. ...


Internal controversy and conflict

The United Provinces of Central America was short-lived.

Certain forms of political and constitutional dispute are common to federations. One issue is that the exact division of power and responsibility between federal and regional governments is often a source of controversy. Often, as is the case with the United States, such conflicts are resolved through the judicial system, which delimits the powers of federal and local governments. The relationship between federal and local courts varies from nation to nation and can be a controversial and complex issue in itself. Map of Central America, c. ... Map of Central America, c. ...


Another common issue in federal systems is the conflict between regional and national interests, or between the interests and aspirations of different ethnic groups. In some federations the entire jurisdiction is relatively homogeneous and each constituent state resembles a miniature version of the whole; this is known as 'congruent federalism'. On the other hand, incongruent federalism exists where different states or regions possess distinct ethnic groups.


The ability of a federal government to create national institutions that can mediate differences that arise because of linguistic, ethnic, religious, or other regional differences is an important challenge. The inability to meet this challenge may lead to the secession of parts of a federation or to civil war, as occurred in United States and Switzerland. In case of Malaysia, Singapore was expelled from the federation because of rising racial tension. In some cases internal conflict may lead a federation to collapse entirely, as occurred in Nigeria, the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, the United Provinces of Central America and the West Indies Federation. This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ... Anthem God Save the Queen The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland Capital Salisbury Language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1953-1963 Elizabeth II Governor-General  - 1953-1957 Lord Llewellin  - 1957-1963 The Earl of Dalhousie  - 1963 Sir Humphrey Gibbs Prime Minister  - 1953-1956 Sir Godfrey Huggins  - 1956-1963 Sir... Capital Guatemala City; in 1834 moved to San Salvador Created 1823 Dissolved 1840 Demonym Centroamerican The United Provinces of Central America (UPCA) was a country that existed in Central America from July 1823 to approximately 1840. ... Flag Motto To dwell together in unity Anthem God Save the Queen Capital Chaguaramas Language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy Queen Elizabeth II Governor-General Lord Hailes Prime minister Grantley Herbert Adams¹ History  - Established January 3, 1958  - Disestablished May 31, 1962 Area  - 1960 20,253 km² Population  - 1960 est. ...


List of federations

For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... This list of countries, arranged alphabetically, gives an overview of countries of the world. ... This list of sovereign states, alphabetically arranged, gives an overview of states around the world with information on the extent of their sovereignty. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... A map displaying todays federations. ... The list of unrecognized countries enumerates those geo-political entities which lack general diplomatic recognition, but wish to be recognized as sovereign states. ... The table below lists autonomous areas by country. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This is a list of extant territorial disputes around the world. ... The table below indicates the types and, where known, numbers of administrative country subdivisions currently (as of 2006) used by countries and their major dependent territories. ... A country is a geographical territory, both in the sense of nation (a cultural entity) and state (a political entity). ...

Contemporary

Federation Subdivisions article
Argentina Provinces of Argentina 23 provinces 1 federal district
Australia States and territories of Australia 6 states 1 federal district/territory, 1 major territory, several minor territories
Austria States of Austria 9 Bundesländer
Belgium Divisions of Belgium 3 linguistic communities 3 regions
Bosnia and Herzegovina Divisions of Bosnia and Herzegovina 2 entities 1 district
Brazil States of Brazil 26 states 1 federal district and 5,561 municipalities
Canada Provinces and territories of Canada 10 provinces 3 territories
Comoros 3 islands
Ethiopia Regions of Ethiopia 9 regions 2 chartered cities
Germany States of Germany 16 Länder or Bundesländer
India States and territories of India 28 states 7 union territories
Iraq Governorates of Iraq 18 governorates, including 1 autonomous region
Malaysia States of Malaysia 13 states 3 federal territories
Mexico States of Mexico 31 states 1 federal district
FS Micronesia 4 states
Nigeria States of Nigeria 36 states 1 territory
Netherlands Kingdom of the Netherlands 3 countries
Pakistan Provinces and territories of Pakistan 4 provinces 4 federal territories
Saint Kitts and Nevis islands/parishes of Saint Kitts and Nevis two islands/14 parishes
Sudan States of Sudan 26 states
Switzerland Cantons of Switzerland 26 cantons
United Arab Emirates Emirates of the UAE 7 emirates
United States Divisions of the United States 50 states 1 federal district; 1 incorporated territory, 13 unincorporated territories
Venezuela States of Venezuela 23 states, 1 federal dependency 1 federal district

Argentina is subdivided in 23 provinces (Spanish: provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 federal district (capital federal). ... The states and territories of Australia make up the Commonwealth of Australia under a federal system of government. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Belgium is a federal state and is composed of three communities, three regions, and four linguistic regions. ... Political divisions of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Categories: Bosnia and Herzegovina | Politics of Bosnia and Herzegovina | Lists of subnational entities | Bosnia and Herzegovina geography stubs ... Brazil is divided into twenty-six estados (states; singular estado) and one district, the Distrito Federal (Federal District) which contains the capital city, Brasília. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      Canada is a federation which consists of ten provinces that, with three territories, make up the worlds second largest country in total area. ... Ethiopia is divided into 9 ethnically-based administrative regions (kililoch; singular - kilil): Afar Amhara Benishangul-Gumaz Gambela Hariai Oromia Somali Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region Tigray Additionally, there are two chartered cities (astedader akababiwach, singular - astedader akabibi): Addis Ababa Dire Dawa These administrative regions replaced the older system of... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ... Iraq is divided into 18 governorates or provinces (muhafazah): The current set of governorates were established in 1976. ... Malaysia is a federation of 13 states. ... The United Mexican States or Mexico (Estados Unidos Mexicanos or México) is a federal republic made up of 31 states (estados) and one Federal District, (Distrito Federal), which contains the capital, Mexico City. ... Anthem Patriots of Micronesia Capital Palikir Largest city Weno Official languages English (national), Ulithian, Woleaian, Yapese, Pohnpeian, Kosraean, and Chuukese (at state or local level) Government Constitutional government1  -  President Joseph J. Urusemal Independence from US-administered UN Trusteeship   -  Date 3 November 1986  Area  -  Total 702 km² (188th) 271 sq mi... Nigeria is currently divided into 36 states and one federal capital territory. ... Provinces and Territories of Pakistan Pakistan is divided in to Four Provinces and Four federally administered Territories. ... Saint Kitts and Nevis is divided into 14 parishes: Christ Church Nichola Town Saint Anne Sandy Point Saint George Basseterre Saint George Gingerland Saint James Windward Saint John Capisterre Saint John Figtree Saint Mary Cayon Saint Paul Capisterre Saint Paul Charlestown Saint Peter Basseterre Saint Thomas Lowland Saint Thomas Middle... States as of 2000 Anglo-Egyptian Sudan had eight mudiriyas, or provinces, which were ambiguous when created but became well defined by the beginning of the Second World War. ... Valais Ticino Graubünden (Grisons) Geneva Vaud Neuchâtel Jura Berne Thurgau Zurich Aargau Lucerne Solothurn Basel-Land Schaffhausen Uri Schwyz Glarus St. ... A canton is a territorial subdivision of a country, e. ... The United Arab Emirates is composed of 7 emirates (imarat; singular: imarah): Abu Dhabi Ajman Al Fujayrah Sharjah Dubai Ras al Khaymah Umm al Qaywayn See also  ISO 3166-2:AE Categories: Lists of subnational entities | United Arab Emirates ... Etymologically an emirate or amirate (Arabic: إمارة Imarah, plural: إمارات Imarat) is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any Emir (prince, governor etc. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The political units and divisions of the United States include: The 50 states... Venezuela is divided into 23 states (estados), 1 Capital District (Distrito Capital) and the Federal Dependencies (Dependencias Federales de Ultramar) that consist of a large number of Venezuelan islands. ...

Long form titles

The Federal Republic of Germany and its sixteen Bundesländer (federal states) A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Republic of India is a large country in South Asia, and one of only two countries in the world with a population of over one billion. ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... For other uses, see Commonwealth (disambiguation). ... Anthem Patriots of Micronesia Capital Palikir Largest city Weno Official languages English (national), Ulithian, Woleaian, Yapese, Pohnpeian, Kosraean, and Chuukese (at state or local level) Government Constitutional government1  -  President Joseph J. Urusemal Independence from US-administered UN Trusteeship   -  Date 3 November 1986  Area  -  Total 702 km² (188th) 271 sq mi... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Detail from the current Canadian $20 bank note, issued in 2004. ...

Defunct

Some of the proclaimed Arab federations were confederations de facto. Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... For the a general view of Inca civilisation, people and culture, see Incas. ... Events Amalric II succeeds Henry II of Champagne as king of Jerusalem. ... January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1865 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... CCCP redirects here. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... Capital Guatemala City; in 1834 moved to San Salvador Created 1823 Dissolved 1840 Demonym Centroamerican The United Provinces of Central America (UPCA) was a country that existed in Central America from July 1823 to approximately 1840. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Location of French West Africa French West Africa (French: ) was a federation of eight French territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea (now Guinea), Côte dIvoire, Niger, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) and Dahomey (now Benin). ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Jan. ... Location of French Equatorial Africa. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (Old Javanese/Kawi: Unity in Diversity) National ideology: Pancasila Anthem: Indonesia Raya Capital Jakarta Largest city Jakarta Official language(s) Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia, a standardized dialect of the Malay language) Government President Republic Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono Independence - Declared - Recognised From Netherlands 17 August 1945 27 December... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag Anthem Libya, Libya, Libya Capital Tripoli and Benghazi¹ Language(s) Arabic Religion Islam Government Constitutional Monarchy King  - 1951-1969 Idris I Prime Minister  - 1951-1954 Mahmud al-Muntasir  - 1968-1969 Wanis al-Qaddafi History  - Independence 24 December, 1951  - Disestablished 1 September, 1969 Area  - 1954 1,759,530 km2 679... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... The Federated Malay States (FMS) was a federation of four states on the Malay Peninsula - Pahang, Perak, Selangor, and Negeri Sembilan - established by the British government in 1895, and lasted until 1946, when they together with the Straits Settlements and the Unfederated Malay States formed the Malayan Union. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Malayan Union was formed on April 1, 1946 by the British. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Motto Libertad y Orden (Spanish: Liberty and Order) Location of the Granadine Confederation shown in green Capital Santa Fe de Bogotá Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic President  - 1858–1861 Mariano Ospina Rodríguez  - 1861 Bartolomé Calvo  - 1861–1863 Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera History  - New constitution May 22, 1858  - Constitutional... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Anthem God Save the Queen The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland Capital Salisbury Language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1953-1963 Elizabeth II Governor-General  - 1953-1957 Lord Llewellin  - 1957-1963 The Earl of Dalhousie  - 1963 Sir Humphrey Gibbs Prime Minister  - 1953-1956 Sir Godfrey Huggins  - 1956-1963 Sir... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Flag Motto To dwell together in unity Anthem God Save the Queen Capital Chaguaramas Language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy Queen Elizabeth II Governor-General Lord Hailes Prime minister Grantley Herbert Adams¹ History  - Established January 3, 1958  - Disestablished May 31, 1962 Area  - 1960 20,253 km² Population  - 1960 est. ... Jan. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Mali Federation was a country in West Africa. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag of the Spanish First Republic The First Spanish Republic lasted only two years, between 1873 and 1874. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Motto: (French) Peace - Work - Fatherland Anthem: (French) O Cameroon, Cradle of our Forefathers 1 Capital Yaoundé , Largest city Douala Official languages French, English Demonym Cameroonian Government Republic  -  President Paul Biya  -  Prime Minister Ephraïm Inoni Independence from France and the UK   -  Date 1 January 1960, 1 October 1961  Area  -  Total... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Federation of South Arabia was an organization of colonies under British rule. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Imperial Federation was a mid-19th Century proposal to create a federated union in place of the existing British Empire. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...


Footnotes

  1. ^ Forum of Federations
  2. ^ The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency: Aruba, the Netherlands Antilles (Retrieved on 2007-07-18)
  3. ^ Russia's year of shrinking liberties BBC News
  4. ^ E.g. the constituent countries of the United Kingdom (England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales).
  5. ^ The USSR was a federation according to the letter of its constitution, but, at least until its final years in the late eighties and early nineties, its governance was highly centralised in practice. See: Soviet Union section.
  6. ^ The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was officially proclaimed in 1963. Prior to this, the communist Yugoslav state was named Democratic Federal Yugoslavia in 1943 and then Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia in 1946. See: Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
  7. ^ The Imperial Federation was a proposal that never came into being. It was intended to supersede the British Empire, in which all colonies and dominions would be represented by a single Imperial Parliament under the Imperial Crown. The idea, however, was ahead of its time and the Imperial Federation gave way to the Commonwealth of Nations.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... Prof. ... Baidoa (Somali: Baydhabo) is a city in south-central Somalia, situated 256 kilometers (159 miles) by road northwest of the capital Mogadishu. ... The Transitional Federal Parliament is the parliament of Somalia. ... Mogadishu (Somali: Muqdisho, popularly Xamar; Arabic: ; Italian: ) is the largest city in Somalia, and its capital. ... For other territories formerly called Somaliland, see Somaliland (disambiguation). ...

See also

The Anti-Federalist Party, though not a true political party, but a faction, left a major legacy on the country by initiating the Bill of Rights. ... Corporative federalism, not to be confused with the cooperative federalism of the New Deal, is a system of federalism not based on the common federalist idea of relative land area or nearest spheres of influence for governance, but on fiduciary jurisdiction to corporate personhood. ... A federacy is a form of government where one or several substate units enjoy considerably more independence than the majority of the substate units. ... On 1 January 1901 the Australian nation emerged as a federation. ... The term federalist refers to several sets of political beliefs around the world. ... Title page of an early Federalist compilation. ... The federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia formed a federation. ... Foederatus early in the history of the Roman Republic identified one of the tribes bound by treaty (foedus), who were neither Roman colonies nor had they been granted Roman citizenship (civitas) but were expected to provide a contingent of fighting men when trouble arose. ... The Republic of India is a large country in South Asia, and one of only two countries in the world with a population of over one billion. ... For the political science journal, see International Organization. ... Międzymorze (Myen-dzih-MOH-zheh): name for Józef Piłsudskis proposed federation of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine. ... A multinational state is a state in which the population consists of two or more ethnically distinct nations that are of significant size. ... Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Constructivism Neofunctionalism is a theory of regional integration, building on the work of David Mitrany. ... The New federalism is a policy theme which became popular in the 1980s and 1990s in the United States that refers to the transfer of certain powers from the federal government to the states. ... In political geography, a regional state is a state more centralized than a federation, but less centralized than an unitary state. ... A map showing the unitary states. ... The World Federalist Movement (WFM) is a global citizens movement with member and associated organizations around the globe. ... A federal constitutional monarchy is a federation of states with the executive under the authority of a constitutional monarch. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Federalism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) (5156 words)
Federal arrangements also shelter territorially based groups with preferences that diverge from the majority population, such as ethnic or cultural minorities, so that they are not subject to majority decisions severely or systematically contrary to their preferences.
Federations tend toward disintegration in the form of secession, or toward centralization in the direction of a unitary state.
Federations are often marked by a high level of ’constitutional politics’: Political parties often disagree on constitutional issues regarding the appropriate areas of sub-unit autonomy, the forms of cooperation and how to prevent fragmentation.
Why is it essential for Lebanon to adopt a Federal Regime? (2876 words)
Federalism, even though it might not bring to a conclusion the problems associated with the composition of the administration and the differences between then religious communities, it does however address the urgent needs of the existing problem.
In relation to this area of concern, federalism reduces friction and the level of confrontation relieving the state to a large extent from these negative factors by eliminating a number of the elements that trigger conflict and explosive situations within it and upon it.
The structured infrastructure of the federal institutions is a reflection of the principle of structured sovereignty where the group or community is represented by regarding it as a single political entity within the legislative, executive and federal institution.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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